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Inorganics 2014, 2(2), 177-190; doi:10.3390/inorganics2020177
Article

Single- to Triple-Wall WS2 Nanotubes Obtained by High-Power Plasma Ablation of WS2 Multiwall Nanotubes

1,†
,
2,†
,
3,†, 4,†
,
4,†
,
3,†
 and
5,†,*
1 Leibnitz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP), Felix-Hausdorff-Straße 2, 17489 Greifswald, Germany 2 Department of Chemical Research Support, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O. Box 26, Rehovot 76100, Israel 3 Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O. Box 26, Rehovot 76100, Israel 4 Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universität Dresden, Bergstrasse, 66b, 01062 Dresden, Germany 5 Faculty of Science, Holon Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 305, Holon 58102, Israel These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 March 2014 / Revised: 21 April 2014 / Accepted: 21 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Fullerene-like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes)
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Abstract

The synthesis of inorganic nanotubes (INT) from layered compounds of a small size (<10 nm in diameter) and number of layers (<4) is not a trivial task. Calculations based on density functional tight-binding theory (DFTB) predict that under highly exergonic conditions, the reaction could be driven into a “window” of (meta-) stability, where 1–3-layer nanotubes will be formed. Indeed, in this study, single- to triple-wall WS2 nanotubes with a diameter of 3–7 nm and a length of 20–100 nm were produced by high-power plasma irradiation of multiwall WS2 nanotubes. As target materials, plane crystals (2H), quasi spherical nanoparticles (IF) and multiwall, 20–30 layers, WS2 nanotubes were assessed. Surprisingly, only INT-WS2 treated by plasma resulted in very small, and of a few layers, “daughter” nanotubules. The daughter nanotubes occur mostly attached to the outer surface of the predecessor, i.e., the multiwall “mother” nanotubes. They appear having either a common growth axis with the multiwall nanotube or tilted by approximately 30° or 60° with respect to its axis. This suggests that the daughter nanotubes are generated by exfoliation along specific crystallographic directions. A growth mechanism for the daughter nanotubes is proposed. High resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopy (HRTEM/HRSEM) analyses revealed the distinctive nanoscale structures and helped elucidating their growth mechanism.
Keywords: single-wall inorganic nanotubes; growth mechanism; multiwall inorganic nanotubes; WS2; high power plasma ablation; window of stability single-wall inorganic nanotubes; growth mechanism; multiwall inorganic nanotubes; WS2; high power plasma ablation; window of stability
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Brüser, V.; Popovitz-Biro, R.; Albu-Yaron, A.; Lorenz, T.; Seifert, G.; Tenne, R.; Zak, A. Single- to Triple-Wall WS2 Nanotubes Obtained by High-Power Plasma Ablation of WS2 Multiwall Nanotubes. Inorganics 2014, 2, 177-190.

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