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Special Issue "Endocrine Disruptors and Human Health"

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A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Karen Phillips (Website)

Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, 43 Templeton Street, Room 215, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada
Interests: endocrine disrupters; infertility; reproductive biology; sexual and reproductive health education

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Exposure to endocrine disruptors or endocrine toxicants has been associated with a range of adverse health effects in laboratory animals and wildlife. "Endocrine disruption" refers to negative interference with the endocrine system leading to extra-homeostatic fluctuations in hormone levels that may, in turn, trigger adverse health outcomes.  In humans potential adverse health effects include infertility, abnormal prenatal and childhood development, reproductive cancers along with emerging health concerns (e.g. obesity, diabetes, metabolism disorders, abnormal neurodevelopment).

This special issue will focus on proposed molecular mechanisms by which endocrine disruptors adversely affect human health. Drawing from experimental, epidemiological and other data, articles which explore gene-environment interactions, epigenetics, molecular signalling and receptor-ligand interactions are particularly welcome.  Similarly, articles describing biologically plausible mechanisms by which endocrine disruptors may contribute to emerging adverse human health effects are also encouraged.

Dr. Karen P. Phillips
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Combination Effects of (Tri)Azole Fungicides on Hormone Production and Xenobiotic Metabolism in a Human Placental Cell Line
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(9), 9660-9679; doi:10.3390/ijerph110909660
Received: 7 July 2014 / Revised: 22 August 2014 / Accepted: 1 September 2014 / Published: 17 September 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1034 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Consumers are exposed to multiple residues of different pesticides via the diet. Therefore, EU legislation for pesticides requires the evaluation of single active substances as well as the consideration of combination effects. Hence the analysis of combined effects of substances in a [...] Read more.
Consumers are exposed to multiple residues of different pesticides via the diet. Therefore, EU legislation for pesticides requires the evaluation of single active substances as well as the consideration of combination effects. Hence the analysis of combined effects of substances in a broad dose range represents a key challenge to current experimental and regulatory toxicology. Here we report evidence for additive effects for (tri)azole fungicides, a widely used group of antifungal agents, in the human placental cell line Jeg-3. In addition to the triazoles cyproconazole, epoxiconazole, flusilazole and tebuconazole and the azole fungicide prochloraz also pesticides from other chemical classes assumed to act via different modes of action (i.e., the organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the triazinylsulfonylurea herbicide triflusulfuron-methyl) were investigated. Endpoints analysed include synthesis of steroid hormone production (progesterone and estradiol) and gene expression of steroidogenic and non-steroidogenic cytochrome-P-450 (CYP) enzymes. For the triazoles and prochloraz, a dose dependent inhibition of progesterone production was observed and additive effects could be confirmed for several combinations of these substances in vitro. The non-triazoles chlorpyrifos and triflusulfuron-methyl did not affect this endpoint and, in line with this finding, no additivity was observed when these substances were applied in mixtures with prochloraz. While prochloraz slightly increased aromatase expression and estradiol production and triflusulfuron-methyl decreased estradiol production, none of the other substances had effects on the expression levels of steroidogenic CYP-enzymes in Jeg-3 cells. For some triazoles, prochloraz and chlorpyrifos a significant induction of CYP1A1 mRNA expression and potential combination effects for this endpoint were observed. Inhibition of CYP1A1 mRNA induction by the AhR inhibitor CH223191 indicated AhR receptor dependence this effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Exposure of Nigerians to Mutagens and Estrogen-Like Chemicals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(8), 8347-8367; doi:10.3390/ijerph110808347
Received: 3 June 2014 / Revised: 30 July 2014 / Accepted: 7 August 2014 / Published: 15 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Food and drinking water are poorly delineated sources of human exposure to chemical food mutagens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In this study, we investigated the presence of mutagens and chemicals exhibiting estrogenic activity in the daily diet of Nigerians, using in vitro assays. [...] Read more.
Food and drinking water are poorly delineated sources of human exposure to chemical food mutagens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In this study, we investigated the presence of mutagens and chemicals exhibiting estrogenic activity in the daily diet of Nigerians, using in vitro assays. Commercially processed foods or snacks and various brands of pure water sachets were extracted by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Mutagenicity was determined by the conventional Ames test and two complementary assays on two strains of Salmonella (TA 100 and TA 98), while the estrogenic activity was assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc). A third of the food varieties investigated (chin-chin, hamburger, suya and bean cake) were mutagenic in all three assays, either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Of the packed water samples, five out of the sixteen investigated (31%), were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol and bisphenol A equivalents ranging from 0.79 to 44.0 ng/L and 124.2 to 1,000.8 ng/L, respectively. Hence, although the current situation in Nigeria does not appear to be substantially worse than, e.g., in Europe, regular monitoring is warranted in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle In Vitro Interactions between 17β-Estradiol and DNA Result in Formation of the Hormone-DNA Complexes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(8), 7725-7739; doi:10.3390/ijerph110807725
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 22 July 2014 / Accepted: 24 July 2014 / Published: 31 July 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (628 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Beyond the role of 17β-estradiol (E2) in reproduction and during the menstrual cycle, it has been shown to modulate numerous physiological processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation and ion transport in many tissues. The pathways in which estrogens affect [...] Read more.
