Special Issue "Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy"

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A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 May 2011)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. W. Martin Kast

Walter A. Richter Cancer Research Chair, Professor of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology, Obstetrics & Gynecology and Urology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center (NRT 7507), University of Southern California, 1450 Biggy Street, MC 9601, Los Angeles, CA90033, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1 323 442 7760
Interests: design of HPV immunotherapeutics; developing new and effective therapies for cervical cancer; prostate cancer and melanoma
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Maurizio Chiriva-Internati

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4th St STOP, 6591, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA
E-Mail
Phone: 806-2525845
Fax: +1-806-743-3148
Interests: tumor immunology, developing therapeutic and preventive tumor vaccine; ovarian cancer, multiple myeloma, breast cancer, prostate cancer

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite intense ongoing research, many cancers are still incurable. Tumor cells induce immune tolerance, which represents a major obstacle for the application of cancer immunotherapy. Therefore, a current challenge for the field of cancer immunotherapy is to develop new approaches capable of breaking tumor-induced tolerance and inducing the (re-)activation of spontaneous and/or vaccine-triggered anti-tumor immune responses.

The exciting news this year is that we are now experiencing that cancer immunotherapy is finally becoming part of FDA approved cancer therapies. Cancer immunotherapy may provide a more effective and safer alternative approach to standard treatments, since unlike these currently available standard treatments, vaccines exploit natural anti-tumor immune surveillance, and offer the potential to provide durable control of primary and metastatic cancers.

Therefore, we invite research and review manuscripts in the field of cancer vaccines/cancer immunotherapy and topics related to new tumor antigen discovery, novel developments in therapeutic and preventive cancer vaccines, T regulatory cells, dendritic cell vaccines, T cell vaccines, B cell vaccines, pharmacological therapy, gene therapy, tumor-associated cancer testis antigens, immunosuppressive mechanisms, immune-regulatory applications and the regulation of immune surveillance against cancer as well as multi modality cancer approaches in which cancer vaccines/cancer immunotherapies play a role.

We are looking forward to your vital contributions.

Dr. W. Martin Kast
Dr. Maurizio Chiriva Internati
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • cytotoxic T lymphocytes
  • dendritic cells
  • therapeutic cancer vaccines
  • preventive cancer vaccines
  • cancer immunotherapy
  • immunomodulation

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Substantially Modified Ratios of Effector to Regulatory T Cells During Chemotherapy in Ovarian Cancer Patients Return to Pre-Treatment Levels at Completion: Implications for Immunotherapy
Cancers 2012, 4(2), 581-600; doi:10.3390/cancers4020581
Received: 18 May 2012 / Revised: 13 June 2012 / Accepted: 14 June 2012 / Published: 18 June 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (804 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. Despite improved detection and treatment options, relapse rates remain high. Combining immunotherapy with the current standard treatments may provide an improved prognosis, however, little is known about how standard chemotherapy affects immune
[...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. Despite improved detection and treatment options, relapse rates remain high. Combining immunotherapy with the current standard treatments may provide an improved prognosis, however, little is known about how standard chemotherapy affects immune potential (particularly T cells) over time, and hence, when to optimally combine it with immunotherapy (e.g., vaccines). Herein, we assess the frequency and ratio of CD8+ central memory and effector T cells as well as CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells (Tregs) during the first 18 weeks of standard chemotherapy for ovarian cancer patients. In this pilot study, we observed increased levels of recently activated Tregs with tumor migrating ability (CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+CD127−CCR4+CD38+ cells) in patients when compared to controls. Although frequency changes of Tregs as well as the ratio of effector T cells to Tregs were observed during treatment, the Tregs consistently returned to pre-chemotherapy levels at the end of treatment. These results indicate T cell subset distributions associated with recurrence may be largely resistant to being “re-set” to healthy control homeostatic levels following standard treatments. However, it may be possible to enhance T effector to Treg ratios transiently during chemotherapy. These results suggest personalized immune monitoring maybe beneficial when combining novel immuno-therapeutics with standard treatment for ovarian cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
Open AccessArticle Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology
Cancers 2011, 3(4), 4151-4169; doi:10.3390/cancers3044151
Received: 17 October 2011 / Revised: 3 November 2011 / Accepted: 7 November 2011 / Published: 11 November 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (723 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune
[...] Read more.
Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
Open AccessArticle Peptide Based Vaccine Approaches for Cancer—A Novel Approach Using a WT-1 Synthetic Long Peptide and the IRX-2 Immunomodulatory Regimen
Cancers 2011, 3(4), 3991-4009; doi:10.3390/cancers3043991
Received: 15 August 2011 / Revised: 13 October 2011 / Accepted: 14 October 2011 / Published: 25 October 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Therapeutic cancer vaccines have the potential to generate a long lasting immune response that will destroy tumor cells with specificity and safety, in contrast to many other current cancer therapies. Clinical success to date has been limited by a number of factors including
[...] Read more.
Therapeutic cancer vaccines have the potential to generate a long lasting immune response that will destroy tumor cells with specificity and safety, in contrast to many other current cancer therapies. Clinical success to date has been limited by a number of factors including choice of immunogenic cancer rejection antigens, optimization of vaccine platforms and immune adjuvants to effectively polarize the immune response, and incorporation of strategies to reverse cancer mediated immune suppression by utilization of effective adjuvant/immune modulators. WT-1 (Wilms’ tumor gene 1) is a cancer antigen that is required for tumorigenesis, expressed in a high percentage of tumor cells and rarely expressed in adult normal cells. Moreover spontaneous immunity to WT-1 is seen in cancer patients and can be augmented with various therapeutic vaccine approaches. IRX-2 is an immune modulator with demonstrated preclinical and clinical pleiotropic immune activities including enhancement of the immune response to potential tumor antigens. This paper presents the rationale and preclinical data for utilizing the WT-1 tumor antigen in a novel vaccine platform consisting of a synthetic long peptide containing multiple class I and class II epitopes in combination with the IRX-2 immunomodulatory regimen to overcome immuno-suppressive pathways and enhance the anti-tumor response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
Open AccessArticle Two Domains of Vimentin Are Expressed on the Surface of Lymph Node, Bone and Brain Metastatic Prostate Cancer Lines along with the Putative Stem Cell Marker Proteins CD44 and CD133
Cancers 2011, 3(3), 2870-2885; doi:10.3390/cancers3032870
Received: 24 May 2011 / Revised: 27 June 2011 / Accepted: 6 July 2011 / Published: 13 July 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (771 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vimentin was originally identified as an intermediate filament protein present only as an intracellular component in many cell types. However, this protein has now been detected on the surface of a number of different cancer cell types in a punctate distribution pattern. Increased
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Vimentin was originally identified as an intermediate filament protein present only as an intracellular component in many cell types. However, this protein has now been detected on the surface of a number of different cancer cell types in a punctate distribution pattern. Increased vimentin expression has been indicated as an important step in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) required for the metastasis of prostate cancer. Here, using two vimentin-specific monoclonal antibodies (SC5 and V9 directed against the coil one rod domain and the C-terminus of the vimentin protein, respectively), we examined whether either of these domains would be displayed on the surface of three commonly studied prostate cancer cell lines isolated from different sites of metastases. Confocal analysis of LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines (derived from lymph node, bone or brain prostate metastases, respectively) demonstrated that both domains of vimentin are present on the surface of these metastatic cancer cell types. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that vimentin expression was readily detected along with CD44 expression but only a small subpopulation of prostate cancer cells expressed vimentin and the putative stem cell marker CD133 along with CD44. Finally, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) nanoparticles that target vimentin could bind and internalize into tested prostate cancer cell lines. These results demonstrate that at least two domains of vimentin are present on the surface of metastatic prostate cancer cells and suggest that vimentin could provide a useful target for nanoparticle- or antibody- cancer therapeutic agents directed against highly invasive cancer and/or stem cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
Open AccessArticle Therapeutic Response in Patients with Advanced Malignancies Treated with Combined Dendritic Cell–Activated T Cell Based Immunotherapy and Intensity–Modulated Radiotherapy
Cancers 2011, 3(2), 2223-2242; doi:10.3390/cancers3022223
Received: 7 March 2011 / Revised: 14 April 2011 / Accepted: 19 April 2011 / Published: 28 April 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (576 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Successful cancer immunotherapy is confounded by the magnitude of the tumor burden and the presence of immunoregulatory elements that suppress an immune response. To approach these issues, 26 patients with advanced treatment refractory cancer were enrolled in a safety/feasibility study wherein a conventional
[...] Read more.
