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Medicines, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Cytotoxic Activities of Ocimum forskolei and Teucrium yemense (Lamiaceae) Essential Oils
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 17; doi:10.3390/medicines4020017
Received: 25 February 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 1 April 2017
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Abstract
Background: Ocimum forskolei and Teucrium yemense (Lamiaceae) are used in traditional medicine in Yemen. Methods: The chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils isolated from the leaves of Ocimum forskolei Benth. (EOOF) and two different populations of Teucrium yemense
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Background: Ocimum forskolei and Teucrium yemense (Lamiaceae) are used in traditional medicine in Yemen. Methods: The chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils isolated from the leaves of Ocimum forskolei Benth. (EOOF) and two different populations of Teucrium yemense Deflers., one collected from Dhamar province (EOTY-d), and another collected from Taiz (EOTY-t) were investigated. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were evaluated against several microorganisms with the disc diffusion test or the broth microdilution test. The essential oils were screened for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against human tumor cells. EOOF and EOTY-d were screened for free-radical-inhibitory activity using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Results: Sixty-four compounds were identified in (EOOF) representing 100% of the oil content with endo-fenchol (31.1%), fenchone (12.2%), τ-cadinol (12.2%), and methyl (E)-cinnamate (5.1%) as the major compounds. In EOTY-d, 67 compounds were identified, which made up 91% of the total oil. The most abundant constituents were (E)-caryophyllene (11.2%), α-humulene (4.0.%), γ-selinene (5.5%), 7-epi-α-selinene (20.1%), and caryophyllene oxide (20.1%), while the major compounds in EOTY-t were α-pinene (6.6%), (E)-caryophyllene (19.1%) α-humulene (6.4%), δ-cadinene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (4.3%), α-cadinol (9.5%), and shyobunol (4.6%). The most sensitive microorganisms for EOOF were B. subtilis, S. aureus, and C. albicans with inhibition zones of 34, 16, and 24 mm and MIC values of, 4.3 mg/mL, 4.3 mg/mL, and 8.6 mg/mL, respectively. EOTY-t showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, B. cereus, A. niger, and B. cinerea with MIC values of 0.156, 0.156, 0.313 and 0.313 mg/mL, respectively. Neither essential oil showed remarkable radical inhibition (IC50 = 31.55 and 31.41 μL/mL). EOTY-d was active against HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines with IC50 = 43.7 μg/mL. Consistent with this, EOTY-t was active against both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cells. Conclusions: The antimicrobial activity of Ocimum forskolei essential oil against B. subtilis and C. albicans is consistent with its traditional use in Yemeni traditional medicine to treat skin infections. Both O. forskolei and T. yemense show wide variations in their respective essential oil compositions; there remains a need to investigate both species botanically, genetically, and phytochemically more comprehensively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nonspecific Feelings Expected and Experienced during or Immediately after Electroacupuncture: A Pilot Study in a Teaching Situation
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 19; doi:10.3390/medicines4020019
Received: 29 January 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 8 April 2017
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Abstract
Background: Some feelings elicited by acupuncture-type interventions are “nonspecific”, interpretable as resulting from the placebo effect, our own self-healing capacities—or, indeed, the flow of qi. Expectation is thought to contribute to these nonspecific effects. Here we describe the use of two innovative
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Background: Some feelings elicited by acupuncture-type interventions are “nonspecific”, interpretable as resulting from the placebo effect, our own self-healing capacities—or, indeed, the flow of qi. Expectation is thought to contribute to these nonspecific effects. Here we describe the use of two innovative 20-item questionnaires (EXPre20 and EXPost20) in a teaching situation. Methods: Respondents were acupuncture students or practitioners on electroacupuncture (EA) training courses (N = 68). EXPre20 and EXPost20 questionnaires were completed before and after receiving individualised treatment administered by colleagues. Respondents were also asked about their prior experience of EA or transcutaneous electroacupuncture stimulation (TEAS). Results: Respondents expected significantly more items to change than not to change, but significantly fewer were experienced as changing. Increases in given questionnaire items were both expected and experienced significantly more often than decreases. “Tingling”, “Relaxation”, and “Relief” or “Warmth” were most often expected to increase or were experienced as such, and “Pain” and “Tension” to decrease or experienced as decreasing. Expectations of change or no change were confirmed more often than not, particularly for “Tingling” and “Tension”. This was not the result of the personal respondent style. Cluster analysis suggested the existence of two primary feeling clusters, “Relaxation” and “Alertness”. Conclusions: Feelings experienced during or immediately after acupuncture-type interventions may depend both on prior experience and expectation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acupuncture – Basic Research and Clinical Application)
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Open AccessArticle Current Usage of Traditional Chinese Medicine for Breast Cancer—A Narrative Approach to the Experiences of Women with Breast Cancer in Australia—A Pilot Study
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 20; doi:10.3390/medicines4020020
Received: 13 November 2016 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
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Abstract
Background: The use of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) by breast cancer patients is growing. Few studies have examined the complexity of breast cancer survivors’ attitudes, lived experiences, barriers, and perceptions in using TCM as part of their treatment journey. This article examines breast
