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Inorganics, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The chiral trans-stereochemistry of the 1,2-diaminocyclohexane bridging diamine favors a different [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Field-Induced Slow Relaxation in a Dinuclear Dysprosium(III) Complex Based on 3-Methoxycinnamic Acid
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
We report the synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of a new dinuclear dysprosium(III) complex based on a 3-methoxycinnamate ligand. The centrosymmetric complex exhibits a field-induced SMM behavior. In contrast to the previously reported lanthanide-based systems with cinnamate derivatives that relax through a combination
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We report the synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of a new dinuclear dysprosium(III) complex based on a 3-methoxycinnamate ligand. The centrosymmetric complex exhibits a field-induced SMM behavior. In contrast to the previously reported lanthanide-based systems with cinnamate derivatives that relax through a combination of Raman and direct processes, an Orbach process is also involved in highlighting the role of the structural organization over the spin-lattice relaxations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single-Molecule Magnets)
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Open AccessReview Atomic Layer Deposition on Porous Materials: Problems with Conventional Approaches to Catalyst and Fuel Cell Electrode Preparation
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 10 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
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Abstract
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) offers exciting possibilities for controlling the structure and composition of surfaces on the atomic scale in heterogeneous catalysts and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes. However, while ALD procedures and equipment are well developed for applications involving flat surfaces,
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Atomic layer deposition (ALD) offers exciting possibilities for controlling the structure and composition of surfaces on the atomic scale in heterogeneous catalysts and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes. However, while ALD procedures and equipment are well developed for applications involving flat surfaces, the conditions required for ALD in porous materials with a large surface area need to be very different. The materials (e.g., rare earths and other functional oxides) that are of interest for catalytic applications will also be different. For flat surfaces, rapid cycling, enabled by high carrier-gas flow rates, is necessary in order to rapidly grow thicker films. By contrast, ALD films in porous materials rarely need to be more than 1 nm thick. The elimination of diffusion gradients, efficient use of precursors, and ligand removal with less reactive precursors are the major factors that need to be controlled. In this review, criteria will be outlined for the successful use of ALD in porous materials. Examples of opportunities for using ALD to modify heterogeneous catalysts and SOFC electrodes will be given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Inorganic Solid-State Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Reaction of Non-Symmetric Schiff Base Metallo-Ligand Complexes Possessing an Oxime Function with Ln Ions
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
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Abstract
The preparation of non-symmetric Schiff base ligands possessing one oxime function that is associated to a second function such as pyrrole or phenol function is first described. These ligands, which possess inner N4 or N3O coordination sites, allow formation of cationic or neutral
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The preparation of non-symmetric Schiff base ligands possessing one oxime function that is associated to a second function such as pyrrole or phenol function is first described. These ligands, which possess inner N4 or N3O coordination sites, allow formation of cationic or neutral non-symmetric CuII or NiII metallo-ligand complexes under their mono- or di-deprotonated forms. In presence of Lanthanide ions the neutral complexes do not coordinate to the LnIII ions, the oxygen atom of the oxime function being only hydrogen-bonded to a water molecule that is linked to the LnIII ion. This surprising behavior allows for the isolation of LnIII ions by non-interacting metal complexes. Reaction of cationic NiII complexes possessing a protonated oxime function with LnIII ions leads to the formation of original and dianionic (Gd(NO3)5)2− entities that are well separated from each other. This work highlights the preparation of well isolated mononuclear LnIII entities into a matrix of diamagnetic metal complexes. These new complexes complete our previous work dealing with the complexing ability of the oxime function toward Lanthanide ions. It could open the way to the synthesis of new entities with interesting properties, such as single-ion magnets for example. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Schiff-Base Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessEditorial Spin-Crossover Complexes
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
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Abstract
Spin-crossover (SCO) is a spin-state switching phenomenon between a high-spin (HS) and low-spin (LS) electronic configurations in a transition metal center. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin-Crossover Complexes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Predicted Siliconoids by Bridging Si9 Clusters through sp3-Si Linkers
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 4 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
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Abstract
Charged and neutral silicon clusters comprising Si atoms that are exclusively connected to atoms of the same type serve as models for bulk silicon surfaces. The experimentally known nido-[Si9]4− Zintl cluster is investigated as a building block and allows
