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Recycling, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Recycling in 2016
Recycling 2017, 2(1), 2; doi:10.3390/recycling2010002
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
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Abstract
The editors of Recycling would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...]
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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Strategic Framework for Working toward Zero Waste Societies Based on Perceptions Surveys
Recycling 2017, 2(1), 1; doi:10.3390/recycling2010001
Received: 4 July 2016 / Revised: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 9 January 2017
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Abstract
The visionary concept of zero waste advocates a systematic process of designing out waste and recovering resources from waste. A strategic zero waste framework (ZWF) is essential for developing and executing systematic waste management activities to achieve the overarching goals. This study identifies
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The visionary concept of zero waste advocates a systematic process of designing out waste and recovering resources from waste. A strategic zero waste framework (ZWF) is essential for developing and executing systematic waste management activities to achieve the overarching goals. This study identifies the key principles for the development of a strategic ZWF based on a waste experts’ survey analysis. Around 68 experts from different regions responded and provided their views on the key elements of a strategic ZWF though an online questionnaire survey. Eighteen strategic elements of waste prevention, management, treatment and assessment were identified as the key principles of the zero waste framework. As the study followed a generalized approach, it is important to acknowledge that all identified and proposed strategic elements may need to be contextualized based on the local conditions in order to achieve zero waste goals. Based on the findings, the study suggests the following three fundamental strategic action plans that need to be implemented simultaneously for moving towards zero waste societies: (i) sustainable production through a cradle-to-cradle design and product stewardship; (ii) collaborative and responsible consumption of natural resources; and (iii) zero waste management through conservation of resources. In addition, a constant evaluation of progress towards zero waste goals is essential. It is anticipated that by considering local circumstances, the proposed strategic guidelines would be beneficial for local authorities and relevant stakeholders while developing their zero waste strategy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cathode Ray Tube Recycling in South Africa
Recycling 2017, 2(1), 4; doi:10.3390/recycling2010004
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 2 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
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Abstract
Households and businesses produce high levels of electrical and electronic waste (ewaste), fueled by modernization and rapid obsolescence. While the challenges imposed by e-waste are similar everywhere in the world, disparities in progress to deal with it exist, with developing nations lagging. The
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Households and businesses produce high levels of electrical and electronic waste (ewaste), fueled by modernization and rapid obsolescence. While the challenges imposed by e-waste are similar everywhere in the world, disparities in progress to deal with it exist, with developing nations lagging. The increase in e-waste generation highlights the need to develop ways to manage it. This paper reviews global and South African e-waste management practices with a specific case study on Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) waste. CRTs present the biggest problem for recyclers and policy makers because they contain lead and antimony. Common disposal practices have been either landfilling or incineration. Research into South African CRT waste management practices showed there is still more to do to manage this waste stream effectively. However, recent developments have placed e-waste into a priority waste stream, which should lead to intensified efforts in dealing with it. Overall, these efforts aim to increase diversion from landfill and create value-adding opportunities, leading to social and environmental benefits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Low-Transition Temperature Mixtures (LTTMs) Made of Bioorganic Molecules: Enhanced Extraction of Antioxidant Phenolics from Industrial Cereal Solid Wastes
Recycling 2017, 2(1), 3; doi:10.3390/recycling2010003
Received: 21 November 2016 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
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Abstract
Several low-transition temperature mixtures (LTTMs), based on l-lactic acid and amino acids but also choline chloride, were synthesized and screened for their effectiveness in extracting antioxidant phenolics from industrial cereal solid wastes. In most cases, highly efficient LTTMs were those composed of
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Several low-transition temperature mixtures (LTTMs), based on l-lactic acid and amino acids but also choline chloride, were synthesized and screened for their effectiveness in extracting antioxidant phenolics from industrial cereal solid wastes. In most cases, highly efficient LTTMs were those composed of l-lactic acid and choline chloride, but LTTMs composed of l-lactic acid and glycine or alanine also exhibited comparable extraction capacity. The extract from barley bran was shown to express powerful antioxidant activity, which was significantly higher than all the other extracts examined. This fact was attributed to the particularly high content in total flavanols. The data suggested that the most effective solvents, as revealed herein, merit further investigation as very promising means of extracting valuable chemicals from industrial agri-food residues. Additionally, barley bran should be more thoroughly examined for its prospect as a waste source of effective antioxidants, which could be used as nutritional supplements and active cosmetic ingredients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Using Pro-Environmental Information to Modify Conservation Behavior: Paper Recycling and Reuse
