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Children, Volume 4, Issue 6 (June 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Adolescents’ Knowledge of Breastfeeding and Their Intention to Breastfeed in the Future
Children 2017, 4(6), 51; doi:10.3390/children4060051
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to analyze third-year secondary school students’ knowledge of breastfeeding and intention to breastfeed their children, based on the results of a questionnaire. The respondents were 154 students (101 female/43 male) of two secondary schools in Bjelovar. The
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The aim of this paper is to analyze third-year secondary school students’ knowledge of breastfeeding and intention to breastfeed their children, based on the results of a questionnaire. The respondents were 154 students (101 female/43 male) of two secondary schools in Bjelovar. The students completed a questionnaire which consisted of 23 questions regarding knowledge and intention to breastfeed. The answers were analyzed statistically and different results were compared by nonparametric tests. About half of the respondents think that both partners should decide on breastfeeding and recognize the role that fathers have in initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. Only 13.64% of the respondents know that breastfeeding is to be done only on demand. Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, as recommended by the medical profession, is recognized by 70.13% of the students. The question on how justified is the initiation of formula together with the mother’s milk was answered correctly by 29.22% of the students. Secondary school students’ knowledge of breastfeeding is insufficient, and schools, families, social communities and other sources of information should share the responsibility for improving this. We consider it necessary to pay more attention to improving students’ knowledge of breastfeeding through school curricula. Full article
Open AccessArticle Placebo by Proxy in Neonatal Randomized Controlled Trials: Does It Matter?
Children 2017, 4(6), 43; doi:10.3390/children4060043
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 30 May 2017
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Abstract
Placebo effects emerging from the expectations of relatives, also known as placebo by proxy, have seldom been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) there is a clinically relevant difference in long-term outcome between
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Placebo effects emerging from the expectations of relatives, also known as placebo by proxy, have seldom been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) there is a clinically relevant difference in long-term outcome between very preterm infants whose parents assume that verum (PAV) had been administered and very preterm infants whose parents assume that placebo (PAP) had been administered. The difference between the PAV and PAP infants with respect to the primary outcome–IQ at 5 years of age–was considered clinically irrelevant if the confidence interval (CI) for the mean difference resided within our pre-specified ±5-point equivalence margins. When adjusted for the effects of verum/placebo, socioeconomic status (SES), head circumference and sepsis, the CI was [−3.04, 5.67] points in favor of the PAV group. Consequently, our study did not show equivalence between the PAV and PAP groups, with respect to the pre-specified margins of equivalence. Therefore, our findings suggest that there is a small, but clinically irrelevant degree to which a preterm infant’s response to therapy is affected by its parents’ expectations, however, additional large-scale studies are needed to confirm this conjecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Development of Medicines for Paediatric and Rare Diseases - II)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment on Lipids in Obese Children
Children 2017, 4(6), 44; doi:10.3390/children4060044
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 1 June 2017
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Abstract
Obesity in children is associated with several co-morbidities including dyslipidemia. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is commonly seen in obese children. In adults, diagnosis of OSA independent of obesity is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors including dyslipidemia. There is limited data on the impact
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Obesity in children is associated with several co-morbidities including dyslipidemia. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is commonly seen in obese children. In adults, diagnosis of OSA independent of obesity is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors including dyslipidemia. There is limited data on the impact of treatment of OSA on lipids in children. The objective of the study was to examine the impact of treatment of OSA on lipids in 24 obese children. Methods: Seventeen children were treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and five underwent adenotonsillectomy. Mean apnea hypopnea index prior to treatment was 13.0 + 12.1 and mean body mass index (BMI) was 38.0 + 10.6 kg/m2. Results: Treatment of OSA was associated with improvement in total cholesterol (mean change = −11 mg/dL, p < 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mean change = –8.8 mg/dL, p = 0.021). Conclusion: Obese children should be routinely screened for OSA, as treatment of OSA favorably influences lipids and therefore decreases their cardiovascular risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Medicine in Children and Adolescents)
Open AccessCommunication Parent Perspective on Care Coordination Services for Their Child with Medical Complexity
Children 2017, 4(6), 45; doi:10.3390/children4060045
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 29 May 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
The overarching goal of care coordination is communication and co-management across settings. Children with medical complexity require care from multiple services and providers, and the many benefits of care coordination on health and patient experience outcomes have been documented. Despite these findings, parents
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The overarching goal of care coordination is communication and co-management across settings. Children with medical complexity require care from multiple services and providers, and the many benefits of care coordination on health and patient experience outcomes have been documented. Despite these findings, parents still report their greatest challenge is communication gaps. When this occurs, parents assume responsibility for aggregating and sharing health information across providers and settings. A new primary-specialty care coordination partnership model for children with medical complexity works to address these challenges and bridge communication gaps. During the first year of the new partnership, parents participated in focus groups to better understand how they perceive communication and collaboration between the providers and services delivering care for their medically complex child. Our findings from these sessions reflect the current literature and highlight additional challenges of rural families, as seen from the perspective of the parents. We found that parents appreciate when professional care coordination is provided, but this is often the exception and not the norm. Additionally, parents feel that the local health system’s inability to care for their medically complex child results in unnecessary trips to urban-based specialty care. These gaps require a system-level approach to care coordination and, consequently, new paradigms for delivery are urgently needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children with Complex Health Care Needs)
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Review

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Open AccessReview A Mind–Body Approach to Pediatric Pain Management
Children 2017, 4(6), 50; doi:10.3390/children4060050