Beyond the role of 17β-estradiol (E2) in reproduction and during the menstrual cycle, it has been shown to modulate numerous physiological processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation and ion transport in many tissues. The pathways in which estrogens affect an organism have been partially described, although many questions still exist regarding estrogens’ interaction with biomacromolecules. Hence, the present study showed the interaction of four oligonucleotides (17, 20, 24 and/or 38-mer) with E2. The strength of these interactions was evaluated using optical methods, showing that the interaction is influenced by three major factors, namely: oligonucleotide length, E2 concentration and interaction time. In addition, the denaturation phenomenon of DNA revealed that the binding of E2 leads to destabilization of hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous bases of DNA strands resulting in a decrease of their melting temperatures (Tm). To obtain a more detailed insight into these interactions, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was employed. This study revealed that E2 with DNA forms non-covalent physical complexes, observed as the mass shifts for app. 270 Da (Mr of E2) to higher molecular masses. Taken together, our results indicate that E2 can affect biomacromolecules, as circulating oligonucleotides, which can trigger mutations, leading to various unwanted effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle First Year Growth in Relation to Prenatal Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors — A Dutch Prospective Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(7), 7001-7021; doi:10.3390/ijerph110707001
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 2 July 2014 / Published: 10 July 2014
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (2018 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Growth in the first year of life may already be predictive of obesity later in childhood. The objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and child growth during the first year. Dichloro-diphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl)phthalate [...] Read more.
Growth in the first year of life may already be predictive of obesity later in childhood. The objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and child growth during the first year. Dichloro-diphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl)phthalate (MECPP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl)phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate (MEOHP), polychlorinated biphenyl-153, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, and perfluoro-octanoic acid were measured in cord plasma or breast milk. Data on weight, length, and head circumference (HC) until 11 months after birth was obtained from 89 mother-child pairs. Mixed models were composed for each health outcome and exposure in quartiles. For MEOHP, boys in quartile 1 had a higher BMI than higher exposed boys (p = 0.029). High DDE exposure was associated with low BMI over time in boys (0.8 kg/m2 difference at 11 m). Boys with high MECPP exposure had a greater HC (1.0 cm difference at 11 m) than other boys (p = 0.047), as did girls in the second quartile of MEHHP (p = 0.018) and DDE (p < 0.001) exposure. In conclusion, exposure to phthalates and DDE was associated with BMI as well as with HC during the first year after birth. These results should be interpreted with caution though, due to the limited sample size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Association between Urine Phthalate Levels and Poor Attentional Performance in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with Evidence of Dopamine Gene-Phthalate Interaction
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(7), 6743-6756; doi:10.3390/ijerph110706743
Received: 17 April 2014 / Revised: 17 June 2014 / Accepted: 18 June 2014 / Published: 27 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although there is some evidence supporting the existence of an association between prenatal maternal or postnatal child’s urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and poor attentional performances, the interaction between urine phthalate metabolite levels and genetic variation for neuropsychological deficit of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [...] Read more.
Although there is some evidence supporting the existence of an association between prenatal maternal or postnatal child’s urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and poor attentional performances, the interaction between urine phthalate metabolite levels and genetic variation for neuropsychological deficit of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been examined. The aim of this study was to determine whether phthalate metabolites in urine are associated with poor neuropsychological performance in children with ADHD, and whether such association is affected by genotype-phthalate interaction. A cross-sectional examination of urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and the continuous performance test (CPT) were performed in 179 Korean children with ADHD recruited from department of psychiatry of university hospital. Correlations between urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and the CPT scores were investigated, and the interaction of phthalate metabolite levels with the selected polymorphisms at major candidate genes for ADHD, namely dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), dopamine transporter, α-2A-adrenergic receptor, and norepinephrine transporter genes. For the subjects with the DRD4 4/4 genotype, there were significant associations of the urine phthalate metabolite concentrations with the number of omission errors, the number of commission errors, and the response time variability scores on the CPT. However, for the subjects without the DRD4 4/4 genotype, no significant associations were found. The results of this study suggest a possible association between phthalate metabolite concentrations and poor attentional performances of ADHD as well as a genetic influence on this association. Further prospective and epigenetic studies are needed to investigate causality and pathophysiological mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Higher Urinary Heavy Metal, Phthalate, and Arsenic but Not Parabens Concentrations in People with High Blood Pressure, U.S. NHANES, 2011–2012
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(6), 5989-5999; doi:10.3390/ijerph110605989
