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Medicines, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Sandalwood Oil and Turmeric-Based Cream Prevents Ionizing Radiation-Induced Dermatitis in Breast Cancer Patients: Clinical Study
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 43; doi:10.3390/medicines4030043
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 17 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
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Abstract
Background: The primary objective of this study was to ascertain the benefit of Vicco turmeric Ayurvedic cream (VTC; Vicco Laboratories, Mumbai, India) sandalwood oil and turmeric-based cream in preventing radiodermatitis in women undergoing curative radiotherapy for their breast cancer. Methods and Materials
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Background: The primary objective of this study was to ascertain the benefit of Vicco turmeric Ayurvedic cream (VTC; Vicco Laboratories, Mumbai, India) sandalwood oil and turmeric-based cream in preventing radiodermatitis in women undergoing curative radiotherapy for their breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The study was an investigator-blinded randomized study with Johnsons Baby Oil (JBO; Johnson & Johnson Ltd., Baddi, India) as a comparator, administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in women receiving breast radiation therapy, 50 Gy in 2 Gy fractions daily for 5 weeks. The endpoints were to ascertain the delay in the appearance and the degree of severity of dermatitis throughout the study period in accordance to the Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: The results indicated that the topical application of VTC delayed and mitigated the radiodermatitis. When compared to the Johnson’s Baby Oil, a significant decrease (p = 0.025) in the incidence of grade 1 was seen at week two, and also in grade 2 and 3 at week 3 (p = 0.003) and week 4 (p = 0.02), respectively, in the VTC cohort. A concomitant decrease in the average severity was also observed at week 2 (p = 0.02), week 3 (p = 0.05) and week 4 (p = 0.03). Conclusions: The results indicate that VTC cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. The result of this study indicates the beneficial effects. Double blind randomized control studies are required to further confirm the beneficial effects of VTC in mitigating radiodermatitis is people undergoing radiation treatment for their cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Cancer Patients)
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Open AccessArticle An Aloe Vera-Based Cosmeceutical Cream Delays and Mitigates Ionizing Radiation-Induced Dermatitis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Curative Radiotherapy: A Clinical Study
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 44; doi:10.3390/medicines4030044
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
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Abstract
Background: This study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of topical application of an Aloe vera-based cream (AVC) for the prevention of ionizing radiation (X ray)-induced dermatitis in head and neck cancer patients requiring therapeutic radiation treatment (>62 Gy). Methods: From July
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Background: This study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of topical application of an Aloe vera-based cream (AVC) for the prevention of ionizing radiation (X ray)-induced dermatitis in head and neck cancer patients requiring therapeutic radiation treatment (>62 Gy). Methods: From July 2012 to December 2012, a total of 60 head and neck cancer patients requiring curative radiotherapy (RT) of more than 66 Gy were prospectively enrolled and treated with AVC or a comparator Johnson’s Baby Oil (JBO). Acute skin reaction was monitored and classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) four-point rating scale on a weekly basis. Results: The results indicate that there was a statistically significant delay in the incidence (p = 0.04) of dermatitis at week three in the AVC application group. Application of AVC reduced the incidence of Grade 1, 2, and 3 dermatitis at subsequent time points, while Grade 4 dermatitis was not seen in either cohort. The other most important observation was that the continued application of AVC two weeks after the completion of RT was effective in reducing the average grade of dermatitis and was statistically significant (p < 0.02). Conclusions: Prophylactic use of an AVC-based cream is thus effective in delaying radiation dermatitis in head and neck cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Cancer Patients)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Auricular Signals and the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 45; doi:10.3390/medicines4030045
Received: 13 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 25 June 2017
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Abstract
Objective: This study aims to determine the association between auricular signals and the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods: A case-control study with an equal number of cases and controls matched by age group and gender was conducted. A total of 204