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Background: The use of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) by breast cancer patients is growing. Few studies have examined the complexity of breast cancer survivors’ attitudes, lived experiences, barriers, and perceptions in using TCM as part of their treatment journey. This article examines breast cancer survivors’ experiences, perceptions of, and benefits (or not) in using TCM. Methods: Qualitative research, using semi-structured interviews, was the chosen methodology. Results: Participants used TCM as a form of self-help and as a complement, not an alternative, to standard care. Overall, 100% of the participants used acupuncture, 62% used Chinese herbal medicine, 23% used Qigong, and 23% used Chinese dietary therapy. Participants reported perceived outcomes and health benefits from TCM usage ranging from increased coping mechanisms, relieving stress and side-effects of standard treatment, the desire to be pro-active in the treatment journey, and to have a locus of control. Some cited the need to have “time-out” and the therapeutic relationship with the practitioner as being important. Conclusion: There is a clear need to understand breast cancer survivors’ needs for physical and psychological support as they aim to regain control over their life through their experience of illness. More studies are needed to measure and evaluate these outcomes and to help identify breast cancer survivors’ healthcare seeking behaviours, during and after the acute treatment stage that addresses their physical, emotional, and spiritual needs. These results aim to inform future research design and evaluate and develop support services that are patient-centred and focus on whole health outcomes, shared decision-making, and quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Cancer Patients)
Open AccessArticle Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils against Pathogens Responsible for Otitis Externa in Dogs and Cats
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 21; doi:10.3390/medicines4020021
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
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Abstract
Background: Essential oils (EOs) are recommended by some veterinarians to treat otitis externa in pets, but data about their efficacy in scientific literature are very scant. Methods: Nine commercial EOs, from roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis L.), star anise (Illicium verum),
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Background: Essential oils (EOs) are recommended by some veterinarians to treat otitis externa in pets, but data about their efficacy in scientific literature are very scant. Methods: Nine commercial EOs, from roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis L.), star anise (Illicium verum), lavender (Lavandula hybrida), litsea (Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirticum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) were tested against bacterial and fungal pathogens previously isolated from dogs and cats with otitis externa. In particular, the analyses were carried out against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus pseudointermedius, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Trichosporon sp., and Rhodotorula sp. Results: O. vulgare and S. sclarea showed superior antibacterial activity, even if not against all the strains. Trichosporon sp., C. albicans, and A. terreus were insensitive to most Eos, while other yeasts and molds showed different degrees of sensitivity. In particular, most fungi were inhibited by O. vulgare and R. officinalis. Conclusions: The obtained results suggest that some EOs could be included in treatment as an alternative therapeutic option in bacterial otitis complicated by fungi, in association with conventional drugs. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Thrombomodulin Gene Polymorphism (C1418T) Is Associated with Early Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery with a Conventional Cardiopulmonary Bypass during Hospitalization
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 22; doi:10.3390/medicines4020022
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 23 April 2017
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Abstract
Background: Thrombomodulin (TM) is a type of cell membrane-bound anticoagulant protein cofactor in the thrombin-mediated activation of protein C. Previous evidence has shown an association between TM polymorphisms and systemic inflammation. Conventional cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), beating-heart CPB, and off-pump techniques have been widely
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Background: Thrombomodulin (TM) is a type of cell membrane-bound anticoagulant protein cofactor in the thrombin-mediated activation of protein C. Previous evidence has shown an association between TM polymorphisms and systemic inflammation. Conventional cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), beating-heart CPB, and off-pump techniques have been widely used in cardiac surgery. However, these techniques may also cause systemic inflammatory responses in the patients. Whether TM polymorphisms are associated with systemic inflammation after cardiac surgery is still unclear. Methods: We analyzed the TM gene C1418T polymorphisms in 347 patients who underwent coronary artery bridge graft (CABG) surgery using allele-specific primers in a PCR assay. The clinical data during the hospital stay were collected and tested for correlations with the TM gene C1418T polymorphisms. Results: We separated the patients into two groups based on their TM C1418T genotype (CC genotype group and CT/TT genotype group). The days spent in an intensive care unit (ICU) and the incidence of fever in the ICU were significantly lower in the beating-heart CPB and off-pump groups than in the conventional CPB group. Additionally, the TM gene C1418T polymorphisms did not affect the early outcomes in patients in the beating-heart CPB and off-pump groups. Interestingly, in the conventional CPB group, patients with the CC genotype had a lower rate of fever, shorter duration of fever, and delay of ICU when compared with the CT/TT genotype. Conclusion: Surgeons may use a patient’s TM gene C1418T polymorphism to predict the strength of systemic inflammation and speculate on early outcomes during hospitalization before conventional CPB is performed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Qigong Exercise May Reduce Serum TNF-α Levels and Improve Sleep in People with Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Study
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 23; doi:10.3390/medicines4020023
Received: 26 March 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 23 April 2017
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Abstract
Background: Inflammatory cytokine levels are often elevated in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). People with PD often experience sleep disturbances that significantly impact quality of life. Past studies suggest inflammatory cytokines may be associated with various symptoms of PD. Benefits of Qigong, a
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Background: Inflammatory cytokine levels are often elevated in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). People with PD often experience sleep disturbances that significantly impact quality of life. Past studies suggest inflammatory cytokines may be associated with various symptoms of PD. Benefits of Qigong, a mind–body exercise, have been shown in different neurological conditions, but there is still a lack of clinical evidence in the PD population. Methods: Ten people with PD were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups receiving six weeks of Qigong (experimental group) or sham Qigong (control group) intervention. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in subjects’ serum and sleep quality were measured before and after the intervention. Results: After the intervention, the serum level of TNF-α in the experimental group was significantly decreased in all subjects, while the level in the control group showed a trend to increase. Qigong exercise significantly improved sleep quality at night. There was a strong correlation between changes in the level of TNF-α and sleep quality. Conclusion: Qigong exercise decreased TNF-α level in people with PD and helped improve sleep quality. TNF-α may have a potential to influence the sleep quality in people with PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qigong Exercise)