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Pain is a significant public health problem that affects all populations and has significant financial, physical and psychological impact. Opioid medications, once the mainstay of pain therapy across the spectrum, can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Centers for Disease and Control
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Pain is a significant public health problem that affects all populations and has significant financial, physical and psychological impact. Opioid medications, once the mainstay of pain therapy across the spectrum, can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Centers for Disease and Control (CDC) guidelines recommend that non-opioid pain medications are preferred for chronic pain outside of certain indications (cancer, palliative and end of life care). Mindfulness, hypnosis, acupuncture and yoga are four examples of mind–body techniques that are often used in the adult population for pain and symptom management. In addition to providing significant pain relief, several studies have reported reduced use of opioid medications when mind–body therapies are implemented. Mind–body medicine is another approach that can be used in children with both acute and chronic pain to improve pain management and quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mind-Body Medicine in Children and Adolescents)
Open AccessReview The Role of Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism in Non‐Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Children 2017, 4(6), 46; doi:10.3390/children4060046
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
Due to the epidemic of obesity across the world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents. NAFLD comprises a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can result in end-stage liver disease
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Due to the epidemic of obesity across the world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents. NAFLD comprises a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can result in end-stage liver disease and the need for liver transplantation. Simple steatosis, or fatty liver, occurs early in NAFLD and may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of the liver injury in NAFLD is currently thought to be a “multiple-hit process” where the first “hit” is an increase in liver fat, followed by multiple additional factors that trigger the inflammatory activity. At the onset of disease, NAFLD is characterized by hepatic triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance. Liver fat accumulation is associated with increased lipotoxicity from high levels of free fatty acids, free cholesterol and other lipid metabolites. As a consequence, mitochondrial dysfunction with oxidative stress and production of reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated mechanisms, are activated. The present review focuses on the relationship between intra-cellular lipid accumulation and insulin resistance, as well as on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessReview Microcephaly
Children 2017, 4(6), 47; doi:10.3390/children4060047
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
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Abstract
Microcephaly is defined as a head circumference more than two standard deviations below the mean for gender and age. Congenital microcephaly is present at birth, whereas postnatal microcephaly occurs later in life. Genetic abnormalities, syndromes, metabolic disorders, teratogens, infections, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal
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Microcephaly is defined as a head circumference more than two standard deviations below the mean for gender and age. Congenital microcephaly is present at birth, whereas postnatal microcephaly occurs later in life. Genetic abnormalities, syndromes, metabolic disorders, teratogens, infections, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal injuries can cause both congenital and postnatal microcephaly. Evaluation of patients with microcephaly begins with a thorough history and physical examination. In cases of worsening microcephaly or neurological signs or symptoms, neuroimaging, metabolic, or genetic testing should be strongly considered. Any further studies and workup should be directed by the presence of signs or symptoms pointing to an underlying diagnosis and are usually used as confirmatory testing for certain conditions. Neuroimaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often the first diagnostic test in evaluating children with microcephaly. Genetic testing is becoming more common and is often the next step following neuroimaging when there is no specific evidence in the history or physical examination suggesting a diagnosis. Microcephaly is a lifelong condition with no known cure. The prognosis is usually worse for children who experienced an intrauterine infection or have a chromosomal or metabolic abnormality. Zika virus has rapidly spread since 2015, and maternal infection with this virus is associated with microcephaly and other serious brain abnormalities. Microcephaly has become much more prevalent in the news and scientific community with the recent emergence of Zika virus as a cause of congenital microcephaly. Full article
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Open AccessReview Pediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Children 2017, 4(6), 48; doi:10.3390/children4060048
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
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Abstract
Abstract: With the increase in the prevalence of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become among the leading causes of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group. Once believed to be a “two-hit process”, it is now clear that the
[...] Read more.
Abstract: With the increase in the prevalence of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become among the leading causes of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group. Once believed to be a “two-hit process”, it is now clear that the actual pathophysiology of NAFLD is complex and involves multiple pathways. Moreover, NAFLD is not always benign, and patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are at increased risk of developing advanced stages of liver disease. It has also been shown that NAFLD is not only a liver disease, but is also associated with multiple extrahepatic manifestations, including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and low bone mineral density. Although the data is scarce in the pediatric population, some studies have suggested that long-term mortality and the requirement of liver transplantation will continue to increase in patients with NAFLD. More studies are needed to better understand the natural history of NAFLD, especially in the pediatric age group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
Open AccessReview The Association between Pediatric NAFLD and Common Genetic Variants
Children 2017, 4(6), 49; doi:10.3390/children4060049
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 18 June 2017
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Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common complications of obesity. Several studies have shown that genetic predisposition probably plays an important role in its pathogenesis. In fact, in the last few years a large number of genetic studies have
[...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common complications of obesity. Several studies have shown that genetic predisposition probably plays an important role in its pathogenesis. In fact, in the last few years a large number of genetic studies have provided compelling evidence that some gene variants, especially those in genes encoding proteins regulating lipid metabolism, are associated with intra-hepatic fat accumulation. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the gene variants that have affected the natural history of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)

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