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Objective: This study aims to determine the association between auricular signals and the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods: A case-control study with an equal number of cases and controls matched by age group and gender was conducted. A total of 204 participants were recruited. Patients were verified as having MS based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Auricular assessment was conducted in the following sequence: visual inspection, electrical skin resistance test (ESRT), and pressure pain test (PPT). Results: MS+ patients tend to have much more oily auricle complexion than the controls. The ‘endocrine’ (right) of the participants with MS indicated a significantly higher electrical conductivity compared to that of the controls. The MS group participants experienced significant tenderness on the ‘heart’ and ‘endocrine’ acupoints. A number of auricular signals were also associated with the risk factors of MS, including age, gender, smoking status, family history of diabetes, and comorbid illnesses. Both the ‘heart’ and ‘endocrine’ acupoints showed the highest sensitivity to tenderness (60.8%), followed by the ‘endocrine’ (59.8%) and ‘pancreas and gallbladder’ (55.9%). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that electrical conductivity and tenderness of a number of auricular points, including the ‘heart’, ‘pancreas and gall bladder’, and ‘endocrine’, are associated with MS and its risk factors. Further investigations with a larger sample size could be conducted to verify the value of these auricular signals on MS risk prediction so that this method can be used as an early screening method for the population with a high MS risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auricular Medicine: Gateway to the Brain in Healing)
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Open AccessArticle The Chemotaxonomy of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) Based on the Volatile Constituents
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 47; doi:10.3390/medicines4030047
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
Background: Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a popular culinary and medicinal herb. A literature survey has revealed that sage oils can vary widely in their chemical compositions. The purpose of this study was to examine sage essential oil from different sources/origins
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Background: Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a popular culinary and medicinal herb. A literature survey has revealed that sage oils can vary widely in their chemical compositions. The purpose of this study was to examine sage essential oil from different sources/origins and to define the possible chemotypes of sage oil. Methods: Three different samples of sage leaf essential oil have been obtained and analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. A hierarchical cluster analysis was carried out on 185 sage oil compositions reported in the literature as well as the three samples in this study. Results: The major components of the three sage oils were the oxygenated monoterpenoids α-thujone (17.2–27.4%), 1,8-cineole (11.9–26.9%), and camphor (12.8–21.4%). The cluster analysis revealed five major chemotypes of sage oil, with the most common being a α-thujone > camphor > 1,8-cineole chemotype, of which the three samples in this study belong. The other chemotypes are an α-humulene-rich chemotype, a β-thujone-rich chemotype, a 1,8-cineole/camphor chemotype, and a sclareol/α-thujone chemotype. Conclusions: Most sage oils belonged to the “typical”, α-thujone > camphor > 1,8-cineole, chemotype, but the essential oil compositions do vary widely and may have a profound effect on flavor and fragrance profiles as well as biological activities. There are currently no studies correlating sage oil composition with fragrance descriptions or with biological activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbal Medicines and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle Essential Oil from Piper aduncum: Chemical Analysis, Antimicrobial Assessment, and Literature Review
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 49; doi:10.3390/medicines4030049
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 2 July 2017
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Abstract
Background: The challenge in antimicrobial chemotherapy is to find safe and selective agents with potency that will not be compromised by previously developed resistance. Terrestrial plants could provide new leads to antibacterial, antifungal, or antiprotozoal activity. Methods: The essential oil (EO) of Piper
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Background: The challenge in antimicrobial chemotherapy is to find safe and selective agents with potency that will not be compromised by previously developed resistance. Terrestrial plants could provide new leads to antibacterial, antifungal, or antiprotozoal activity. Methods: The essential oil (EO) of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) from Cuba was analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A cluster analysis of P. aduncum EO compositions reported in the literature was carried out. The EO was screened against a panel of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasitic protozoa) as well as for cytotoxicity against human cells. In addition, a review of scientific literature and a bibliometric study was also conducted. Results: A total of 90 compounds were identified in the EO, of which camphor (17.1%), viridiflorol (14.5%), and piperitone (23.7%) were the main components. The cluster analysis revealed at least nine different chemotypes. The EO did not show notable activity against bacteria or fungi, but was active against parasitic protozoa. Conclusions: The results from this study indicate P. aduncum from Cuba is a unique chemotype, support the importance of P. aduncum EOs as medicines, and demonstrate the promise of Cuban P. aduncum EO as a chemotherapeutic agent against parasitic protozoal infections. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition of Four Essential Oils of Eugenia from the Brazilian Amazon and Their Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activity