Successful cancer immunotherapy is confounded by the magnitude of the tumor burden and the presence of immunoregulatory elements that suppress an immune response. To approach these issues, 26 patients with advanced treatment refractory cancer were enrolled in a safety/feasibility study wherein a conventional treatment modality, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), was combined with dendritic cell-based immunotherapy. We hypothesized that radiation would lower the tumor burdens, decrease the number/function of regulatory cells in the tumor environment, and release products of tumor cells that could be acquired by intratumoral injected immature dendritic cells (iDC). Metastatic lesions identified by CT (computed tomography) were injected with autologous iDC combined with a cytokine-based adjuvant and KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin), followed 24 h later by IV-infused T-cells expanded with anti-CD3 and IL-2 (AT). After three to five days, each of the injected lesions was treated with fractionated doses of IMRT followed by another injection of intratumoral iDC and IV-infused AT. No toxicity was observed with cell infusion while radiation-related toxicity was observed in seven patients. Five patients had progressive disease, eight demonstrated complete resolution at treated sites but developed recurrent disease at other sites, and 13 showed complete response at various follow-up times with an overall estimated Kaplan-Meier disease-free survival of 345 days. Most patients developed KLH antibodies supporting our hypothesis that the co-injected iDC are functional with the capacity to acquire antigens from their environment and generate an adaptive immune response. These results demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of this multimodality strategy combining immunotherapy and IMRT in patients with advanced malignancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Cancer Genome Sequencing and Its Implications for Personalized Cancer Vaccines
Cancers 2011, 3(4), 4191-4211; doi:10.3390/cancers3044191
Received: 17 September 2011 / Revised: 31 October 2011 / Accepted: 9 November 2011 / Published: 25 November 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New DNA sequencing platforms have revolutionized human genome sequencing. The dramatic advances in genome sequencing technologies predict that the $1,000 genome will become a reality within the next few years. Applied to cancer, the availability of cancer genome sequences permits real-time decision-making with
[...] Read more.
New DNA sequencing platforms have revolutionized human genome sequencing. The dramatic advances in genome sequencing technologies predict that the $1,000 genome will become a reality within the next few years. Applied to cancer, the availability of cancer genome sequences permits real-time decision-making with the potential to affect diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, and has opened the door towards personalized medicine. A promising strategy is the identification of mutated tumor antigens, and the design of personalized cancer vaccines. Supporting this notion are preliminary analyses of the epitope landscape in breast cancer suggesting that individual tumors express significant numbers of novel antigens to the immune system that can be specifically targeted through cancer vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessReview Sarcoma Immunotherapy
Cancers 2011, 3(4), 4139-4150; doi:10.3390/cancers3044139
Received: 6 September 2011 / Revised: 19 October 2011 / Accepted: 19 October 2011 / Published: 10 November 2011
PDF Full-text (184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Much of our knowledge regarding cancer immunotherapy has been derived from sarcoma models. However, translation of preclinical findings to bedside success has been limited in this disease, though several intriguing clinical studies hint at the potential efficacy of this treatment modality. The rarity
[...] Read more.
