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Special Issue "Recent Advances in Public Health"

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A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Dr. Paul B. Tchounwou

Molecular Toxicology Research Laboratory, Jackson State University, 1400 Lynch Street, Box 18750, Jackson, MI 39217, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1 601 979 2349

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Public Health Impact of Coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1150-1173; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041150
Received: 24 February 2011 / Revised: 12 April 2011 / Accepted: 13 April 2011 / Published: 15 April 2011
Cited by 45 | PDF Full-text (662 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The numbers of reported cases of coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California have risen dramatically over the past decade, with a 97.8% and 91.1% increase in incidence rates from 2001 to 2006 in the two states, respectively. Of those cases with reported race/ethnicity information,
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The numbers of reported cases of coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California have risen dramatically over the past decade, with a 97.8% and 91.1% increase in incidence rates from 2001 to 2006 in the two states, respectively. Of those cases with reported race/ethnicity information, Black/African Americans in Arizona and Hispanics and African/Americans in California experienced a disproportionately higher frequency of disease compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Lack of early diagnosis continues to be a problem, particularly in suspect community-acquired pneumonia, underscoring the need for more rapid and sensitive tests. Similarly, the inability of currently available therapeutics to reduce the duration and morbidity of this disease underscores the need for improved therapeutics and a preventive vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Environmental Monitoring and Analysis of Faecal Contamination in an Urban Setting in the City of Bari (Apulia Region, Italy): Health and Hygiene Implications
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(11), 3972-3986; doi:10.3390/ijerph7113972
Received: 8 October 2010 / Revised: 30 October 2010 / Accepted: 2 November 2010 / Published: 9 November 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (398 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence
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Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy). To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school). A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found.  On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Public Health)