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 51; doi:10.3390/medicines4030051
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
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Abstract
Background: Eugenia species are appreciated for their edible fruits and are known as having anticonvulsant, antimicrobial and insecticidal actions. Methods: The plant material was collected in the southeastern Pará state of Brazil and submitted to hydrodistillation. GC-MS analyzed the oils, and their antioxidant
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Background: Eugenia species are appreciated for their edible fruits and are known as having anticonvulsant, antimicrobial and insecticidal actions. Methods: The plant material was collected in the southeastern Pará state of Brazil and submitted to hydrodistillation. GC-MS analyzed the oils, and their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were evaluated by the DPPH and MTT assays. Results: The main components identified in the Eugenia oils were 5-hydroxy-cis-calemene, (2E,6E)-farnesol, (2E,6Z)-farnesol, caryophylla-4(12),8(13)-dien-5α-ol-5β-ol, E-γ-bisabolene, β-bisabolene, germacrene D, and ishwarane. The oil of E. egensis showed the most significant antioxidant activity (216.5 ± 11.6 mg TE/mL), followed by the oils of E. flavescens (122.6 ± 6.8 mg TE/mL) and E. patrisii (111.2 ± 12.4 mg TE/mL). Eugenia oils were cytotoxic to HCT-116 (colon cancer) cells by the MTT assay, where the most active was the oil of E. polystachya (10.3 µg/mL), followed by the oils of E. flavescens (13.9 µg/mL) and E. patrisii (16.4 µg/mL). The oils of E. flavescens and E. patrisii showed the highest toxicity for MRC5 (human fibroblast) cells, with values of 14.0 µg/mL and 18.1 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest that Eugenia oils could be tested in future studies for the treatment of colon cancer and oxidative stress management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle β-Selinene-Rich Essential Oils from the Parts of Callicarpa macrophylla and Their Antioxidant and Pharmacological Activities
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 52; doi:10.3390/medicines4030052
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
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Abstract
Background: Callicarpa macrophylla (Varbenaceae) is a medicinal shrub and is traditionally used in India, China, and South Asia. Methods: The plant material was collected from lower Himalayan region of Uttarakhand in India. The essential oils from three different aerial parts were analyzed by
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Background: Callicarpa macrophylla (Varbenaceae) is a medicinal shrub and is traditionally used in India, China, and South Asia. Methods: The plant material was collected from lower Himalayan region of Uttarakhand in India. The essential oils from three different aerial parts were analyzed by GC-MS. Antioxidant activity, phenolic assay, and various pharmacological activities were determined by using existing methods which are generally practiced widely. Results: Over 51, 53, and 40 compounds were identified in C. macrophylla leaves essential oil (CMLEO), C. macrophylla pre mature seeds and fruits essential oil (CMEO-I) and C.macrophylla mature seeds and fruits essential oil (CMEO-II), respectively. These oils differ in relative contents of major compounds viz; β-selinene (37.51% in CMLEO, 44.66% in CMEO-I and 57.01% in CMEO-II), phyllocladene (9.76% in CMLEO, 5.80% in CMEO-I and 12.38% in CMEO-II), caryophelline oxide (7.34% in CMLEO, 8.74% in CMEO-I and 5.0% in CMEO-II), 9E-epi-caryophelline (6.23% in CMLEO, 1.27% in CMEO-I and 3.43% in CMEO-II), longipinocarvone (4.96% in CMLEO, 1.17% in CMEO-I and 2.0% in CMEO-II), and 1,8-cineole (2.23% in CMLEO, 3.10% in CMEO-I and 1.62% in CMEO-II). The oils exhibited good in vitro antioxidant activity. The maximum activity was found in CMEO-II with IC50 values 7.37 ± 0.11, 11.49 ± 0.87, 14.59 ± 0.18, 15.66 ± 0.03, and 17.49 ± 0.13 µl/mL. The essential oils showed qualitative and quantitative diversity in the makeup of essential oils constituents. The oils were found to exhibit anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activity on swiss albino mice compared to the standard drugs, viz; ibuprofen, paracetamol and indomethacin. Conclusion: It is inferred from the study that the plant parts can be used scientifically in traditional systems as folk herbal medicine. Furthermore, we have generated a database for future reference and judicious exploitation of these oils from their natural setting. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil Extracted by SC-CO2 from Seeds of Trachyspermum ammi
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 53; doi:10.3390/medicines4030053
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
Bcakground: Extracts obtained from natural sources such as plants are of immense importance for humans. Methods: Therefore this study was conducted to obtain essential oil from the seeds of T. ammi by conventional and non-conventional methods. Hydrodistillation (HD), Solvent Extraction (SE), Ultrasonication (US),