Much of our knowledge regarding cancer immunotherapy has been derived from sarcoma models. However, translation of preclinical findings to bedside success has been limited in this disease, though several intriguing clinical studies hint at the potential efficacy of this treatment modality. The rarity and heterogeneity of tumors of mesenchymal origin continues to be a challenge from a therapeutic standpoint. Nonetheless, sarcomas remain attractive targets for immunotherapy, as they can be characterized by specific epitopes, either from their mesenchymal origins or specific alterations in gene products. To date, standard vaccine trials have proven disappointing, likely due to mechanisms by which tumors equilibrate with and ultimately escape immune surveillance. More sophisticated approaches will likely require multimodal techniques, both by enhancing immunity, but also geared towards overcoming innate mechanisms of immunosuppression that favor tumorigenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
Open AccessReview Cytokines in Cancer Immunotherapy
Cancers 2011, 3(4), 3856-3893; doi:10.3390/cancers3043856
Received: 16 August 2011 / Revised: 24 September 2011 / Accepted: 27 September 2011 / Published: 13 October 2011
Cited by 53 | PDF Full-text (369 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cytokines are molecular messengers that allow the cells of the immune system to communicate with one another to generate a coordinated, robust, but self-limited response to a target antigen. The growing interest over the past two decades in harnessing the immune system to
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Cytokines are molecular messengers that allow the cells of the immune system to communicate with one another to generate a coordinated, robust, but self-limited response to a target antigen. The growing interest over the past two decades in harnessing the immune system to eradicate cancer has been accompanied by heightened efforts to characterize cytokines and exploit their vast signaling networks to develop cancer treatments. The goal of this paper is to review the major cytokines involved in cancer immunotherapy and discuss their basic biology and clinical applications. The paper will also describe new cytokines in pre-clinical development, combinations of biological agents, novel delivery mechanisms, and potential directions for future investigation using cytokines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
Open AccessReview Emerging Cancer Vaccines: The Promise of Genetic Vectors
Cancers 2011, 3(3), 3687-3713; doi:10.3390/cancers3033687
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 9 September 2011 / Accepted: 14 September 2011 / Published: 22 September 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Therapeutic vaccination against cancer is an important approach which, when combined with other therapies, can improve long-term control of cancer. In fact, the induction of adaptive immune responses against Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs) as well as innate immunity are important factors for tumor
[...] Read more.
Therapeutic vaccination against cancer is an important approach which, when combined with other therapies, can improve long-term control of cancer. In fact, the induction of adaptive immune responses against Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs) as well as innate immunity are important factors for tumor stabilization/eradication. A variety of immunization technologies have been explored in last decades and are currently under active evaluation, such as cell-based, protein, peptide and heat-shock protein-based cancer vaccines. Genetic vaccines are emerging as promising methodologies to elicit immune responses against a wide variety of antigens, including TAAs. Amongst these, Adenovirus (Ad)-based vectors show excellent immunogenicity profile and have achieved immunological proof of concept in humans. In vivo electroporation of plasmid DNA (DNA-EP) is also a desirable vaccine technology for cancer vaccines, as it is repeatable several times, a parameter required for the long-term maintenance of anti-tumor immunity. Recent findings show that combinations of different modalities of immunization (heterologous prime/boost) are able to induce superior immune reactions as compared to single-modality vaccines. In this review, we will discuss the challenges and requirements of emerging cancer vaccines, particularly focusing on the genetic cancer vaccines currently under active development and the promise shown by Ad and DNA-EP heterologous prime-boost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
Open AccessReview New Approaches to Immunotherapy for HPV Associated Cancers
Cancers 2011, 3(3), 3461-3495; doi:10.3390/cancers3033461
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 26 August 2011 / Accepted: 29 August 2011 / Published: 2 September 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer of women worldwide and is the first cancer shown to be entirely induced by a virus, the human papillomavirus (HPV, major oncogenic genotypes HPV-16 and -18). Two recently developed prophylactic cervical cancer vaccines, using virus-like
[...] Read more.
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer of women worldwide and is the first cancer shown to be entirely induced by a virus, the human papillomavirus (HPV, major oncogenic genotypes HPV-16 and -18). Two recently developed prophylactic cervical cancer vaccines, using virus-like particles (VLP) technology, have the potential to prevent a large proportion of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection and to ensure long-term protection. However, prophylactic HPV vaccines do not have therapeutic effects against pre-existing HPV infections and do not prevent their progression to HPV-associated malignancy. In animal models, therapeutic vaccines for persisting HPV infection can eliminate transplantable tumors expressing HPV antigens, but are of limited efficacy in inducing rejection of skin grafts expressing the same antigens. In humans, clinical trials have reported successful immunotherapy of HPV lesions, providing hope and further interest. This review discusses possible new approaches to immunotherapy for HPV associated cancer, based on recent advances in our knowledge of the immunobiology of HPV infection, of epithelial immunology and of immunoregulation, with a brief overview on previous and current HPV vaccine clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessReview Novel Antibody-Based Proteins for Cancer Immunotherapy
Cancers 2011, 3(3), 3370-3393; doi:10.3390/cancers3033370
Received: 28 July 2011 / Revised: 12 August 2011 / Accepted: 15 August 2011 / Published: 19 August 2011
PDF Full-text (298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The relative success of monoclonal antibodies in cancer immunotherapy and the vast manipulation potential of recombinant antibody technology have encouraged the development of novel antibody-based antitumor proteins. Many insightful reagents have been produced, mainly guided by studies on the mechanisms of action associated
[...] Read more.