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Open AccessArticle Eryngium foetidum L. Essential Oils: Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 24; doi:10.3390/medicines4020024
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
Background: Eryngium foetidum essential oils from Nigeria were investigated for the first time in order to ascertain their potency as natural antioxidants. E. foetidum is an aromatic and medicinal herb used in ethno-medicine and as a traditional spice for foods. Methods: The hydro-distilled
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Background: Eryngium foetidum essential oils from Nigeria were investigated for the first time in order to ascertain their potency as natural antioxidants. E. foetidum is an aromatic and medicinal herb used in ethno-medicine and as a traditional spice for foods. Methods: The hydro-distilled oils of E. foetidum were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Free radical scavenging capacity of the volatile oils was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Results: Leaf volatile oil contained a high proportion of (E)-2-Dodecenal (28.43%), 13-tetradecenal (27.45%), dodecanal (14.59%) and 2,4,5-trimethylbenzaldehyde (10.77%); the stem oil comprised of dodecanal (20.21%), 2,4,5-trimethylbenzaldehyde (18.43%) and (E)-2-dodecenal (8.27%), while 2,4,5-trimethylbenzaldehyde (56.08%), 13-tetradecenal (9.26%) and (E)-2-dodecenal (7.65%) were the most dominant in the root oil. The IC50 values for the leaf, stem and root oils were 56 µg/mL, 46µg/mL and 54.5 µg/mL respectively in the DPPH assay while the leaf oil exhibited the highest reducing potential among the test oils in the FRAP assay. Conclusions: The Nigerian E. foetidum volatile oils contain high amount of acyclic aldehydes and aromatic compounds. The oils are a potential source of natural antioxidant as demonstrated by their strong antioxidant activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Two Avicennia schaueriana Stapf & Leechm. Ex Moldenke (Acanthaceae) Populations
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 26; doi:10.3390/medicines4020026
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 1 May 2017
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Abstract
Background: Avicennia schaueriana Stapf & Leechm. ex Moldenke (Acanthaceae) is a native species from the Brazilian mangroves presenting ecological and economic significance. This study compared the composition and the biological activities from the essential oils obtained from two A. schaueriana populations collected at
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Background: Avicennia schaueriana Stapf & Leechm. ex Moldenke (Acanthaceae) is a native species from the Brazilian mangroves presenting ecological and economic significance. This study compared the composition and the biological activities from the essential oils obtained from two A. schaueriana populations collected at Jureia-Itatins and Ilha do Cardoso. Methods: Essential oils were obtained by conventional means, and their compositions were analyzed by GC-MS. Screening assays for antimicrobial activity were carried out by the microdilution method and the antioxidant potential was assessed by the DPPH scavenging method. Results: The GC-MS analysis indicated that the Jureia oil (1) was composed mostly of the fatty acids palmitic (46.5%) and myristic (11.6%) acids, while the main components for the Ilha do Cardoso oil (2) were eugenol (19.7%), eugenol acetate (12.9%) and palmitic acid (15.1%). The oils showed an IC50 of 0.9 ± 0.011 mg/mL for 1 and 1.13 ± 0.028 mg/mL for 2 in the DPPH assay. The antimicrobial assay indicated MIC > 217 µg/mL for all tested microorganisms. Conclusions: The different essential oil composition may indicate the presence of chemotypes for A. schaueriana. The antioxidant activity of the oils was weak if compared with flavonoids. Despite the high MIC values, these oils presented some antibacterial potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Full article
Open AccessArticle Essential Oils from Leaves of Medicinal Plants of Brazilian Flora: Chemical Composition and Activity against Candida Species
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 27; doi:10.3390/medicines4020027
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract
Background: The biotechnological potential of medicinal plants from Brazilian Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest has not been extensively studied. Thus, screening programs are important in prospecting for compounds for developing new drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical
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Background: The biotechnological potential of medicinal plants from Brazilian Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest has not been extensively studied. Thus, screening programs are important in prospecting for compounds for developing new drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate the anti-Candida activity of essential oils from leaves of Hymenaea courbaril var. courbaril, Myroxylon peruiferum, and Vismia guianensis. Methods: The oils were extracted through hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Antifungal activity against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei was evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory (MIC) and fungicidal (MFC) concentrations. Results: The major compounds of the oils were caryophyllene oxide and trans-caryophyllene for H. courbaril; spathulenol, α-pinene, and caryophyllene oxide for M. peruiferum; and caryophyllene oxide and humulene epoxide II for V. guianensis oil. The oils showed antifungal activity against all the strains tested, and the MIC values ranged between 0.625 and 1.25 μL/mL and MFC from 0.625 to 2.5 μL/mL. Conclusion: The essential oils from the species studied have the potential to be evaluated as clinical applications in the treatment of candidiasis. Full article
Open AccessArticle Traditional Small-Size Citrus from Taiwan: Essential Oils, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 28; doi:10.3390/medicines4020028
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
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Abstract
Background: The calamondin (Citrus microcarpa Bunge) and the kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) are two small-size citrus fruits that have traditionally been consumed in Taiwan; however, there has been a lack of scientific research regarding the active compounds and functionalities of these