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Bcakground: Extracts obtained from natural sources such as plants are of immense importance for humans. Methods: Therefore this study was conducted to obtain essential oil from the seeds of T. ammi by conventional and non-conventional methods. Hydrodistillation (HD), Solvent Extraction (SE), Ultrasonication (US), and Supercritical Carbon-dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction techniques were used to extract essential oil from the powdered seeds of T. ammi. A quality control method for each extracted oil was developed using HPTLC, FTIR, and GC-MS. The optimization process was carried out using fractional factorial design (FFD) under which three parameters were considered: pressure (150, 175, and 300 bar), temperature (25, 30, and 40 °C), and CO2 flow rate (5, 10, 15 g/min). Results: The yield of essential oil obtained from the HD, SE, US, and SC-CO2 methods were 1.20%, 1.82%, 2.30%, and 2.64% v/w, respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods and the IC50 (Inhibition Concentration) values of the T. ammi oil sample were found to be 36.41 and 20.55 µg mL−1, respectively. Conclusion: The present paper reported that different extraction methods lead to different yields of essential oils and the choice of a suitable method is extremely important to obtain more preferred compounds. The yield was higher in the SC-CO2 method and it is a sustainable and green extraction technique. Many important constituents were detected in analytical techniques. Antioxidant activities carried out showed that essential oil extracted from T. ammi seeds possess significant antioxidant activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activities of Hedyosmum brasiliense Mart. ex Miq. (Chloranthaceae) Essential Oils
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 55; doi:10.3390/medicines4030055
Received: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
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Abstract
Background: Hedyosmum brasiliense Mart. ex Miq. (Chloranthaceae) is a dioecious shrub popularly used in Brazil to treat foot fungi and rheumatism. This work investigated the chemical composition, antifungal, and antioxidant activities of flowers and leaves of H. brasiliense essential oils; Methods:
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Background: Hedyosmum brasiliense Mart. ex Miq. (Chloranthaceae) is a dioecious shrub popularly used in Brazil to treat foot fungi and rheumatism. This work investigated the chemical composition, antifungal, and antioxidant activities of flowers and leaves of H. brasiliense essential oils; Methods: H. brasiliense male and female flowers and leaves were collected at Ilha do Cardoso (São Paulo) and the essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS and their similarity compared by Principal Component Analysis. Antifungal activity was performed by bioautography and antioxidant potential by 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid system; Results: The major compounds for all oils were sabinene, curzerene, and carotol, but some differences in their chemical composition were discriminated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) analysis. Bioautography showed two antifungal bands at Rf’s 0.67 and 0.12 in all samples, the first one was identified as curzerene. The oils presented stronger antioxidant potential in β-carotene/linoleic acid bioassay, with IC50’s from 80 to 180 μg/mL, than in DPPH assay, with IC50’s from 2516.18 to 3783.49 μg/mL; Conclusions: These results suggested that curzerene might be responsible for the antifungal activity of H. brasiliense essential oils. Besides, these essential oils exhibited potential to prevent lipoperoxidation, but they have a weak radical scavenger activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of Six Selected Dietary Compounds against Leptin-Induced Proliferation of Oestrogen Receptor Positive (MCF-7) Breast Cancer Cells
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 56; doi:10.3390/medicines4030056
Received: 4 July 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Abstract
Abstract: Background: Obesity is considered as one of the risk factors for breast cancer. Leptin has been found to be involved in breast cancer progression. Therefore, novel approaches to antagonize biological effects of leptin are much needed. The objective of this study was
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Abstract: Background: Obesity is considered as one of the risk factors for breast cancer. Leptin has been found to be involved in breast cancer progression. Therefore, novel approaches to antagonize biological effects of leptin are much needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of six dietary compounds (quercetin, curcumin, gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), ascorbic acid and catechin) and assess the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in leptin-stimulated MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro. Methods: MCF-7 cells were exposed to leptin, leptin and compound and compound alone for 48 h. Cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT and fluorometric assays after 48 h incubation. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was quantified by ELISA. Results: Only quercetin, curcumin and EGCG showed significant protective effects against leptin-induced proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to leptin was reduced by the addition of quercetin, curcumin and EGCG. Conclusions: Considering the high prevalence of obesity, this observation provides a rationale for use of curcumin, quercetin and EGCG as antagonists of leptin in the treatment of obese breast cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Cancer Patients)
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Open AccessArticle The Efficiency of Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Essential Oil on the Control of Leaf Spot Caused by Exserohilum turcicum in Maize Culture
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 60; doi:10.3390/medicines4030060
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 14 August 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of noni essential oil on the control of Exserohilum turcicum, a causative agent of Exserohilum spot in maize culture. In the sanitary test 400 seeds were incubated using the blotter test method.