The relative success of monoclonal antibodies in cancer immunotherapy and the vast manipulation potential of recombinant antibody technology have encouraged the development of novel antibody-based antitumor proteins. Many insightful reagents have been produced, mainly guided by studies on the mechanisms of action associated with complete and durable remissions, results from experimental animal models, and our current knowledge of the human immune system. Strikingly, only a small percent of these new reagents has demonstrated clinical value. Tumor burden, immune evasion, physiological resemblance, and cell plasticity are among the challenges that cancer therapy faces, and a number of antibody-based proteins are already available to deal with many of them. Some of these novel reagents have been shown to specifically increase apoptosis/cell death of tumor cells, recruit and activate immune effectors, and reveal synergistic effects not previously envisioned. In this review, we look into different approaches that have been followed during the past few years to produce these biologics and analyze their relative success, mainly in terms of their clinical performance. The use of antibody-based antitumor proteins, in combination with standard or novel therapies, is showing significant improvements in objective responses, suggesting that these reagents will become important components of the antineoplastic protocols of the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
Open AccessReview Chimeric DNA Vaccines against ErbB2+ Carcinomas: From Mice to Humans
Cancers 2011, 3(3), 3225-3241; doi:10.3390/cancers3033225
Received: 7 July 2011 / Revised: 2 August 2011 / Accepted: 3 August 2011 / Published: 10 August 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (500 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
DNA vaccination exploits a relatively simple and flexible technique to generate an immune response against microbial and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Its effectiveness is enhanced by the application of an electrical shock in the area of plasmid injection (electroporation). In our studies we exploited
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DNA vaccination exploits a relatively simple and flexible technique to generate an immune response against microbial and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Its effectiveness is enhanced by the application of an electrical shock in the area of plasmid injection (electroporation). In our studies we exploited a sophisticated electroporation device approved for clinical use (Cliniporator, IGEA, Carpi, Italy). As the target antigen is an additional factor that dramatically modulates the efficacy of a vaccine, we selected ErbB2 receptor as a target since it is an ideal oncoantigen. It is overexpressed on the cell membrane by several carcinomas for which it plays an essential role in driving their progression. Most oncoantigens are self-tolerated molecules. To circumvent immune tolerance we generated two plasmids (RHuT and HuRT) coding for chimeric rat/human ErbB2 proteins. Their immunogenicity was compared in wild type mice naturally tolerant for mouse ErbB2, and in transgenic mice that are also tolerant for rat or human ErbB2. In several of these mice, RHuT and HuRT elicited a stronger anti-tumor response than plasmids coding for fully human or fully rat ErbB2. The ability of heterologous moiety to blunt immune tolerance could be exploited to elicit a significant immune response in patients. A clinical trial to delay the recurrence of ErbB2+ carcinomas of the oral cavity, oropharynx and hypopharynx is awaiting the approval of the Italian authorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessReview C-type Lectin Receptors for Tumor Eradication: Future Directions
Cancers 2011, 3(3), 3169-3188; doi:10.3390/cancers3033169
Received: 3 June 2011 / Revised: 15 July 2011 / Accepted: 1 August 2011 / Published: 8 August 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (484 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dendritic cells are key regulators in directing immune responses and therefore are under extensive research for the induction of anti-tumor responses. DCs express a large array of receptors by which they scan their surroundings for recognition and uptake of pathogens. One of the
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Dendritic cells are key regulators in directing immune responses and therefore are under extensive research for the induction of anti-tumor responses. DCs express a large array of receptors by which they scan their surroundings for recognition and uptake of pathogens. One of the receptor-families is the C-type lectins (CLR), which bind carbohydrate structures and internalize antigens upon recognition. Intracellular routing of antigen through CLR enhances loading and presentation of antigen through MHC class I and II, inducing antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation and skewing T-helper cells. These characteristics make CLRs very interesting targets for DC-based immunotherapy. Profound research has been done on targeting specific tumor antigens to CLR using either antibodies or the natural ligands such as glycan structures. In this review we will focus on the current data showing the potency of CLR-targeting and discuss improvements that can be achieved to enhance anti-tumor activity in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessReview Immune Modulation by Chemotherapy or Immunotherapy to Enhance Cancer Vaccines
Cancers 2011, 3(3), 3114-3142; doi:10.3390/cancers3033114
Received: 8 June 2011 / Revised: 27 July 2011 / Accepted: 28 July 2011 / Published: 5 August 2011
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chemotherapy has been a mainstay in cancer treatment for many years. Despite some success, the cure rate with chemotherapy remains unsatisfactory in some types of cancers, and severe side effects from these treatments are a concern. Recently, understanding of the dynamic interplay between
[...] Read more.