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Background: The calamondin (Citrus microcarpa Bunge) and the kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) are two small-size citrus fruits that have traditionally been consumed in Taiwan; however, there has been a lack of scientific research regarding the active compounds and functionalities of these fruits. Methods: Analysis of volatile composition of essential oil and phytosterol was carried out using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Flavonoid and limonoid were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, antioxidant capacity from their essential oils and extracts were assessed in vitro. Results: The compositions of the essential oils of both fruits were identified, with the results showing that the calamondin and kumquat contain identified 43 and 44 volatile compounds, respectively. In addition, oxygenated compounds of volatiles accounted for 4.25% and 2.04%, respectively, consistent with the fact that oxygenated compounds are generally found in high content in citrus fruits. In terms of flavonoids, the calamondin exhibited higher content than the kumquat, with disomin-based flavonoids being predominant; on the other hand, phytosterol content of kumquat was higher than that of calamondin, with amyrin being the dominant phytosterol. Both of them contain high amounts of limonoids. The ethanol extracts and essential oils of small-sized citrus fruits have been shown to have antioxidant effects, with those effects being closely related to the flavonoid content of the fruit in question. Conclusions: The present study also reviewed antioxidant activity in terms of specific bioactive compounds in order to find the underlying biological activity of both fruits. The calamondin and kumquat have antioxidant effects, which are in turn very important for the prevention of chronic diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Volatile Constituents from Different Parts of Aframomum danielli (Hook) K. Schum
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 29; doi:10.3390/medicines4020029
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
Background: Aframomum danielli is used in ethno-medicine for the treatment of several ailments and as a traditional food spice. Methods: The hydro-distilled leaf, stem, seed, rhizome and pod volatile oils of A. danielli were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Free radical
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Background: Aframomum danielli is used in ethno-medicine for the treatment of several ailments and as a traditional food spice. Methods: The hydro-distilled leaf, stem, seed, rhizome and pod volatile oils of A. danielli were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Free radical scavenging capacity of the volatile oils was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Results: Thirty-nine (39) volatile compounds were identified in the oils of A. danielli, accounting for 85.33 to 96.03% of the total oil composition. The leaf, stem, rhizome and pod volatile oils were dominant in β-pinene (30.94–47.55%), while the seed oil contained a high amount of 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) (53.44%). The seed oil showed higher radical inhibitory activity in the DPPH assay (IC50 value, 45.5 µg/mL) and the rhizome oil was the most effective in the FRAP assay. Conclusions: The characterization of the leaf, stem, rhizome and pod volatile oils of A. danielli is reported for the first time. A. danielli seed and rhizome oils elicit promise as potential plant resource and warrant further biological exploitation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil of Achillea millefolium L. Grown in France
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 30; doi:10.3390/medicines4020030
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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Abstract
Background: This study aimed to examine the composition of essential oil (EO) of A. millefolium aerial parts wild plant grown in France and evaluate its antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Methods: GC-MS was used to identify the chemical composition of EO. Antioxidant activity
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Background: This study aimed to examine the composition of essential oil (EO) of A. millefolium aerial parts wild plant grown in France and evaluate its antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Methods: GC-MS was used to identify the chemical composition of EO. Antioxidant activity (AA) of EO was evaluated by Oxipres method. Antimicrobial activity of EO was evaluated by Agar-well diffusion and a broth microdilution assay. Results: Forty-three volatile compounds were identified. Major compounds were camphor (12.8%), germacrene-D (12%), (E)-nerolidol (7.3%), sabinene (6.7%), (E)-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (4.5%), and 1,8-cineole (4%). EO shows strong AA against Sunflower oil oxidation. Additionally, an inhibitory effect against microbial organisms (bacteria and fungi) was found. Conclusion: The EO composition of A. millefolium chemotype located in France was studied. The EO of the A. millefolium wild plant grown in France is quite an effective antioxidant in sunflower oil oxidation; it also possesses inhibitory effects against famous bacteria and fungi. Full article
Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Zanthoxylum monogynum St. Hill (Rutaceae)
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 31; doi:10.3390/medicines4020031
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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Abstract
Background: The Zanthoxylum monogynum species belongs to the family Rutaceae and is found in Southeast, Midwest, and Northeast Brazil. For this genus several biological activities have been described. Methods: The essential oil (EO) was obtained from the leaves of Zanthoxylum monogynum
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Background: The Zanthoxylum monogynum species belongs to the family Rutaceae and is found in Southeast, Midwest, and Northeast Brazil. For this genus several biological activities have been described. Methods: The essential oil (EO) was obtained from the leaves of Zanthoxylum monogynum by hydro-distillation and was analyzed by gas chromatograph and gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC and GC/MS). Also the EO of Z. monogynum was evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activity against six tumor cell lines and for antimicrobial activity, performing disk diffusion and MIC assays with yeast and bacterial strains. Results: The chemical analysis afforded the identification of 18 components (99.0% of the EO). The major components were found to be citronellol (43.0%) and farnesol (32.0%). The in vitro cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines, resulted in IC50 values ranging from 11–65 µg/mL against all tested cell lines. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was also tested and oil was effective, especially against Cryptococcus sp. yeast. All the tested yeast strains showed at least 90% growth inhibition. Conclusions: the essential oil from leaves of Z. monogynum has a different qualitative and quantitative composition when compared to the composition previously described. Also this EO has significant cytotoxic activity and moderate activity against Cryptococcus sp. and Saccharomyces cereviseae yeasts. Full article
Open AccessArticle Medicinal Plants Used for Neuropsychiatric Disorders Treatment in the Hauts Bassins Region of Burkina Faso
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 32; doi:10.3390/medicines4020032