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The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of noni essential oil on the control of Exserohilum turcicum, a causative agent of Exserohilum spot in maize culture. In the sanitary test 400 seeds were incubated using the blotter test method. For the transmissibility test, the fragments of damaged leaves of seedlings were removed and put into a potato, dextrose and agar (PDA) culture environment. To verify the pathogenicity, Koch´s postulates were performed. In the phytotoxicity test different concentrations of noni oil were applied in maize seedlings. E. turcicum conidia were submitted to different concentrations of noni oil. In the preventive and curative tests noni essential oils were applied before and after the conidia inoculation, respectively. The results revealed the presence of fungi of the genres Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Fusarium, and Exserohilum in the maize seeds. The pathogenicity of E. turcicum and also the transmission of this fungus from the seeds to the maize seedlings was confirmed. The inhibition of conidia germination was proportional to the concentration increase. The preventive application of noni essential oil was the most efficient on the control of Exserohilum spot. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Aging and Antioxidant Potential of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis: Findings in Caenorhabditis elegans Indicate a New Utilization for Roasted Seeds of Guarana
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 61; doi:10.3390/medicines4030061
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 12 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
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Abstract
Background: Roasted seeds of Amazonian guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis; Sapindaceae) are popular in South America due to their stimulant activity on the central nervous system (CNS). Rich in purine alkaloids, markedly caffeine, the seeds are extensively used in the Brazilian beverage
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Background: Roasted seeds of Amazonian guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis; Sapindaceae) are popular in South America due to their stimulant activity on the central nervous system (CNS). Rich in purine alkaloids, markedly caffeine, the seeds are extensively used in the Brazilian beverage industry for the preparation of soft drinks and as additives in energy drinks. Methods: To investigate the putative anti-aging and antioxidant activity of guarana, we used the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Chemical analyses were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Results: When tested in the model system Caenorhabditis elegans, the water extract from roasted guarana seeds enhanced resistance against oxidative stress, extended lifespan and attenuated aging markers such as muscle function decline and polyQ40 aggregation. Conclusions: In the current study, we demonstrate that guarana extracts can work as a powerful antioxidant in vivo; moreover, guarana extracts exhibit anti-aging properties. Our results suggest that the biological activities of guarana go beyond the extensively reported CNS stimulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbal Medicines and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle Essential Oil of Cymbopogon citratus on the Control of the Curvularia Leaf Spot Disease on Maize
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 62; doi:10.3390/medicines4030062
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 20 August 2017
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Abstract
The Curvularia Leaf Spot is becoming more common due to the culture expansion and the low resistance of the cultivated genotypes in tropical regions. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the fungitoxicity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus upon the phytopathogen Curvularia
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The Curvularia Leaf Spot is becoming more common due to the culture expansion and the low resistance of the cultivated genotypes in tropical regions. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the fungitoxicity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus upon the phytopathogen Curvularia lunata, causative agent of the Curvularia Leaf Spot. There was realized pathogenicity tests of C. lunata in maize plants, phytotoxicity of the essential oil of C. citratus and gas chromatography attached, germination tests of the conidia, and of in vitro inhibition of C. lunata. Also, there were realized tests aiming at verifying the phytopathogen control in vivo. In the pathogenicity tests, there were verified symptoms of the disease in all of the suspensions tested on plants. It was observed that the essential oil concentrations of 7.5 µL mL−1 to 50 µL mL−1 were phytotoxic. The majoritarian chemical components of the essential oil of C. citratus were Geranial (41.46%) and Neral (32.43%). The concentrations of 5 and 7.5 µL mL−1 inhibited 100% of conidia germination. None of the concentrations evaluated effectively inhibited C. lunata mycelial growth in in vitro tests. In the preventive control, the concentration of 7.5 µL mL−1 was sufficient for the reduction of the progress of the disease, however the curative control was not efficient on the tested dosages. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Modulating and DNA Protective Activities of Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Acacia catechu
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 65; doi:10.3390/medicines4030065
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 19 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
Background: Plant-derived bioactive compounds are becoming immensely important as potential drugs. Different solvents are being used for extraction of these phytochemicals. Evaluation of biological activities of aqueous plant extracts is important as water soluble compounds would be more beneficial with respect to certification,
