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Geriatrics, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Memory and Learning Complaints in Relation to Depression among Elderly People with Multimorbidity
Geriatrics 2017, 2(2), 15; doi:10.3390/geriatrics2020015
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 9 May 2017
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Abstract
Although current models of care are generally well-suited to providing treatment for individual medical conditions, the emergence of multimorbidity is becoming a serious concern for practitioners and policy researchers, particularly in developing countries. The challenges of tackling multimorbidity are further compounded when the
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Although current models of care are generally well-suited to providing treatment for individual medical conditions, the emergence of multimorbidity is becoming a serious concern for practitioners and policy researchers, particularly in developing countries. The challenges of tackling multimorbidity are further compounded when the multimorbidity co-occurs with psychiatric conditions such as cognitive and depressive disorders. Understanding the relationships between multimorbidity and psychiatric illnesses is therefore of considerable clinical importance. In the present study, we cross-sectionally examined whether multimorbidity has an association with perceived cognition—including memory, learning complaints, and depression—among elderly population in South Africa. Study subjects were 422 men and women aged 50 years and older. The prevalence of arthritis, asthma, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, chronic lung disease, hypertension, and stroke was respectively 31.5, 7.3, 1.7, 10.2, 1.2, 1.7, 52.1, and 31.5%, and that of multimorbidity was 30.8%. In the multivariate analysis, women with multimorbidity were 4.33 times (OR = 4.33, 95%CI = 2.96–14.633) more likely to report memory complaints. The odds of diagnosed depression were 1.4 times (OR = 1.4, 95%CI = 1.045–5.676), and the odds of self-reported depression were 1.7 times (OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.41–2.192) higher among women who had multimorbidity compared with those who had no morbid conditions. However, the association was not significant among men. Overall, the findings suggest that the occurrence of multimorbidity warrants special attention, especially regarding its compounding effects on psychological health. The findings need to be replicated through longitudinal studies that consider a broader range of chronic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Depressive Disorder in the Elderly)
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Open AccessArticle Racial Differences in Patient-Reported Post-Stroke Disability in Older Adults
Geriatrics 2017, 2(2), 16; doi:10.3390/geriatrics2020016
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
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Abstract
Longstanding disparities have been reported in stroke-related outcomes with blacks experiencing more post-stroke disabilities. Little is known about long-term disability outcomes among older stroke survivors. This study was a retrospective analysis of data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). A group
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Longstanding disparities have been reported in stroke-related outcomes with blacks experiencing more post-stroke disabilities. Little is known about long-term disability outcomes among older stroke survivors. This study was a retrospective analysis of data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). A group of 655 stroke survivors (541 white and 114 black) age 65 and older were asked to rate their ability to complete 10 functional tasks without special equipment. Univariate comparisons were completed using t-tests and chi-square statistics for racial comparisons of disability reports. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine odds of reporting disability after controlling for relevant covariates. The mean age of the sample was 76.6 years. After controlling for relevant covariates, white stroke survivors were less likely to report the following tasks being “very difficult/can’t do at all” without using special equipment compared to blacks: reach overhead (OR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.23–0.65; p = 0.000) and grasp small objects (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.25–0.73; p = 0.002). Both black and white older stroke survivors experience significant post-stroke disability across a range of functional tasks. Slightly greater long term post-stroke disability appears to exist among older blacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stroke in Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Fragility Fractures and Parkinsonism: Relationship of Fractures with Demography, Severity and Predictors of Adverse Outcomes
Geriatrics 2017, 2(2), 17; doi:10.3390/geriatrics2020017
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
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Abstract
Background: The risk of falls is higher in patients with Parkinsonism (PwP) as compared to other older adults, leading to adverse outcomes including fragility fractures. Osteoporosis is under-recognised and the current prevalence of fragility fractures is not well-studied. The objectives of this study
