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Children, Volume 4, Issue 10 (October 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Factors Associated with Malnutrition among Under-Five Children: Illustration using Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2014 Data
Children 2017, 4(10), 88; doi:10.3390/children4100088
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
Child malnutrition remains one of the major public health problems in many parts of the world, especially in a developing country like Bangladesh. Several socioeconomic and demographic factors are responsible for this condition. The present study was conducted to uncover the risk factors
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Child malnutrition remains one of the major public health problems in many parts of the world, especially in a developing country like Bangladesh. Several socioeconomic and demographic factors are responsible for this condition. The present study was conducted to uncover the risk factors associated with malnutrition among under-five children in Bangladesh by analyzing the data from a nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) in 2014. The ordinal dependent variable—child nutrition status (severely malnourished, moderately malnourished, and nourished)—was developed by calculating weight-for-age Z score (WAZ). Bivariate analysis was conducted by performing gamma measure and chi-square test of independence to explore the association between child nutrition status and selected independent variables. To know the adjusted effects of covariates, a popular ordinal model—namely, the proportional odds (PO) model—was considered. All the selected covariates were found highly significant (p < 0.01) in the bivariate setup. However, in the multivariate setup, father’s and mother’s education, wealth index, mother’s body mass index (BMI), and antenatal care service during pregnancy were found highly significant (p < 0.01) factors for child malnutrition. Among the divisions, only Dhaka had more control on child malnutrition, compared to the Sylhet division. Birth interval of children was also reported as a significant factor at a 5% level of significance. Finally, the results of this paper strongly highlighted the necessity of increasing parent’s education level, improving the mother’s nutritional status, and increasing facilities providing antenatal care service in order to achieve better nutrition status among under-five children in Bangladesh. Full article
Open AccessArticle Is There a Causal Relationship between Intussusception and Food Allergy?
Children 2017, 4(10), 89; doi:10.3390/children4100089
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 3 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
Although intussusception and food allergy are common health problems in childhood, the relation between these two diseases remain obscure. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between food allergy and intussusception, and the factors associated with both. Patients diagnosed with
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Although intussusception and food allergy are common health problems in childhood, the relation between these two diseases remain obscure. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between food allergy and intussusception, and the factors associated with both. Patients diagnosed with intussusception by the Brighton Collaboration Intussusception Working Group criteria were prospectively investigated for food allergy per the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Guideline. They were analyzed per demographic features, clinical, physical and laboratory findings. There were eight (38.1%) patients diagnosed with food allergy, while 13 (61.9%) patients were non-allergic. The mean number of days of presenting symptoms was 1.13 days in the allergy group and 7.85 days in the non-allergy group. The mean number of intussusception attacks was 1.63 in the allergy group while 1 in the non-allergy group (p < 0.05, relative risk (RR) = 2.6). In the allergy group, one (13%) patient was followed up, six (75%) patients were reduced with pneumatic and one (13%) patient reduced manually. In the non-allergy group, four (31%) patients were followed up, six (46%) patients were reduced with pneumotic, one (7%) patient was reduced manually, and resection anastomosis was performed in two (15%) patients. Food allergy is an unrecognized associated factor for intussusception patients, which increases the risk for recurrence. Due to the small patient population, these results should be interpreted with caution. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurological Diseases
Children 2017, 4(10), 84; doi:10.3390/children4100084
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
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Abstract
Sleep problems are frequently addressed as a primary or secondary concern during the visit to the pediatric neurology clinic. Sleep disorders can mimic other neurologic diseases (e.g., epilepsy and movement disorders), and this adds challenges to the diagnostic process. Sleep disorders can significantly
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Sleep problems are frequently addressed as a primary or secondary concern during the visit to the pediatric neurology clinic. Sleep disorders can mimic other neurologic diseases (e.g., epilepsy and movement disorders), and this adds challenges to the diagnostic process. Sleep disorders can significantly affect the quality of life and functionality of children in general and those with comorbid neurological diseases in particular. Understanding the pathophysiology of sleep disorders, recognizing the implications of sleep disorder in children with neurologic diseases and behavioral difficulties, and early intervention continue to evolve resulting in better neurocognitive outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Medicine in Children and Adolescents)
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Open AccessReview Sleep Disturbances in Newborns
Children 2017, 4(10), 90; doi:10.3390/children4100090
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over
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The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over time, neonates spend the most time in active sleep and have a progressive shortening of active sleep and lengthening of quiet sleep. Additionally, the sleep cycle is disrupted by many things including disease state and environment, and the amplitude integrated EEG can be a useful tool in evaluating sleep, and sleep disturbances, in neonates. Finally, there are protective factors for infant sleep that are still being studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Medicine in Children and Adolescents)