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Background: Plant-derived bioactive compounds are becoming immensely important as potential drugs. Different solvents are being used for extraction of these phytochemicals. Evaluation of biological activities of aqueous plant extracts is important as water soluble compounds would be more beneficial with respect to certification, safety and commercial issues. Oxidative stress is involved in development of many diseases; therefore, antioxidants are now being looked upon as convincing therapeutics against such diseases. Natural antioxidants are in high demand because of their lesser side effects. This study aims to compare the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Acacia catechu—a traditional medicinal plant. Methods: The activity was examined using different in vitro systems including radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation and inhibition of OH radical induced DNA damage using standard protocols. Results: Both aqueous and methanolic extracts of Acacia catechu show significant activities with no differences in the efficacies of water and methanol soluble bioactive compounds. Conclusions: Present study revealed that aqueous extract of A. catechu has equal potential to be used as antioxidants as compared to methanolic extract. This can contribute to increased demand of physiologically compatible bioactive compounds of natural origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbal Medicines and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition and Monoterpenoid Enantiomeric Distribution of the Essential Oils from Apharsemon (Commiphora gileadensis)
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 66; doi:10.3390/medicines4030066
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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Abstract
Background: Commiphora gileadensis (Hebrew: apharsemon) has been used since Biblical times to treat various ailments, and is used today in the traditional medicine of some Middle Eastern cultures. Methods: The essential oils from the stem bark, leaves, and fruits of Commiphora gileadensis—collected
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Background: Commiphora gileadensis (Hebrew: apharsemon) has been used since Biblical times to treat various ailments, and is used today in the traditional medicine of some Middle Eastern cultures. Methods: The essential oils from the stem bark, leaves, and fruits of Commiphora gileadensis—collected at the Ein Gedi Botanical Garden, Israel—were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In addition, the enantiomeric distributions of the monoterpenoids in the essential oils have been determined by chiral gas chromatography. Results: The essential oils were dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons, followed by oxygenated monoterpenoids. The major components in C. gileadensis oils were the monoterpenes α-pinene (11.1–18.4%), sabinene (15.8–35.9%), β-pinene (5.8–18.0%), p-cymene (4.8–8.4%), limonene (1.3–6.2%), γ-terpinene (0.7–8.1%), and terpinen-4-ol (5.3–18.5%). The (–)-enantiomers predominated for α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, limonene, and terpinen-4-ol. Conclusions: The chemical compositions of the C. gileadensis essential oils from Israel are markedly different from previously reported samples, which were rich in sesquiterpenoids. Likewise, the enantiomeric distribution of monoterpenoids is very different from Boswellia spp. essential oils. Full article
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Open AccessReview Salicylate Poisoning Potential of Topical Pain Relief Agents: From Age Old Remedies to Engineered Smart Patches
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 48; doi:10.3390/medicines4030048
Received: 22 May 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
The pain relief capabilities of methyl salicylate are well established and a multitude of over-the-counter products populate pharmacy shelves. Over-application of the topical preparation containing the drug, or its accidental ingestion, invariably result in salicylate poisoning and in severe cases can be fatal.
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The pain relief capabilities of methyl salicylate are well established and a multitude of over-the-counter products populate pharmacy shelves. Over-application of the topical preparation containing the drug, or its accidental ingestion, invariably result in salicylate poisoning and in severe cases can be fatal. The drug has been a regular feature of the US National Poison Database Survey over the past decade and continues to pose a risk to children and adults alike. The aim of the review has been to cast a spotlight on the drug and assess why its use remains problematic, how technology could offer more efficacious delivery regimes, and minimise the possibility of accidental or intentional misuse. Full article
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Open AccessReview A Review on Ethno-Medicinal and Pharmacological Activities of Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 50; doi:10.3390/medicines4030050
Received: 10 June 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre is a member of a diverse family of plants known as Menispermaceae. They are famous for a plethora of important biological functions. S. jollyanum is a shrub native to the tropical forest zones of West Africa and thrives in deep
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Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre is a member of a diverse family of plants known as Menispermaceae. They are famous for a plethora of important biological functions. S. jollyanum is a shrub native to the tropical forest zones of West Africa and thrives in deep shade. It is widely cultivated in Cameroun, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Ghana, and Côte d’Ivoire. S. jollyanum is employed in folk medicine as a cure for wounds, fever, coughs, high blood pressure, breast tumor, constipation, and as an aphrodisiac. Phytochemical investigations revealed that the plant is a rich source of secondary metabolites such as annin, alkaloids, saponins, and flavonoids. Pharmacological activities include anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-malarial, angiogenic, and anxiogenic. Thus, this present review summarizes the phytochemical and nutritional constituents and important biological studies on various crude extracts, fractions, and isolated principles of all morphological organs of S. jollyanum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Medicines for Clinical Trial)
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Open AccessReview Antimicrobial Activity of Some Essential Oils—Present Status and Future Perspectives
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 58; doi:10.3390/medicines4030058
Received: 11 June 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
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Abstract
Extensive documentation on the antimicrobial properties of essential oils and their constituents has been carried out by several workers. Although the mechanism of action of a few essential oil components has been elucidated in many pioneering works in the past, detailed knowledge of