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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Abstract
Background: In Burkina Faso, phytotherapy is the main medical alternative used by populations to manage various diseases that affect the nervous system. The aim of the present study was to report medicinal plants with psychoactive properties used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders in the
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Background: In Burkina Faso, phytotherapy is the main medical alternative used by populations to manage various diseases that affect the nervous system. The aim of the present study was to report medicinal plants with psychoactive properties used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders in the Hauts Bassins region, in the western zone of Burkina Faso. Methods: Through an ethnobotanical survey using structured questionnaire, 53 traditional healers (TH) were interviewed about neuropsychiatric disorders, medicinal plants and medical practices used to treat them. The survey was carried out over a period of three months. Results: The results report 66 plant species used to treat neuropsychiatric pathologies. Roots (36.2%) and leaves (29%) were the main plant parts used. Alone or associated, these parts were used to prepare drugs using mainly the decoction and the trituration methods. Remedies were administered via drink, fumigation and external applications. Conclusions: It appears from this study a real knowledge of neuropsychiatric disorders in the traditional medicine of Hauts Bassins area. The therapeutic remedies suggested in this work are a real interest in the fight against psychiatric and neurological diseases. In the future, identified plants could be used for searching antipsychotic or neuroprotective compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Medicines for Clinical Trial)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Acupuncture on Visual Function in Patients with Congenital and Acquired Nystagmus
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 33; doi:10.3390/medicines4020033
Received: 9 April 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
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Abstract
Background: The aim of this study is to examine the short-term effect of visual function following acupuncture treatment in patients with congenital idiopathic nystagmus and acquired nystagmus (CIN and AN). Methods: An observational pilot study on six patients with confirmed diagnosis of nystagmus
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Background: The aim of this study is to examine the short-term effect of visual function following acupuncture treatment in patients with congenital idiopathic nystagmus and acquired nystagmus (CIN and AN). Methods: An observational pilot study on six patients with confirmed diagnosis of nystagmus (three CIN and three AN patients (2♀, 4♂; mean age 42.67; SD ± 20.57 y)), was performed. Acupuncture treatment was done following a standardized protocol applying needle-acupuncture on the body and the ears. The treatment was scheduled with 10 sessions of 30 min duration over five weeks. To assess the effect of the treatment, we performed before, between, and after acupuncture objective measurement of the BCVA (EDTRS charts), contrast vision (CSV-1000, Vector Vision), nystagmography (Compact Integrated Pupillograph), complemented by evaluation questionnaires. A placebo non-acupuncture control group (Nr: 11, 22 eyes; 8♀, 3♂; mean age: 33.34 y (SD ± 7.33 y)) was taken for comparison. Results: The results showed that, following acupuncture treatment, CIN and AN patients showed improvement (SD± mean) in their binocular BCVA (baseline: 0.45 ± 0.36; between: 0.53 ± 0.34 and post-treatment: 0.51 ± 0.28), and in their monocular contrast sensitivity (baseline: 11.29 ± 12.35; between: 11.43 ± 11.45 and post-treatment: 14.0 ± 12.22). The post-/baseline-difference showed a significant improvement in contrast vision and in BCVA for CIN and AN patients, but not for controls (p = 0.029 and p = 0.007, respectively). The effect of the eye showed also, within CIN and AN, significant values for the examined parameters in the post-/baseline difference (p = 0.004 and p ≤ 0.001). Evaluated only binocularly, the respective between-/baseline and post-/baseline difference in the CIN and AN group showed significant values (p < 0.045). Two AN patients reported reduction of oscillations. Among general subjective symptoms, our patients reported reduction of tiredness and headache attacks, improvement of vision, and shorter sleep onset time. Conclusion: The applied acupuncture protocol showed improvement in the visual function of nystagmus patients and thus, in their quality of life. Further studies are mandatory to differentiate which group of nystagmus patients would benefit more from acupuncture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acupuncture – Basic Research and Clinical Application)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibiotic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Tanacetum vulgare L. Essential Oil and Its Constituents
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 34; doi:10.3390/medicines4020034
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
Background: Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae) is a perennial herb that has been used to treat multiple ailments. Regional variability of the chemical composition of T. vulgare essential oils is well-known. Despite these regional chemotypes, most relevant studies did not analyze the complete chemical
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Background: Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae) is a perennial herb that has been used to treat multiple ailments. Regional variability of the chemical composition of T. vulgare essential oils is well-known. Despite these regional chemotypes, most relevant studies did not analyze the complete chemical composition of the T. vulgare essential oil and its constituents in relation to their biological activities. Here, we assess the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities of T. vulgare collected from northern Quebec (Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean), Canada. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from plants by steam distillation and analyzed using GC-FID. Biological activities of essential oil and its main constituents were evaluated in vitro. Results: We identified the major compounds as camphor, borneol, and 1,8-cineole. The oil possesses anti-inflammatory activity inhibiting NO production. It also inhibits intracellular DCFH oxidation induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil appears driven mainly by α-humulene while antioxidant activity is provided by α-pinene and caryophyllene oxide. Essential oil from T vulgare was active against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with camphor and caryophyllene oxide responsible for antibacterial activity. Finally, T. vulgare essential oil was slightly cytotoxic against the human healthy cell line WS1 while α-humulene and caryophyllene oxide were moderately cytotoxic against A-549, DLD-1, and WS1. Conclusion: We report, for the first time, links between the specific compounds found in T. vulgare essential oil and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. T. vulgare essential oil possesses interesting biological properties. Full article