Chemotherapy has been a mainstay in cancer treatment for many years. Despite some success, the cure rate with chemotherapy remains unsatisfactory in some types of cancers, and severe side effects from these treatments are a concern. Recently, understanding of the dynamic interplay between the tumor and immune system has led to the development of novel immunotherapies, including cancer vaccines. Cancer vaccines have many advantageous features, but their use has been hampered by poor immunogenicity. Many developments have increased their potency in pre-clinical models, but cancer vaccines continue to have a poor clinical track record. In part, this could be due to an inability to effectively overcome tumor-induced immune suppression. It had been generally assumed that immune-stimulatory cancer vaccines could not be used in combination with immunosuppressive chemotherapies, but recent evidence has challenged this dogma. Chemotherapies could be used to condition the immune system and tumor to create an environment where cancer vaccines have a better chance of success. Other types of immunotherapies could also be used to modulate the immune system. This review will discuss how immune modulation by chemotherapy or immunotherapy could be used to bolster the effects of cancer vaccines and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
Open AccessReview Immunotherapy for Urothelial Carcinoma: Current Status and Perspectives
Cancers 2011, 3(3), 3055-3072; doi:10.3390/cancers3033055
Received: 7 June 2011 / Revised: 22 July 2011 / Accepted: 26 July 2011 / Published: 29 July 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) for the treatment of urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder is based on the BCG-induced immune response, which eradicates and prevents bladder cancer. The results of recent studies have suggested that not only major histocompatibility complex
[...] Read more.
Intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) for the treatment of urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder is based on the BCG-induced immune response, which eradicates and prevents bladder cancer. The results of recent studies have suggested that not only major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-nonrestricted immune cells such as natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, etc., but also MHC-restricted CD8+ T cells play an important role and are one of the main effectors in this therapy. Better understanding of the mechanism of BCG immunotherapy supports the idea that active immunotherapy through its augmented T cell response can have great potential for the treatment of advanced UC. In this review, progress in immunotherapy for UC is discussed based on data from basic, translational and clinical studies. We also review the escape mechanism of cancer cells from the immune system, and down-regulation of MHC class I molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessReview Natural and Induced Humoral Responses to MUC1
Cancers 2011, 3(3), 3073-3103; doi:10.3390/cancers3033073
Received: 1 July 2011 / Revised: 25 July 2011 / Accepted: 26 July 2011 / Published: 29 July 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MUC1 is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the ductal cell surface of glandular epithelial cells. Loss of polarization, overexpression and aberrant glycosylation of MUC1 in mucosal inflammation and in adenocarcinomas induces humoral immune responses to the mucin. MUC1 IgG responses have been associated
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MUC1 is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the ductal cell surface of glandular epithelial cells. Loss of polarization, overexpression and aberrant glycosylation of MUC1 in mucosal inflammation and in adenocarcinomas induces humoral immune responses to the mucin. MUC1 IgG responses have been associated with a benefit in survival in patients with breast, lung, pancreatic, ovarian and gastric carcinomas. Antibodies bound to the mucin may curb tumor progression by restoring cell-cell interactions altered by tumor-associated MUC1, thus preventing metastatic dissemination, as well as counteracting the immune suppression exerted by the molecule. Furthermore, anti-MUC1 antibodies are capable of effecting tumor cell killing by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Although cytotoxic T cells are indispensable to achieve anti-tumor responses in advanced disease, abs to tumor-associated antigens are ideally suited to address minimal residual disease and may be sufficient to exert adequate immune surveillance in an adjuvant setting, destroying tumor cells as they arise or maintaining occult disease in an equilibrium state. Initial evaluation of MUC1 peptide/glycopeptide mono and polyvalent vaccines has shown them