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Charged and neutral silicon clusters comprising Si atoms that are exclusively connected to atoms of the same type serve as models for bulk silicon surfaces. The experimentally known nido-[Si9]4− Zintl cluster is investigated as a building block and allows for a theoretical prediction of novel silicon-rich oligomers and polymers by interconnection of such building units to larger aggregates. The stability and electronic properties of the polymers { ( [ Si 9 ] ( SiCl 2 ) 2 ) 1 n } and { ( [ Si 9 ] ( SiH 2 ) 2 ) 1 n } , as well as of related oligomers are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coordination Chemistry of Silicon)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Coordinated Silicon Compounds Bearing a Fused-Ring Bulky Eind Group
Received: 23 December 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
The reactions of the fused-ring bulky Eind-substituted 1,2-dibromodisilene, (Eind)BrSi=SiBr(Eind) (1a) (Eind = 1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7-octaethyl-s-hydrindacen-4-yl (a)), with N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) (Im-Me4 = 1,3,4,5-tetramethylimidazol-2-ylidene and Im-iPr2Me2 = 1,3-diisopropyl-4,5-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene) are reported. While the reaction
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The reactions of the fused-ring bulky Eind-substituted 1,2-dibromodisilene, (Eind)BrSi=SiBr(Eind) (1a) (Eind = 1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7-octaethyl-s-hydrindacen-4-yl (a)), with N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) (Im-Me4 = 1,3,4,5-tetramethylimidazol-2-ylidene and Im-iPr2Me2 = 1,3-diisopropyl-4,5-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene) are reported. While the reaction of 1a with the sterically more demanding Im-iPr2Me2 led to the formation of the mono-NHC adduct of arylbromosilylene, (Im-iPr2Me2)→SiBr(Eind) (2a′), a similar reaction using the less bulky Im-Me4 affords the bis-NHC adduct of formal arylsilyliumylidene cation, [(Im-Me4)2→Si(Eind)]+[Br] (3a). The NHC adducts 2a′ and 3a can also be prepared by the dehydrobromination of Eind-substituted dibromohydrosilane, (Eind)SiHBr2 (4a), with NHCs. The NHC-coordinated silicon compounds have been characterized by spectroscopic methods. The molecular structures of bis-NHC adduct, [(Im-iPr2Me2)2→Si(Eind)]+[Br] (3a′), and 4a have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coordination Chemistry of Silicon)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis Target Structures for Alkaline Earth Oxide Clusters
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
Knowing the possible structures of individual clusters in nanostructured materials is an important first step in their design. With previous structure prediction data for BaO nanoclusters as a basis, data mining techniques were used to investigate candidate structures for magnesium oxide, calcium oxide
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Knowing the possible structures of individual clusters in nanostructured materials is an important first step in their design. With previous structure prediction data for BaO nanoclusters as a basis, data mining techniques were used to investigate candidate structures for magnesium oxide, calcium oxide and strontium oxide clusters. The lowest-energy structures and analysis of some of their structural properties are presented here. Clusters that are predicted to be ideal targets for synthesis, based on being both the only thermally accessible minimum for their size, and a size that is thermally accessible with respect to neighbouring sizes, include global minima for: sizes n = 9 , 15 , 16 , 18 and 24 for (MgO) n ; sizes n = 8 , 9 , 12 , 16 , 18 and 24 for (CaO) n ; the greatest number of sizes of (SrO) n clusters ( n = 8 , 9 , 10 , 12 , 13 , 15 , 16 , 18 and 24); and for (BaO) n sizes of n = 8 , 10 and 16. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Probing the Effect of Six-Membered N-Heterocyclic Carbene—6-Mes—on the Synthesis, Structure and Reactivity of Me2MOR(NHC) (M = Ga, In) Complexes
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
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Abstract
The investigation of the reactivity of six membered N-heterocyclic carbene 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-1-ylidene (6-Mes) towards dialkylgallium and dialkylindium alkoxides/aryloxides has shown that both steric hindrances and donor properties of 6-Mes significantly influence the strength of M–C6-Mes bond, as well as the formation, structure
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The investigation of the reactivity of six membered N-heterocyclic carbene 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-1-ylidene (6-Mes) towards dialkylgallium and dialkylindium alkoxides/aryloxides has shown that both steric hindrances and donor properties of 6-Mes significantly influence the strength of M–C6-Mes bond, as well as the formation, structure and reactivity of Me2MOR(6-Mes) (M = Ga, In) complexes. While the reactions of simple dimethylgallium alkoxides with 6-Mes lead to the formation of stable monomeric Me2Ga(OCH2CH2OMe)(6-Mes) (1) and Me2GaOMe(6-Mes) complexes, the analogous Me2InOR(6-Mes) are unstable and disproportionate to methylindium alkoxides and Me3In(6-Mes) (2). The use of bulky alkoxide ligand—OCPh2Me or aryloxide ligand—OC6H4OMe allowed for the synthesis of stable Me2M(OCPh2Me)(6-Mes) (M = Ga (3) and In (4)) as well as Me2M(OC6H4OMe)(6-Mes) (M = Ga (5) and In (6)). The structures of 16 have been determined using both spectroscopic methods in solution and X-ray diffraction studies, which confirmed the effect of both steric hindrances and donor properties of 6-Mes on their structure and catalytic properties in the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of rac-lactide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue N-Heterocyclic Carbene Metal Complexes: From Design to Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Cationic Protic Imidazolylidene NHC Complexes of Cp*IrCl+ and Cp*RhCl+ with a Pyridyl Tether Formed at Ambient Temperature