Received: 6 March 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 29 May 2014 / Published: 5 June 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Link between environmental chemicals and human health has emerged but not been completely examined in risk factors. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of different sets of urinary environmental chemical concentrations and risk of high blood pressure (BP) in a [...] Read more.
Link between environmental chemicals and human health has emerged but not been completely examined in risk factors. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of different sets of urinary environmental chemical concentrations and risk of high blood pressure (BP) in a national, population-based study. Data were retrieved from United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011–2012 including demographics, BP readings, and urinary environmental chemical concentrations. Analyses included chi-square test, t-test and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling. After full adjustment (adjusting for urinary creatinine, age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index), urinary cesium (OR 1.56, 95%CI 1.11–2.20, P = 0.014), molybden (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.06–2.01, P = 0.023), manganese (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.09–1.86, P = 0.012), lead (OR 1.58, 95%CI 1.28–1.96, P < 0.001), tin (OR 1.44, 95%CI 1.25–1.66, P < 0.001), antimony (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.10–1.77, P = 0.010), and tungsten (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.25–1.77, P < 0.001) concentrations were observed to be associated with high BP. People with higher urinary mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.00–1.62, P = 0.006), mono-n-butyl phthalate (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.13–1.62, P = 0.002), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.05–1.49, P = 0.014), mono-n-methyl phthalate (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.07–1.48, P = 0.007), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.07–1.48, P = 0.009), and monobenzyl phthalate (OR 1.40, 95%CI 1.15–1.69, P = 0.002) tended to have high BP as well. However, there are no clear associations between environmental parabens and high BP, nor between pesticides and high BP. In addition, trimethylarsine oxide (OR 2.47, 95%CI 1.27–4.81, P = 0.011) and dimethylarsonic acid concentrations (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.12–1.79, P = 0.006) were seen to be associated with high BP. In sum, urinary heavy metal, phthalate, and arsenic concentrations were associated with high BP, although the causal effect cannot be established from the current study design. Elimination of environmental chemicals in humans would still need to be continued. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Human Health)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Versatility or Promiscuity: The Estrogen Receptors, Control of Ligand Selectivity and an Update on Subtype Selective Ligands
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(9), 8709-8742; doi:10.3390/ijerph110908709
Received: 18 June 2014 / Revised: 13 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 26 August 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (988 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of versatile receptors. They regulate an enormity of processes starting in early life and continuing through sexual reproduction, development, and end of life. This review provides a background and structural perspective for the ERs as [...] Read more.
The estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of versatile receptors. They regulate an enormity of processes starting in early life and continuing through sexual reproduction, development, and end of life. This review provides a background and structural perspective for the ERs as part of the nuclear receptor superfamily and discusses the ER versatility and promiscuity. The wide repertoire of ER actions is mediated mostly through ligand-activated transcription factors and many DNA response elements in most tissues and organs. Their versatility, however, comes with the drawback of promiscuous interactions with structurally diverse exogenous chemicals with potential for a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Even when interacting with endogenous hormones, ER actions can have adverse effects in disease progression. Finally, how nature controls ER specificity and how the subtle differences in receptor subtypes are exploited in pharmaceutical design to achieve binding specificity and subtype selectivity for desired biological response are discussed. The intent of this review is to complement the large body of literature with emphasis on most recent developments in selective ER ligands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Impact of Bisphenol A on the Cardiovascular System — Epidemiological and Experimental Evidence and Molecular Mechanisms
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(8), 8399-8413; doi:10.3390/ijerph110808399
Received: 6 June 2014 / Revised: 28 July 2014 / Accepted: 7 August 2014 / Published: 15 August 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous plasticizing agent used in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. There is well-documented and broad human exposure to BPA. The potential risk that BPA poses to the human health has attracted much attention from [...] Read more.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous plasticizing agent used in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. There is well-documented and broad human exposure to BPA. The potential risk that BPA poses to the human health has attracted much attention from regulatory agencies and the general public, and has been extensively studied. An emerging and rapidly growing area in the study of BPA’s toxicity is its impact on the cardiovascular (CV) system. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that higher urinary BPA concentration in humans is associated with various types of CV diseases, including angina, hypertension, heart attack and coronary and peripheral arterial disease. Experimental studies have demonstrated that acute BPA exposure promotes the development of arrhythmias in female rodent hearts. Chronic exposure to BPA has been shown to result in cardiac remodeling, atherosclerosis, and altered blood pressure in rodents. The underlying mechanisms may involve alteration of cardiac Ca2+ handling, ion channel inhibition/activation, oxidative stress, and genome/transcriptome modifications. In this review, we discuss these recent findings that point to the potential CV toxicity of BPA, and highlight the knowledge gaps in this growing research area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Human Health)
Figures