to be immunogenic and safe; anti-tumor responses are scarce. Progress in carbohydrate synthesis has yielded a number of sophisticated substrates that include MUC1 glycopeptide epitopes that are at present in preclinical testing. Adjuvant vaccination with MUC1 glycopeptide polyvalent vaccines that induce strong humoral responses may prevent recurrence of disease in patients with early stage carcinomas. Furthermore, prophylactic immunotherapy targeting MUC1 may be a strategy to strengthen immune surveillance and prevent disease in subjects at hereditary high risk of breast, ovarian and colon cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessReview Immune Suppression in Tumors as a Surmountable Obstacle to Clinical Efficacy of Cancer Vaccines
Cancers 2011, 3(3), 2904-2954; doi:10.3390/cancers3032904
Received: 26 May 2011 / Revised: 1 July 2011 / Accepted: 7 July 2011 / Published: 18 July 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human tumors are usually not spontaneously eliminated by the immune system and therapeutic vaccination of cancer patients with defined antigens is followed by tumor regressions only in a small minority of the patients. The poor vaccination effectiveness could be explained by an immunosuppressive
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Human tumors are usually not spontaneously eliminated by the immune system and therapeutic vaccination of cancer patients with defined antigens is followed by tumor regressions only in a small minority of the patients. The poor vaccination effectiveness could be explained by an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Because T cells that infiltrate tumor metastases have an impaired ability to lyse target cells or to secrete cytokine, many researchers are trying to decipher the underlying immunosuppressive mechanisms. We will review these here, in particular those considered as potential therapeutic targets. A special attention will be given to galectins, a family of carbohydrate binding proteins. These lectins have often been implicated in inflammation and cancer and may be useful targets for the development of new anti-cancer therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessReview State of the Art in Tumor Antigen and Biomarker Discovery
Cancers 2011, 3(2), 2554-2596; doi:10.3390/cancers3022554
Received: 6 April 2011 / Revised: 24 May 2011 / Accepted: 27 May 2011 / Published: 9 June 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (417 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our knowledge of tumor immunology has resulted in multiple approaches for the treatment of cancer. However, a gap between research of new tumors markers and development of immunotherapy has been established and very few markers exist that can be used for treatment. The
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Our knowledge of tumor immunology has resulted in multiple approaches for the treatment of cancer. However, a gap between research of new tumors markers and development of immunotherapy has been established and very few markers exist that can be used for treatment. The challenge is now to discover new targets for active and passive immunotherapy. This review aims at describing recent advances in biomarkers and tumor antigen discovery in terms of antigen nature and localization, and is highlighting the most recent approaches used for their discovery including “omics” technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
Open AccessReview Harnessing Dendritic Cells for Tumor Antigen Presentation
Cancers 2011, 3(2), 2195-2213; doi:10.3390/cancers3022195
Received: 14 March 2011 / Revised: 14 April 2011 / Accepted: 19 April 2011 / Published: 26 April 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that are crucial for the induction of anti-tumor T cell responses. As a consequence, research has focused on the harnessing of DCs for therapeutic interventions. Although current strategies employing ex vivo-generated and tumor-antigen loaded
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Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that are crucial for the induction of anti-tumor T cell responses. As a consequence, research has focused on the harnessing of DCs for therapeutic interventions. Although current strategies employing ex vivo-generated and tumor-antigen loaded DCs have been proven feasible, there are still many obstacles to overcome in order to improve clinical trial successes and offset the cost and complexity of customized cell therapy. This review focuses on one of these obstacles and a pivotal step for the priming of tumor-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells; the in vitro loading of DCs with tumor antigens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)

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