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Open AccessReview Pediatric Perioperative Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Case-Based Primer
Children 2017, 4(10), 92; doi:10.3390/children4100092
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
The perioperative period is an extremely tenuous time for the pediatric patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article will discuss a multidisciplinary approach to preoperative planning, the importance of early identification of pulmonary hypertensive crises, and practical strategies for postoperative management for this
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The perioperative period is an extremely tenuous time for the pediatric patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article will discuss a multidisciplinary approach to preoperative planning, the importance of early identification of pulmonary hypertensive crises, and practical strategies for postoperative management for this unique group of children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trend in Pediatric Cardiology: Pulmonary Hypertension)
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report Coconut Allergy Revisited
Children 2017, 4(10), 85; doi:10.3390/children4100085
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 28 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
Despite concerns voiced often by food-allergic patients, allergy to coconut is rare, not directly associated with nut allergy and few cases are reported so far in the literature. We present an interesting case of coconut allergy in a child that was previously tolerant
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Despite concerns voiced often by food-allergic patients, allergy to coconut is rare, not directly associated with nut allergy and few cases are reported so far in the literature. We present an interesting case of coconut allergy in a child that was previously tolerant to coconut and regularly exposed via both the skin and gastrointestinal route. Full article
Open AccessCase Report A Potential Novel Mechanism for Vagus Nerve Stimulator-Related Central Sleep Apnea
Children 2017, 4(10), 86; doi:10.3390/children4100086
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
The treatment of epilepsy with vagus nerve stimulation can inadvertently cause obstructive and central sleep apnea (CSA). The mechanism for CSA seen in patients with a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) is not fully known. We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl in
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The treatment of epilepsy with vagus nerve stimulation can inadvertently cause obstructive and central sleep apnea (CSA). The mechanism for CSA seen in patients with a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) is not fully known. We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl in whom VNS activation induced tachypnea and post-hyperventilation central apnea. Following adjustment of VNS settings, the post-hyperventilation CSA resolved. Polysomnography may assist with management when patients with epilepsy develop sleep disruption after VNS placement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Medicine in Children and Adolescents)
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Open AccessCase Report Oligoarticular Hemarthroses and Osteomyelitis Complicating Pasteurella Meningitis in an Infant
Children 2017, 4(10), 87; doi:10.3390/children4100087
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract
A 5-month-old previously healthy female presented with a one-week history of fever and increased fussiness. Her presentation revealed an ill-appearing infant with an exam and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies concerning bacterial meningitis; CSF cultures grew Pasteurella multocida. Additionally, brain magnetic resonance imaging
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A 5-month-old previously healthy female presented with a one-week history of fever and increased fussiness. Her presentation revealed an ill-appearing infant with an exam and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies concerning bacterial meningitis; CSF cultures grew Pasteurella multocida. Additionally, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated cervical osteomyelitis. Despite multiple days of antibiotic therapy, she remained febrile with continued pain; MRI showed oligoarticular effusions, and aspiration of these joints yielded bloody aspirates. Evaluations for coagulopathy and immune complex-mediated arthropathy were negative. The patient improved following appropriate antibiotic therapy and spontaneous resolution of hemarthroses, and was discharged to a short-term rehabilitation hospital. P. multocida is a small, encapsulated coccobacillus that is part of the commensal oral flora of animals. It most commonly causes skin infections in humans, yet is a rare cause of meningitis in the pediatric population, especially in children <1 year of age. Transmission due to P. multocida is most commonly due to direct contact with animals. To our knowledge, this is the first case of oligoarticular hemarthroses and cervical osteomyelitis complicating P multocida meningitis. This case highlights the physician’s potential for cognitive bias and premature anchoring, and the resulting implications in delivering excellent patient care. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report Solitary Intra-Osseous Myofibroma of the Jaw: A Case Report and Review of Literature
Children 2017, 4(10), 91; doi:10.3390/children4100091
Received: 16 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Myofibroma is a rare benign spindle cell neoplasm in children that usually affects both soft tissue and bone in the head and neck region. Approximately one third of these cases are seen within jaw bones as solitary lesions. Solitary intra-osseous myofibroma of the
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Myofibroma is a rare benign spindle cell neoplasm in children that usually affects both soft tissue and bone in the head and neck region. Approximately one third of these cases are seen within jaw bones as solitary lesions. Solitary intra-osseous myofibroma of the jaw bone shares its clinical, radiographic and histological features with other spindle cell tumors. The rarity of this lesion can make diagnosis difficult for clinicians and pathologists. We report a case of a solitary intra-osseous myofibroma in the mandible of a nine-year-old child. Full article
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