Open AccessArticle Chemical Profiling and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-Microbial Properties of Selected Commercial Essential Oils: A Comparative Study
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 36; doi:10.3390/medicines4020036
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 5 June 2017
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Abstract
Background: The last decades have seen an increased awareness by the scientific community of the extent of resistance to conventional antibiotics, particularly with respect to the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Additionally, natural antioxidants have received significant attention among food professionals and consumers
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Background: The last decades have seen an increased awareness by the scientific community of the extent of resistance to conventional antibiotics, particularly with respect to the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Additionally, natural antioxidants have received significant attention among food professionals and consumers because of their assumed safety and potential therapeutic value. The aim of this work was to assess the antioxidant activities of eight selected commercial essential oils (EOs), together with the evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing properties. Methods: The chemical profiling of the EOs was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The antioxidant properties of the EOs were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and by β-carotene bleaching test. Disc diffusion assays were employed to evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-quorum sensing activities of the EOs. Results: It was observed that EOs from three Eucalyptus species are rich in eucalyptol. Generally, linalool is abundant in EOs from four Lavandula species. The oil of Cymbopogon citratus is the one with the best capacity to scavenge the DPPH free radicals and presented great antibacterial activity. Conclusions: The geographical origins of the plant species are determinant factors in the EO composition and in the corresponding biological activities. Full article
Open AccessArticle In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Essential Oil from Artemisia absinthium L. Formulated in Nanocochleates against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 38; doi:10.3390/medicines4020038
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
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Abstract
Background: Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by protozoan parasites from Leishmania genus. Currently, there are no effective vaccines available and the available therapies are far from ideal. In particular, the development of new therapeutic strategies to reduce the infection caused by Leishmania
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Background: Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by protozoan parasites from Leishmania genus. Currently, there are no effective vaccines available and the available therapies are far from ideal. In particular, the development of new therapeutic strategies to reduce the infection caused by Leishmania amazonensis could be considered desirable. Different plant-derived products have demonstrated antileishmanial activity, including the essential oil (EO) from Artemisia absinthium L. (EO-Aa), Asteraceae. Methods: In the present study, the EO-Aa formulated in nanocochleates (EO-Aa-NC) was investigated in vitro against intracellular amastigotes of L. amazonensis and non-infected macrophages from BALB/c mice. In addition, the EO-Aa-NC was also evaluated in vivo against on experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis, which body weight, lesion progression, and parasite load were determined. Results: EO-Aa-NC displayed IC50 values of 21.5 ± 2.5 μg/mL and 27.7 ± 5.6 μg/mL against intracellular amastigotes of L. amazonensis and non-infected peritoneal macrophage, respectively. In the animal model, the EO-Aa-NC (30 mg/kg/intralesional route/every 4 days 4 times) showed no deaths or weight loss greater than 10%. In parallel, the EO-Aa-NC suppressed the infection in the murine model by approximately 50%, which was statistically superior (p < 0.05) than controls and mice treated with EO-Aa. In comparison with Glucantime®, EO-Aa-NC inhibited the progression of infection as efficiently (p > 0.05) as administration of the reference drug. Conclusions: Encochleation of EO-Aa resulted in a stable, tolerable, and efficacious antileishmanial formulation, facilitating systemic delivery of EO, with increased activity compared to administration of the free EO-Aa. This new formulation shows promising potential to future studies aimed at a new therapeutic strategy to treat leishmaniasis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Antimicrobial, and Antioxidant Activities of Chalcogen-Containing Nitrone Derivatives from (R)-citronellal
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 39; doi:10.3390/medicines4020039
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 10 June 2017
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Abstract
Background: The main constituents of Cymbopogonnardus (L) Rendle and C. citratus (DC) Stapfessential oils are (R)-citronellal and citral, respectively. Organochalcogen compounds can boost the biological activities of natural products. Methods: Several chalcogen-containing nitrones derived from (R)-citronellal and citral were
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Background: The main constituents of Cymbopogonnardus (L) Rendle and C. citratus (DC) Stapfessential oils are (R)-citronellal and citral, respectively. Organochalcogen compounds can boost the biological activities of natural products. Methods: Several chalcogen-containing nitrones derived from (R)-citronellal and citral were prepared and evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the disc diffusion test and the antioxidant properties were evaluated in vitro by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl), ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power) assays. Results: In the antimicrobial assay, (E)-N,3,7-trimethyl-3-(phenylthio)oct-6-en-1-imine oxide 5c exhibited halos between 21.5 mm (Escherichia coli O157:H7) and 26.0 mm (Listeria monocytogenes), while (E)-N,3,7-trimethyloct-6-en-1-imine oxide 5d presented halos between 22.5 mm (E. coli O157:H7) and 31.0 mm (L. monocytogenes). (E)-N,3,7-Trimethyl-2-(phenylthio)oct-6-en-1-imine oxide 5a showed the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value against Bacillus cereus (0.48 mM), and 5c was the most potent bactericide, with a minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 0.52 mM for E. coli O157:H7. In the antioxidant assays, 5c, 5d, and 10 ((E)-3,7-dimethyl-2-(phenylselanyl)oct-6-enal oxime) were the most actives in the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays, respectively. Conclusions: The presence of a phenylthio group in the nitrone increases its antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative foodborne pathogens in the disk diffusion test and the antioxidant activity in vitro. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vetiver Essential Oil in Cosmetics: What Is New?