Review

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Open AccessReview Improving Public Health Through Access to and Utilization of Medication Assisted Treatment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(10), 4102-4117; doi:10.3390/ijerph8104102
Received: 20 September 2011 / Accepted: 7 October 2011 / Published: 24 October 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Providing access to and utilization of medication assisted treatment (MAT) for the treatment of opioid abuse and dependence provides an important opportunity to improve public health. Access to health services comprising MAT in the community is fundamental to achieve broad service coverage. The
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Providing access to and utilization of medication assisted treatment (MAT) for the treatment of opioid abuse and dependence provides an important opportunity to improve public health. Access to health services comprising MAT in the community is fundamental to achieve broad service coverage. The type and placement of the health services comprising MAT and integration with primary medical care including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, care and treatment services are optimal for addressing both substance abuse and co-occurring infectious diseases. As an HIV prevention intervention, integrated (same medical record for HIV services and MAT services) MAT with HIV prevention, care and treatment programs provides the best “one stop shopping” approach for health service utilization. Alternatively, MAT, medical and HIV services can be separately managed but co-located to allow convenient utilization of primary care, MAT and HIV services. A third approach is coordinated care and treatment, where primary care, MAT and HIV services are provided at distinct locations and case managers, peer facilitators, or others promote direct service utilization at the various locations. Developing a continuum of care for patients with opioid dependence throughout the stages MAT enhances the public health and Recovery from opioid dependence. As a stigmatized and medical disenfranchised population with multiple medical, psychological and social needs, people who inject drugs and are opioid dependent have difficulty accessing services and navigating medical systems of coordinated care. MAT programs that offer comprehensive services and medical care options can best contribute to improving the health of these individuals thereby enhancing the health of the community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Public Health)
Open AccessReview The Dynamics of Norovirus Outbreak Epidemics: Recent Insights
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1141-1149; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041141
Received: 23 February 2011 / Revised: 11 April 2011 / Accepted: 13 April 2011 / Published: 15 April 2011
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Noroviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Norovirus outbreaks frequently occur as epidemics which appear to be related to both genetic and environmental factors. This review considers recent progress in understanding these factors. The norovirus genome undergoes continuous change and this
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Noroviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Norovirus outbreaks frequently occur as epidemics which appear to be related to both genetic and environmental factors. This review considers recent progress in understanding these factors. The norovirus genome undergoes continuous change and this appears to be important in the persistence of the virus in the community. Studies on the common GII.4 genotype have shown that some norovirus outbreak epidemics involving this genotype are correlated with specific changes in the genome. In contrast to the growing understanding of the role of genetic factors in norovirus outbreak epidemics, the role of environmental factors is less well understood. Topics reviewed here include long term excretion of norovirus in some individuals, long term survivability of norovirus in the environment, the role of meteorological factors in the control of norovirus outbreaks and the possible zoonotic transmission of the virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Public Health)
Open AccessReview Control of Advanced Cancer: The Road to Chronicity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(3), 683-697; doi:10.3390/ijerph8030683
Received: 28 December 2010 / Revised: 28 January 2011 / Accepted: 11 February 2011 / Published: 1 March 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the recent trend toward a slight decrease in age-adjusted cancer mortality in some countries, crude mortality rates will continue to increase, driven by the demographic shift towards an aged population. Small molecules (small molecules and biologics) are not only a new therapeutic
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Despite the recent trend toward a slight decrease in age-adjusted cancer mortality in some countries, crude mortality rates will continue to increase, driven by the demographic shift towards an aged population. Small molecules (small molecules and biologics) are not only a new therapeutic acquisition, but the tools of a more fundamental transition: the transformation of cancer from a rapidly fatal disease into a chronic condition. Antibodies and cancer vaccines can be used for a long time, even beyond progressive disease, and in aged patients, usually unfit for more aggressive conventional treatments. However, this transition to chronicity will require novel developmental guidelines adequate to this kind of drugs, for which optimal dose is not usually the maximal tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics does not define treatment schedule, and tumor shrinkage is not a good correlate of survival. The ongoing cancer immunotherapy program (including several monoclonal antibodies and therapeutic vaccines) at the Centre of Molecular Immunology can illustrate the issues to be addressed, both biological and social, along the path to transform advanced cancer into a chronic non-communicable disease compatible with years of quality life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Public Health)
Open AccessReview Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment of the Advances in Public Health for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2238-2255; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052238
Received: 28 December 2009 / Revised: 23 April 2010 / Accepted: 4 May 2010 / Published: 6 May 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year
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To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Public Health)
Open AccessReview Theoretical Models and Operational Frameworks in Public Health Ethics
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 189-202; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010189
Received: 24 December 2009 / Accepted: 13 January 2010 / Published: 18 January 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The article is divided into three sections: (i) an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations); (ii) a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks); and (iii) a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the
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The article is divided into three sections: (i) an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations); (ii) a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks); and (iii) a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the superiority of one position over the others, the main aim of the article is to summarize the basic approaches proposed thus far concerning the development of public health ethics by describing and comparing the various ideas in the literature. With this in mind, an extensive list of references is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Public Health)
Open AccessReview Fish, Mercury, Selenium and Cardiovascular Risk: Current Evidence and Unanswered Questions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(6), 1894-1916; doi:10.3390/ijerph6061894
Received: 22 May 2009 / Accepted: 4 June 2009 / Published: 23 June 2009
Cited by 102 | PDF Full-text (477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Controversy has arisen among the public and in the media regarding the health effects of fish intake in adults. Substantial evidence indicates that fish consumption reduces coronary heart disease mortality, the leading cause of death in developed and most developing nations. Conversely, concerns
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Controversy has arisen among the public and in the media regarding the health effects of fish intake in adults. Substantial evidence indicates that fish consumption reduces coronary heart disease mortality, the leading cause of death in developed and most developing nations. Conversely, concerns have grown regarding potential effects of exposure to mercury found in some fish. Seafood species are also rich in selenium, an essential trace element that may protect against both cardiovascular disease and toxic effects of mercury. Such protective effects would have direct implications for recommendations regarding optimal selenium intake and for assessing the potential impact of mercury exposure from fish intake in different populations. Because fish consumption appears to have important health benefits in adults, elucidating the relationships between fish intake, mercury and selenium exposure, and health risk is of considerable scientific and public health relevance. The evidence for health effects of fish consumption in adults is reviewed, focusing on the strength and consistency of evidence and relative magnitudes of effects of omega-3 fatty acids, mercury, and selenium. Given the preponderance of evidence, the focus is on cardiovascular effects, but other potential health effects, as well as potential effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in fish, are also briefly reviewed. The relevant current unanswered questions and directions of further research are summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Public Health)

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