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Extensive documentation on the antimicrobial properties of essential oils and their constituents has been carried out by several workers. Although the mechanism of action of a few essential oil components has been elucidated in many pioneering works in the past, detailed knowledge of most of the compounds and their mechanism of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important for the determination of the effect of essential oils on different microorganisms, how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds, and their interaction with food matrix components. Also, recent studies have demonstrated that nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with essential oils have significant antimicrobial potential against multidrug- resistant pathogens due to an increase in chemical stability and solubility, decreased rapid evaporation and minimized degradation of active essential oil components. The application of encapsulated essential oils also supports their controlled and sustained release, which enhances their bioavailability and efficacy against multidrug-resistant pathogens. In the recent years, due to increasingly negative consumer perceptions of synthetic preservatives, interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified. Moreover, the development of resistance to different antimicrobial agents by bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites, etc. is a great challenge to the medical field for treating the infections caused by them, and hence, there is a pressing need to look for new and novel antimicrobials. To overcome these problems, nano-encapsulation of essential oils and exploiting the synergies between essential oils, constituents of essential oils, and antibiotics along with essential oils have been recommended as an answer to this problem. However, less is known about the interactions that lead to additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects. A contributing role of this knowledge could be the design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and understanding of the interplay between the components of crude essential oils. This review is written with the purpose of giving an overview of current knowledge about the antimicrobial properties of essential oils and their mechanisms of action, components of essential oils, nano-encapsulated essential oils, and synergistic combinations of essential oils so as to find research areas that can facilitate applications of essential oils to overcome the problem of multidrug-resistant micro-organisms. Full article
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Open AccessReview Qigong Exercises for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 59; doi:10.3390/medicines4030059
Received: 1 July 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
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Abstract
Background: The purpose of this article is to clarify and define medical qigong and to identify an appropriate study design and methodology for a large-scale study looking at the effects of qigong in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), specifically subject enrollment
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Background: The purpose of this article is to clarify and define medical qigong and to identify an appropriate study design and methodology for a large-scale study looking at the effects of qigong in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), specifically subject enrollment criteria, selection of the control group and study duration. Methods: A comprehensive literature review of English databases was used to locate articles from 1980–May 2017 involving qigong and T2DM. Control groups, subject criteria and the results of major diabetic markers were reviewed and compared within each study. Definitions of qigong and its differentiation from physical exercise were also considered. Results: After a thorough review, it was found that qigong shows positive effects on T2DM; however, there were inconsistencies in control groups, research subjects and diabetic markers analyzed. It was also discovered that there is a large variation in styles and definitions of qigong. Conclusions: Qigong exercise has shown promising results in clinical experience and in randomized, controlled pilot studies for affecting aspects of T2DM including blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, weight, BMI and insulin resistance. Due to the inconsistencies in study design and methods and the lack of large-scale studies, further well-designed randomized control trials (RCT) are needed to evaluate the ‘vital energy’ or qi aspect of internal medical qigong in people who have been diagnosed with T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qigong Exercise)
Open AccessReview Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 63; doi:10.3390/medicines4030063
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives.
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Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges. Full article
Open AccessReview Literature Review of Research on Chronic Pain and Yoga in Military Populations
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 64; doi:10.3390/medicines4030064
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Background: Although yoga is increasingly being provided to active duty soldiers and veterans, studies with military populations are limited and effects on chronic pain are largely unknown. We reviewed the existing body of literature and provide recommendations for future research. Methods: We conducted
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Background: Although yoga is increasingly being provided to active duty soldiers and veterans, studies with military populations are limited and effects on chronic pain are largely unknown. We reviewed the existing body of literature and provide recommendations for future research. Methods: We conducted a literature review of electronic databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index—Science, and Conference Proceedings Citation Index—Social Science & Humanities). The studies were reviewed for characteristics such as mean age of participants, sample size, yoga type, and study design. Only peer-reviewed studies were included in the review. Results: The search yielded only six studies that examined pain as an outcome of yoga for military populations. With one exception, studies were with veteran populations. Only one study was conducted with Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans. One study was a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Four of the five studies remaining used pre/post design, while the last study used a post-only design. Conclusions: Studies on the use of yoga to treat chronic pain in military populations are in their infancy. Methodological weaknesses include small sample sizes, a lack of studies with key groups (active duty, OEF/IEF veterans), and use of single group uncontrolled designs (pre/post; post only) for all but one study. Future research is needed to address these methodological limitations and build on this small body of literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yoga for Chronic Pain)
Open AccessReview Esophageal Cancer: Genomic and Molecular Characterization, Stem Cell Compartment and Clonal Evolution