Recycling 2017, 2(1), 5; doi:10.3390/recycling2010005
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 11 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
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Abstract
In cases where market policy instruments (e.g., taxes and quotas) are impractical tools to induce conservation behavior, information campaigns may be a valuable option. We use a difference-in-differences strategy to estimate the effectiveness a signage campaign for inducing paper recycling and reuse behavior
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In cases where market policy instruments (e.g., taxes and quotas) are impractical tools to induce conservation behavior, information campaigns may be a valuable option. We use a difference-in-differences strategy to estimate the effectiveness a signage campaign for inducing paper recycling and reuse behavior in computer labs. We find that the implementation of signage with pro-environment appeals increases the probability of conservation behavior (i.e., recycling or reuse) by approximately 13%, despite the fact that pre-treatment levels of paper recycling and reuse were already at approximately 85%. Our results suggest that pro-environment campaigns can be an effective conservation tool and may be an important policy instrument for policy makers to consider. Full article
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Open AccessArticle How to Assess Product Performance in the Circular Economy? Proposed Requirements for the Design of a Circularity Measurement Framework
Recycling 2017, 2(1), 6; doi:10.3390/recycling2010006
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1596 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Assessing product circularity performance is not straightforward. Meanwhile, it gains increasingly importance for businesses and industrial practitioners who are willing to effectively take benefits from circular economy promises. Thus, providing methods and tools to evaluate then enhance product performance—in the light of circular
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Assessing product circularity performance is not straightforward. Meanwhile, it gains increasingly importance for businesses and industrial practitioners who are willing to effectively take benefits from circular economy promises. Thus, providing methods and tools to evaluate then enhance product performance—in the light of circular economy—becomes a significant but still barely addressed topic. Following a joint agreement on the need to measure product circularity performance, this paper provides an overview of mechanisms aiming to help industrial practitioners in this task. In fact, three existing approaches to measure product circularity performance have been tested on an industrial case study and criticized regarding both their applicability in industry and their accordance with circular economy principles. Although these methods and tools deliver a first and rapid trend of product circularity performance, the whole complexity of circular economy paradigm is far from being considered. In addition, operational guidance for engineers, designers or managers to improve their products in a circular economy context are missing. As a result, both recommendations for industrial practitioners and guidelines for the design and development of new frameworks, tools and indicators aiming at measuring product circularity performance are provided. This includes cornerstones, key requirements and practical implications to support enhanced circularity measurement that will be developed in further work, accordingly to circular economy paradigm and industrial reality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Potential and Recycling Strategies for LCD Panels from WEEE
Recycling 2017, 2(1), 7; doi:10.3390/recycling2010007
Received: 8 December 2016 / Revised: 12 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
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Abstract
Indium is one of the strategically important materials, which have been characterized as critical by various industrialized countries. Despite its high relevance, only low recycling rates are realized. Its main application is in indium tin oxide (ITO), which is used in the production
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Indium is one of the strategically important materials, which have been characterized as critical by various industrialized countries. Despite its high relevance, only low recycling rates are realized. Its main application is in indium tin oxide (ITO), which is used in the production of liquid crystal displays (LCD). However, recovery strategies for indium from LCDs are not yet being implemented in recycling practices. Although LCDs consist of a sandwich compound with additional materials such as glass (80% ± 5%) and polarizer foils (20% ± 5%), recently published recycling approaches focus mainly on the recovery of indium exclusively. This study, first of all, provides information about the quantity and quality of the materials applied in the LCD panels of the various equipment types investigated, such as notebooks, tablets, mobile phones, smartphones, PC monitors, and LCD TVs. The highest indium mass fraction per mass of LCD was determined in mobile phones and the least indium was found in smartphones. Additionally, we found the significant use of contaminating metals like antimony, arsenic, lead, and strontium in the glass fraction. Thus, specific recovery strategies should focus on selected equipment types with the highest indium potential, which is directly related to the sales of new devices and the number of collected end-of-life devices. Secondly, we have developed and successfully tested a novel recycling approach for separating the sandwich compound to provide single output fractions of panel glass, polarizer foils, and an indium concentrate for subsequent recycling. Unfortunately, the strongly varying content of contaminating metals jeopardizes the recycling of this output fraction. Nonetheless, economic recycling approaches need to address all materials contained, in particular those with the highest share in LCD panels such as polarizer foils and panel glass. Full article
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