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 41; doi:10.3390/medicines4020041
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
Background: Vetiver is a key ingredient for the perfume industry nowadays. However, with the constant and rapid changes of personal tastes, this appeal could vanish and this sector could decline quite quickly. New dissemination paths need to be found to tap this valuable
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Background: Vetiver is a key ingredient for the perfume industry nowadays. However, with the constant and rapid changes of personal tastes, this appeal could vanish and this sector could decline quite quickly. New dissemination paths need to be found to tap this valuable resource. Methods: In this way, its potential use in cosmetics either as an active ingredient per se (with cosmeceutical significance or presenting antimicrobial activity) has hence been explored in vitro. Results: In this contribution, we demonstrated that vetiver essential oil displays no particularly significant and innovative cosmetic potential value in formulations apart from its scent already largely exploited. However, evaluated against twenty bacterial strains and two Candida species using the in vitro microbroth dilution method, vetiver oil demonstrated notably some outstanding activities against Gram-positive strains and against one Candida glabrata strain. Conclusions: Based on these findings, vetiver essential oil appears to be an appropriate aspirant for the development of an antimicrobial agent for medicinal purposes and for the development of a cosmetic ingredient used for its scent and displaying antimicrobial activity as an added value. Full article
Open AccessArticle Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Crude Extracts and Fractions from Phyllanthus amarus
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 42; doi:10.3390/medicines4020042
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 11 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 18 June 2017
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Abstract
Background: Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) has been used as a medicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of chronic ailments such as diabetes, hepatitis, and cancer. Methods: The physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts and fractions from P.
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Background: Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) has been used as a medicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of chronic ailments such as diabetes, hepatitis, and cancer. Methods: The physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts and fractions from P. amarus were determined using spectrophotometric method. Results: The P. amarus methanol (PAM) extract had lower levels of residual moisture (7.40%) and water activity (0.24) and higher contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins (1657.86 mg escin equivalents, 250.45 mg gallic acid equivalents, 274.73 mg rutin equivalents and 61.22 mg catechin equivalents per g dried extract, respectively) than those of the P. amarus water (PAW) extract. The antioxidant activity of PAM extract was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of the PAW extract, PAM fractions, and phyllanthin (known as a major compound in the P. amarus). Higher cytotoxic activity of PAM extract based on MTT assay on different cell lines including MiaPaCa-2 (pancreas), HT29 (colon), A2780 (ovarian), H460 (lung), A431 (skin), Du145 (prostate), BE2-C (neuroblastoma), MCF-7 (breast), MCF-10A (normal breast), and U87, SJ-G2, SMA (glioblastoma) was observed in comparison to the PAW extract and PAM fractions. The cytotoxic potential of the PAW extract (200 μg/mL), based on the CCK-8 assay on a pancreatic cancer cell line (MiaCaPa2) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those of gemcitabine (50 nM) and a saponin-enriched extract from quillajia bark at 200 μg/mL (a commercial product), but was significantly higher than that of phyllanthin at 2 μg/mL. Conclusions: The results achieved from this study reveal that the PA extracts are a potential source for the development of natural antioxidant products and/or novel anticancer drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbal Medicines and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessReview Dietary Isoflavones and Breast Cancer Risk
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 18; doi:10.3390/medicines4020018
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 22 March 2017 / Accepted: 24 March 2017 / Published: 7 April 2017
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Abstract
Breast cancer is the deadliest neoplasm in women globally, resulting in a significant health burden. In many cases, breast cancer becomes resistant to chemotherapy, radiation, and hormonal therapies. It is believed that genetics is not the major cause of breast cancer. Other contributing
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Breast cancer is the deadliest neoplasm in women globally, resulting in a significant health burden. In many cases, breast cancer becomes resistant to chemotherapy, radiation, and hormonal therapies. It is believed that genetics is not the major cause of breast cancer. Other contributing risk factors include age at first childbirth, age at menarche, age at menopause, use of oral contraceptives, race and ethnicity, and diet. Diet has been shown to influence breast cancer incidence, recurrence, and prognosis. Soy isoflavones have long been a staple in Asian diets, and there appears to be an increase, albeit modest, compared to Asian populations, in soy consumption among Americans. Isoflavones are phytoestrogens that have antiestrogenic as well as estrogenic effects on breast cancer cells in culture, in animal models, and in clinical trials. This study will investigate anticancer and tumor promoting properties of dietary isoflavones and evaluate their effects on breast cancer development. Furthermore, this work seeks to elucidate the putative molecular pathways by which these phytochemicals modulate breast cancer risk by synergizing or antagonizing the estrogen receptor (ER) and in ER-independent signaling mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Cancer Patients)
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Open AccessReview Enrichment of Animal Diets with Essential Oils—A Great Perspective on Improving Animal Performance and Quality Characteristics of the Derived Products
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 35; doi:10.3390/medicines4020035
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
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Abstract
Food industry operates in a competitive market and is continually facing challenges to retain or even increase its market share. Consistent high-quality animal products are required to maintain consumer confidence and consumption. Enrichment of foods with bioactive compounds such as the essential oils