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
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Abstract
Protic NHC (PNHC) complexes with N1H, N2-alkyl/aryl imidazolylidene ligands are relatively rare, and routes for their synthesis differ from what is used to make non-protic analogs. Prior work from our group and others showed that in the presence of
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Protic NHC (PNHC) complexes with N1H, N2-alkyl/aryl imidazolylidene ligands are relatively rare, and routes for their synthesis differ from what is used to make non-protic analogs. Prior work from our group and others showed that in the presence of a tethering ligand (phosphine or in one case, pyridine), CpM and Cp*M (M = Ir, Ru) PNHC complexes could be made by heating. Here, we find that the use of ionizing agents to activate [Cp*MIIICl(μ-Cl)]2 (M = Ir, Rh) allows for what we believe is unprecedented ambient temperature formation of PNHC complexes from neutral imidazoles; the product complexes are able to perform transfer hydrogenation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue N-Heterocyclic Carbene Metal Complexes: From Design to Applications)
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Open AccessReview Future Directions for Transuranic Single Molecule Magnets
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
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Abstract
Single Molecule Magnets (SMMs) based on transition metals and rare earths have been the object of considerable attention for the past 25 years. These systems exhibit slow relaxation of the magnetization, arising from a sizeable anisotropy barrier, and magnetic hysteresis of purely molecular
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Single Molecule Magnets (SMMs) based on transition metals and rare earths have been the object of considerable attention for the past 25 years. These systems exhibit slow relaxation of the magnetization, arising from a sizeable anisotropy barrier, and magnetic hysteresis of purely molecular origin below a given blocking temperature. Despite initial predictions that SMMs based on 5f-block elements could outperform most others, the results obtained so far have not met expectations. Exploiting the versatile chemistry of actinides and their favorable intrinsic magnetic properties proved, indeed, to be more difficult than assumed. However, the large majority of studies reported so far have been dedicated to uranium molecules, thus leaving the largest part of the 5f-block practically unexplored. Here, we present a short review of the progress achieved up to now and discuss some options for a possible way forward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single-Molecule Magnets)
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Open AccessReview The Fe Protein: An Unsung Hero of Nitrogenase
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 3 February 2018
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Abstract
Although the nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase critically requires both a reductase component (Fe protein) and a catalytic component, considerably more work has focused on the latter species. Properties of the catalytic component, which contains two highly complex metallocofactors and catalyzes the reduction of N
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Although the nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase critically requires both a reductase component (Fe protein) and a catalytic component, considerably more work has focused on the latter species. Properties of the catalytic component, which contains two highly complex metallocofactors and catalyzes the reduction of N2 into ammonia, understandably making it the “star” of nitrogenase. However, as its obligate redox partner, the Fe protein is a workhorse with multiple supporting roles in both cofactor maturation and catalysis. In particular, the nitrogenase Fe protein utilizes nucleotide binding and hydrolysis in concert with electron transfer to accomplish several tasks of critical importance. Aside from the ATP-coupled transfer of electrons to the catalytic component during substrate reduction, the Fe protein also functions in a maturase and insertase capacity to facilitate the biosynthesis of the two-catalytic component metallocofactors: fusion of the [Fe8S7] P-cluster and insertion of Mo and homocitrate to form the matured [(homocitrate)MoFe7S9C] M-cluster. These and key structural-functional relationships of the indispensable Fe protein and its complex with the catalytic component will be covered in this review. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Low Spin Excited States for Magnetic Anisotropy of Transition Metal Mononuclear Single Molecule Magnets
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 27 January 2018
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Abstract
Rational, fine tuning of magnetic anisotropy is critical to obtain new coordination compounds with enhanced single molecule magnet properties. For mononuclear transition metal complexes, the largest contribution to zero-field splitting is usually related to the excited states of the same spin as the
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Rational, fine tuning of magnetic anisotropy is critical to obtain new coordination compounds with enhanced single molecule magnet properties. For mononuclear transition metal complexes, the largest contribution to zero-field splitting is usually related to the excited states of the same spin as the ground level. Thus, the contribution of lower multiplicity roots tends to be overlooked due to its lower magnitude. In this article, we explore the role of lower multiplicity excited states in zero-field splitting parameters in model structures of Fe(II) and Co(II). Model aquo complexes with coordination numbers ranging from 2 to 6 were constructed. The magnetic anisotropy was calculated by state of the art ab initio methodologies, including spin-orbit coupling effects. For non-degenerate ground states, contributions to the zero-field splitting parameter (D) from highest and lower multiplicity roots were of the same sign. In addition, their relative magnitude was in a relatively narrow range, irrespective of the coordination geometry. For degenerate ground states, the contribution from lower multiplicity roots was significantly smaller. Results are rationalized in terms of general expressions for D and are expected to be reasonably transferable to real molecular systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single-Molecule Magnets)