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 67; doi:10.3390/medicines4030067
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most common cancer and is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. The incidence of histologic subtypes of EC, esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC), display considerable geographic variation. EAC arises from metaplastic Barrett’s esophagus
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Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most common cancer and is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. The incidence of histologic subtypes of EC, esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC), display considerable geographic variation. EAC arises from metaplastic Barrett’s esophagus (BE) in the context of chronic inflammation secondary to exposure to acid and bile. The main risk factors for developing ESCC are cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. The main somatic genetic abnormalities showed a different genetic landscape in EAC compared to ESCC. EAC is a heterogeneous cancer dominated by copy number alterations, a high mutational burden, co-amplification of receptor tyrosine kinase, frequent TP53 mutations. The cellular origins of BE and EAC are still not understood: animal models supported a cellular origin either from stem cells located in the basal layer of esophageal epithelium or from progenitors present in the cardia region. Many studies support the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) able to initiate and maintain EAC or ESCC. The exact identification of these CSCs, as well as their role in the pathogenesis of EAC and ESCC remain still to be demonstrated. The reviewed studies suggest that current molecular and cellular characterization of EAC and ESCC should serve as background for development of new treatment strategies. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Genus Artemisia: a 2012–2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 68; doi:10.3390/medicines4030068
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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Abstract
Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human
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Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012–2017) on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity. Full article

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Open AccessMeeting Report Report from the 9th International Symposium on Auriculotherapy Held in Singapore, 10–12 August 2017
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 46; doi:10.3390/medicines4030046
Received: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
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Abstract
Auricular interventions also known as auriculotherapy, auricular medicine and ear acupuncture depending on practice locale, has come of age and has gained the attention of the wider medical community in recent years.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auricular Medicine: Gateway to the Brain in Healing)
Open AccessPerspective International Expert Panel Consensus Guidelines for Structure and Delivery of Qigong Exercise for Cancer Care Programming
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 54; doi:10.3390/medicines4030054
Received: 18 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
Integrative oncology, including Qigong, is a relatively new concept in modern healthcare. Evidence of benefits of Qigong in cancer survivors is emerging. As such, several cancer centers, world-wide, have introduced Qigong as part of integrative medicine within supportive cancer care programming. Qigong exercise
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Integrative oncology, including Qigong, is a relatively new concept in modern healthcare. Evidence of benefits of Qigong in cancer survivors is emerging. As such, several cancer centers, world-wide, have introduced Qigong as part of integrative medicine within supportive cancer care programming. Qigong exercise programming content and quality varies among institutions due to lack of standard guidelines and, at present, relies solely on the instructor’s skills, knowledge, personal preferences and clinical experience. Development of consensus guidelines recommending the basic structure and delivery of Qigong programming in cancer care can potentiate quality assurance and reduce risk of harm. This applied qualitative research utilized a modified Delphi approach to formulate consensus guidelines. Guidelines were developed through discussions among an international expert panel (N = 13) with representation from Australia, Canada, Ireland, and the United States. Panel communication was predominantly conducted by email and occurred from November 2016 through February 2017. Expert panel work resulted in the generation of a work product: Qigong in Cancer Care Guidelines: A Working Paper including: (a) Consensus Guidelines for structure and delivery of Qigong exercise for Cancer care programming; (b) Consensus guidelines for instructor competence for teaching Qigong exercise for cancer care classes; (c) Screening tool for safe participation in Qigong exercise; (d) Class participant instructions for maintaining safety during Qigong exercise; and (e) Advice from the field. Generation of these resources is the first step in establishing recommendations for ‘best practice’ in the area of Qigong for cancer care programming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qigong Exercise)
Open AccessDiscussion A Reassessment of the Marrubium Vulgare L. Herb’s Potential Role in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: First Results Guide the Investigation toward New Horizons
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 57; doi:10.3390/medicines4030057
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
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Abstract
Despite the wide variety of pharmacological activities described for the Marrubium vulgare L. herb, amazingly, only one clinical trial can be found in scientific literature. It was designed for the evaluation of its antidiabetic activity. Worse, the outcomes of this trial were contradictory
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Despite the wide variety of pharmacological activities described for the Marrubium vulgare L. herb, amazingly, only one clinical trial can be found in scientific literature. It was designed for the evaluation of its antidiabetic activity. Worse, the outcomes of this trial were contradictory to what previous in vivo mice assays had concluded. Therefore, should Marrubium vulgare be ruled out due to its lack of therapeutic potential in diabetes? The authors suggest a reevaluation of the clinical trial methodology to establish valid and final results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Medicines for Clinical Trial)
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