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Background: The risk of falls is higher in patients with Parkinsonism (PwP) as compared to other older adults, leading to adverse outcomes including fragility fractures. Osteoporosis is under-recognised and the current prevalence of fragility fractures is not well-studied. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of fragility fractures in PwP, to measure the relationship of fractures with demography, severity and to measure predictors of adverse outcomes in this population. Method/Description: This was a retrospective observational cohort study based on the analysis of existing data for all the patients attending Caerphilly Movement Disorder Clinic. Information on demographics, the severity of Parkinsonism and fragility fractures was extracted electronically from the clinical workstation, clinic letters and coding from January 2015 to October 2016. Results: 397 people (mean age = 77.1 ± 9.4, 46% females) were studied. Of these, 77% (306/397) had Parkinsonism and 80% (244/306) had idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). The mean Hoehn & Yahr Score at the time assessment was 3.09 ± 1.16. Additionally, 23.5% (72/306) were deemed to have osteoporosis based on the radiological evidence of fragility fractures. The PwP who sustained fractures were comparatively older (80.4 ± 12.1) and 70% (50/72) were females. The most common site for fractures was vertebral (47.2%; 34/72). Also, 22.2% of the sample (16/72) had suffered a fragility fracture before the diagnosis of PD. However, a majority (77.8%; 56/72) had sustained a fracture during the course of PD with a mean lapse of 6 years (range = 0–13 years) from initial diagnosis. Only 40% (29/72) of patients were prescribed osteoporosis drugs as per guidelines. There is a significant correlation of advancing age, severity and duration of PD with fragility fractures. The single best predictor of mortality is severity of PD, followed by age and fractures. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of fragility fractures in patients attending movement disorder clinics, although 60% do not receive evidence-based medical treatment for the underlying osteoporosis. The prevalence of fragility fractures is positively correlated with the duration and severity of PD. We acknowledge the relatively small sample size as the study’s limitation. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report Diagnosing Post-Polio Syndrome in the Elderly, a Case Report
Geriatrics 2017, 2(2), 14; doi:10.3390/geriatrics2020014
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 22 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 30 April 2017
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Abstract
Poliomyelitis is a disorder of the nervous system caused by an enterovirus. There are many survivors who, years later, develop a little-understood condition called Post-polio syndrome. Post-polio syndrome is a group of delayed sequalae of polio infection that can cause paralysis and bulbar
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Poliomyelitis is a disorder of the nervous system caused by an enterovirus. There are many survivors who, years later, develop a little-understood condition called Post-polio syndrome. Post-polio syndrome is a group of delayed sequalae of polio infection that can cause paralysis and bulbar symptoms in patients with a history of polio infection who have had a prolonged symptom-free period, often greater than two decades. Diagnosis of post-polio syndrome is difficult in the geriatric population because many of the symptoms overlap with other disease processes affecting older individuals. An extensive workup is necessary to exclude more concerning etiologies. Furthermore, several symptoms can be attributed to normal ageing. We present the case of an elderly patient with a history of poliomyelitis and multiple comorbidities who presented with complaints of weakness and fatigue. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperPerspective Stroke in Older Survivors of Ischemic Stroke: Standard Care or Something Different?
Geriatrics 2017, 2(2), 18; doi:10.3390/geriatrics2020018
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
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Abstract
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability and it is more likely to occur in those who are older. Because people are living longer, the definition of “old” continues to evolve. Age alone should not influence the healthcare that
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Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability and it is more likely to occur in those who are older. Because people are living longer, the definition of “old” continues to evolve. Age alone should not influence the healthcare that a patient receives, however, evidence indicates that this does occur, especially in older patients. On the basis of the available evidence, it is time to reconsider whether or not stroke care should differ in older survivors of stroke and if so, why. This is a narrative review of stroke-related health care in those with a recent ischemic stroke. It seeks to answer the following question: Should patients aged ≥80 years who have experienced a recent ischemic stroke receive standard care or something different, and if they should receive something different, what should they receive and why? The review focusses on long-term survival, hyper-acute care, secondary prevention, and rehabilitation. The authors propose a number of recommendations in relation to stroke care in older survivors of a recent ischemic stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stroke in Ageing)

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