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Open AccessArticle Sterically Bulky NHC Adducts of GaMe3 and InMe3 for H2 Activation and Lactide Polymerization
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 20 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
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Abstract
The sterically bulky Ga(III) and In(III) (IPr*)MMe3 adducts (1 and 2) and (SItBu)MMe3 adducts (3 and 4) (M = Ga, In; IPr* = 1,3-bis{2,6-bis(diphenylmethyl)-4-methylphenyl}-1,3-dihydro- imidazol-2-ylidene; SItBu = 1,3-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-imidazolidin-2-ylidene) were prepared and structurally characterized,
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The sterically bulky Ga(III) and In(III) (IPr*)MMe3 adducts (1 and 2) and (SItBu)MMe3 adducts (3 and 4) (M = Ga, In; IPr* = 1,3-bis{2,6-bis(diphenylmethyl)-4-methylphenyl}-1,3-dihydro- imidazol-2-ylidene; SItBu = 1,3-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-imidazolidin-2-ylidene) were prepared and structurally characterized, allowing an estimation of the steric hindrance of such Lewis pairs (yields in 14: 92%, 90%, 73%, and 42%, respectively). While the IPr* adducts 1 and 2 are robust species, the more severely congested SItBu adducts 3 and 4 are more reactive and exhibit a limited stability in solution. Adduct (SItBu)GaMe3 (3) reacts quickly with H2 at room temperature to afford the corresponding aminal product, 1,3-di-tert-butylimidazolidine (5), along with free GaMe3. Such Frustrated Lewis Pair (FLP) reactivity constitutes the first instance of a H2 activation involving a simple trialkyl GaR3 species. Adduct 3 also mediates the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of rac-lactide at room temperature to afford cyclic polylactide (PLA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue N-Heterocyclic Carbene Metal Complexes: From Design to Applications)
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Open AccessArticle A Robust Pyridyl-NHC-Ligated Rhenium Photocatalyst for CO2 Reduction in the Presence of Water and Oxygen
Received: 2 January 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
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Abstract
Re(pyNHC-PhCF3)(CO)3Br is a highly active photocatalyst for CO2 reduction. The PhCF3 derivative was previously empirically shown to be a robust catalyst. Here, the role of the PhCF3 group is probed computationally and the robust nature of
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Re(pyNHC-PhCF3)(CO)3Br is a highly active photocatalyst for CO2 reduction. The PhCF3 derivative was previously empirically shown to be a robust catalyst. Here, the role of the PhCF3 group is probed computationally and the robust nature of this catalyst is analyzed with regard to the presence of water and oxygen introduced in controlled amounts during the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CO with visible light. This complex was found to work well from 0–1% water concentration reproducibly; however, trace amounts of water were required for benchmark Re(bpy)(CO)3Cl to give reproducible reactivity. When ambient air is added to the reaction mixture, the NHC complex was found to retain substantial performance (~50% of optimized reactivity) at up to 40% ambient atmosphere and 60% CO2 while the Re(bpy)(CO)3Cl complex was found to give a dramatically reduced CO2 reduction reactivity upon introduction of ambient atmosphere. Through the use of time-correlated single photon counting studies and prior electrochemical results, we reasoned that this enhanced catalyst resilience is due to a mechanistic difference between the NHC- and bpy-based catalysts. These results highlight an important feature of this NHC-ligated catalyst: substantially enhanced stability toward common reaction contaminates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue N-Heterocyclic Carbene Metal Complexes: From Design to Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Functionalization of a 1,2-Bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,2-disilacyclohexene That Can Serve as a Unit of cis-1,2-Dialkyldisilene
Received: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
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Abstract
π-Electron compounds that include multiple bonds between silicon atoms have received much attention as novel functional silicon compounds. In the present paper, 1,2-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,2-disilacyclohexene 1 was successfully synthesized as thermally stable yellow crystals. Disilene 1 was easily converted to the corresponding potassium disilenide 4
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π-Electron compounds that include multiple bonds between silicon atoms have received much attention as novel functional silicon compounds. In the present paper, 1,2-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,2-disilacyclohexene 1 was successfully synthesized as thermally stable yellow crystals. Disilene 1 was easily converted to the corresponding potassium disilenide 4, which furnished novel functionalized disilenes after the subsequent addition of an electrophile. Interestingly, two trimethylsilyl groups in 1 can be stepwise converted to anthryl groups. The novel disilenes derived from 1 were characterized by a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (MS), elemental analyses, and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The present study demonstrates that disilene 1 can serve as a unit of cis-1,2-dialkyldisilene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coordination Chemistry of Silicon)
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