Open AccessReview Bisphenol-A: Epigenetic Reprogramming and Effects on Reproduction and Behavior
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(7), 7537-7561; doi:10.3390/ijerph110707537
Received: 11 June 2014 / Revised: 10 July 2014 / Accepted: 14 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic compound used in the production of many polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. It is one of the most widely produced chemicals in the world today and is found in most canned goods, plastics, and even household [...] Read more.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic compound used in the production of many polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. It is one of the most widely produced chemicals in the world today and is found in most canned goods, plastics, and even household dust. Exposure to BPA is almost universal: most people have measurable amounts of BPA in both urine and serum. BPA is similar in structure to estradiol and can bind to multiple targets both inside and outside the nucleus, in effect acting as an endocrine disruptor. Research on BPA exposure has accelerated in the past decade with findings suggesting that perinatal exposure to BPA can negatively impact both male and female reproduction, create alterations in behavior, and act as a carcinogen. BPA can have both short term and long term effects with the latter typically occurring through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. This review will draw on both human and animal studies in an attempt to synthesize the literature and examine the effects of BPA exposure on reproduction, behavior, and carcinogenesis with a focus on the potential epigenetic mechanisms by which it acts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Non-Genomic Effects of Xenoestrogen Mixtures
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2694-2714; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082694
Received: 6 June 2012 / Revised: 9 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 31 July 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Xenoestrogens (XEs) are chemicals derived from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources that can interfere with endogenous estrogens by either mimicking or blocking their responses via non-genomic and/or genomic signaling mechanisms. Disruption of estrogens’ actions through the less-studied non-genomic pathway can [...] Read more.
Xenoestrogens (XEs) are chemicals derived from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources that can interfere with endogenous estrogens by either mimicking or blocking their responses via non-genomic and/or genomic signaling mechanisms. Disruption of estrogens’ actions through the less-studied non-genomic pathway can alter such functional end points as cell proliferation, peptide hormone release, catecholamine transport, and apoptosis, among others. Studies of potentially adverse effects due to mixtures and to low doses of endocrine-disrupting chemicals have recently become more feasible, though few so far have included actions via the non-genomic pathway. Physiologic estrogens and XEs evoke non-monotonic dose responses, with different compounds having different patterns of actions dependent on concentration and time, making mixture assessments all the more challenging. In order to understand the spectrum of toxicities and their mechanisms, future work should focus on carefully studying individual and mixture components across a range of concentrations and cellular pathways in a variety of tissue types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Biomarker Genes for Detecting Estrogenic Activity of Endocrine Disruptors via Estrogen Receptors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(3), 698-711; doi:10.3390/ijerph9030698
Received: 26 December 2011 / Revised: 2 February 2012 / Accepted: 20 February 2012 / Published: 24 February 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds used in various industrial products, drugs, and cosmetics. They can be found in the environment and disturb the endocrine and reproductive systems, resulting in adverse effects to humans and wildlife such as birth defects and developmental disorders. [...] Read more.
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds used in various industrial products, drugs, and cosmetics. They can be found in the environment and disturb the endocrine and reproductive systems, resulting in adverse effects to humans and wildlife such as birth defects and developmental disorders. Since several EDs have a structure similar to that of endogenous steroid hormones such as estrogens, they intend to have an affinity for steroid hormone receptors and alter hormone-mediated metabolism by binding to these receptors. EDs are therefore a global concern and assays should be developed to efficiently determine whether these compounds are detrimental to biological systems. Diverse experimental methods may help determine the endocrine disrupting potential of EDs and evaluate the adverse effects of a single and/or combination of these reagents. Currently, biomarkers have been employed to objectively measure EDs potency and understand the underlying mechanisms. Further studies are required to develop ideal screening methods and biomarkers to determine EDs potency at environmentally relevant concentrations. In this review, we describe the biomarkers for estrogenicity of EDs identified both in vitro and in vivo, and introduce a biomarker, cabindin-D9k (CaBP-9k), that may be used to assess estrogenic activity of EDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Human Health)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCommentary Recent Evidence Regarding Triclosan and Cancer Risk
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(2), 2209-2217; doi:10.3390/ijerph110202209
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 12 February 2014 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial commonly used in cosmetics, dentifrices, and other consumer products. The compound’s widespread use in consumer products and its detection in breast milk, urine, and serum have raised concerns regarding its potential association with various human health outcomes. [...] Read more.
Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial commonly used in cosmetics, dentifrices, and other consumer products. The compound’s widespread use in consumer products and its detection in breast milk, urine, and serum have raised concerns regarding its potential association with various human health outcomes.  Recent evidence suggests that triclosan may play a role in cancer development, perhaps through its estrogenicity or ability to inhibit fatty acid synthesis. Our aims here are to review studies of human exposure levels, to evaluate the results of studies examining the effects of triclosan on cancer development, and to suggest possible directions for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Human Health)

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