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Food industry operates in a competitive market and is continually facing challenges to retain or even increase its market share. Consistent high-quality animal products are required to maintain consumer confidence and consumption. Enrichment of foods with bioactive compounds such as the essential oils appears to improve quality characteristics of the derived products and protects consumers against oxidation and bacterial spoilage effects. Synthetic additives are nowadays questioned due to their suspected carcinogenic potential, and therefore extensive research has been undertaken to identify safe and efficient alternatives. Aromatic plants and their respective essential oils belong to natural products and are generally used in pig, poultry, rabbit and ruminant nutrition. The inclusion of essential oils in livestock diets is nowadays becoming a common practice, since dietary supplementation has been proven a simple and convenient strategy to effectively inhibit the oxidative reactions or microbial spoilage at their localized sites. A wide range of essential oils contain bioactive compounds that have the potential to act as multifunctional feed supplements for animals including effects on growth performance, digestive system, pathogenic bacterial growth and lipid oxidation. However, further studies are needed to clarify their exact action and establish their regular use in animal production. Full article
Open AccessReview Qigong and Fibromyalgia circa 2017
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 37; doi:10.3390/medicines4020037
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
Qigong is an internal art practice with a long history in China. It is currently characterized as meditative movement (or as movement-based embodied contemplative practice), but is also considered as complementary and alternative exercise or mind–body therapy. There are now six controlled trials
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Qigong is an internal art practice with a long history in China. It is currently characterized as meditative movement (or as movement-based embodied contemplative practice), but is also considered as complementary and alternative exercise or mind–body therapy. There are now six controlled trials and nine other reports on the effects of qigong in fibromyalgia. Outcomes are related to amount of practice so it is important to consider this factor in overview analyses. If one considers the 4 trials (201 subjects) that involve diligent practice (30–45 min daily, 6–8 weeks), there are consistent benefits in pain, sleep, impact, and physical and mental function following the regimen, with benefits maintained at 4–6 months. Effect sizes are consistently in the large range. There are also reports of even more extensive practice of qigong for 1–3 years, even up to a decade, indicating marked benefits in other health areas beyond core domains for fibromyalgia. While the latter reports involve a limited number of subjects and represent a self-selected population, the marked health benefits that occur are noteworthy. Qigong merits further study as a complementary practice for those with fibromyalgia. Current treatment guidelines do not consider amount of practice, and usually make indeterminate recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qigong Exercise)

Other

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Open AccessShort Note Anti-Bacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds against Streptococcus pyogenes
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 25; doi:10.3390/medicines4020025
Received: 1 April 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 1 May 2017
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Abstract
Background: Worldwide, Streptococcus pyogenes is the leading cause of bacterial pharyngitis. To reduce the use of antibiotics, antimicrobial phytochemical-containing remedies, which have long been in use in traditional medicine, may provide new approaches for management of streptococcal pharyngitis. The objective of this study
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Background: Worldwide, Streptococcus pyogenes is the leading cause of bacterial pharyngitis. To reduce the use of antibiotics, antimicrobial phytochemical-containing remedies, which have long been in use in traditional medicine, may provide new approaches for management of streptococcal pharyngitis. The objective of this study was to assess the inhibitory activities of 25 natural phenolic compounds against three strains of S. pyogenes. Methods: After an initial screening, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the nine most effective phenolic compounds were determined. The effect of four compounds with the lowest MIC and MBC on streptococcal growth and biofilm formation was also studied. Results: 1,2-Naphthoquinone and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone elicited the greatest anti-S. pyogenes activities with MICs ranging from 0.39 to 6.25 µg mL−1 and MBCs of 100 µg mL−1. Both naphthoquinones inhibited the biofilm formation at concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 50 µg mL−1. Biofilm reduction and altered bacterial cell structures were visible in scanning electron microscopy images of naphthoquinone-treated cells. Conclusion: In conclusion, 1,2-naphthoquinone and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone inhibit S. pyogenes and should be further investigated as candidates for the management of streptococcal pharyngitis. Full article
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Open AccessLetter “When the Bug Cannot Be Killed”—The Rising Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 40; doi:10.3390/medicines4020040
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
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Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance is a major global health issue that has the potential to reverse the substantial progress made against infectious diseases over the past several decades. We need strategic measures to deal with this challenge, including an intensification of public funding for research
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Antimicrobial resistance is a major global health issue that has the potential to reverse the substantial progress made against infectious diseases over the past several decades. We need strategic measures to deal with this challenge, including an intensification of public funding for research into anti-microbial agents and their alternatives, stricter mechanisms to minimize antimicrobial misuse within both clinical and non-clinical settings, and support for the development of country-level initiatives. Only with sustained, concerted, and coordinated global efforts are we likely to overcome the current and future challenges posed by these emerging “superbugs”. Full article

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