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Special Issue "Leukemia Arising from Chemical Exposures and Chemotherapeutic Drugs"

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A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Luoping Zhang

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1 510 642 0427
Interests: the impact and mechanisms of exposures to toxic chemicals on human health, particularly in carcinogenesis and leukemogenesis; application of omic technologies in molecular epidemiological studies; and the development of new tools and assays to explore relevant biomakers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The etiology of the blood cancer leukemia is still largely unknown; however, exposures to toxic chemicals and cancer-therapeutic drugs can cause leukemia in adults and children. Benzene is a well established leukemogen and occupational exposure to formaldehyde has recently been shown to increase leukemia risk. Additionally, a portion of primary cancer patients develop acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs, such as alkylating agents (melphalan etc) and DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II) inhibitors (etoposide etc.). Evidence suggests that the leukemia associated with exposure to different types of leukemogen exhibits specific molecular changes. For instance, therapy-related AML resulting from treatment with alkylating agents is mainly associated with loss of chromosomes 5 and 7, while Topo II inhibitor-induced AML is commonly associated with chromosomal translocations. Although chromosomal aneuploidy and rearrangements are hallmarks of leukemia, it is not well understood how these chemicals interact with normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and disrupt bone marrow niches. This special issue will focus on molecular (genetic and epigenetic) mechanisms of chemically-induced leukmogenesis in exposed humans, experimental animal models and in vitro systems. We will accept original research reports, short communications/commentaries, and limited review papers deemed relevant.

Dr. Luoping Zhang
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • Leukemogenesis
  • Leukemogen
  • Benzene
  • Formaldehyde
  • Therapy-related leukemia
  • Alkylating agents
  • DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors
  • Mechanisms

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Over-Expression of CYP2E1 mRNA and Protein: Implications of Xenobiotic Induced Damage in Patients with De Novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia with inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFβ-MYH11
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2788-2800; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082788
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 25 July 2012 / Accepted: 31 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Environmental exposure to benzene occurs through cigarette smoke, unleaded gasoline and certain types of plastic. Benzene is converted to hematotoxic metabolites by the hepatic phase-I enzyme CYP2E1, and these metabolites are detoxified by the phase-II enzyme NQO1. The genes encoding these enzymes are
[...] Read more.
Environmental exposure to benzene occurs through cigarette smoke, unleaded gasoline and certain types of plastic. Benzene is converted to hematotoxic metabolites by the hepatic phase-I enzyme CYP2E1, and these metabolites are detoxified by the phase-II enzyme NQO1. The genes encoding these enzymes are highly polymorphic and studies of these polymorphisms have shown different pathogenic and prognostic features in various hematological malignancies. The potential role of different cytochrome p450 metabolizing enzymes in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in an area of active interest. In this study, we demonstrate aberrant CYP2E1 mRNA over-expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 11 cases of de novo AML with inv(16); CBFβ-MYH11. CYP2E1 mRNA levels correlated with CBFβ-MYH11 transcript levels and with bone marrow blast counts in all cases. CYP2E1 over-expression correlated positively with NQO1 mRNA levels (R2 = 0.934, n = 7). By immunohistochemistry, CYP2E1 protein was more frequently expressed in AML with inv(16) compared with other types of AML (p < 0.001). We obtained serial bone marrow samples from two patients with AML with inv(16) before and after treatment. CYP2E1 mRNA expression levels decreased in parallel with CBFβ-MYH11 transcript levels and blast counts following chemotherapy. In contrast, CYP1A2 transcript levels did not change in either patient. This is the first study to demonstrate concurrent over-expression of CYP2E1 and NQO1 mRNA in AML with inv(16). These findings also suggest that a balance between CYP2E1 and NQO1 may be important in the pathogenesis of AML with inv(16). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leukemia Arising from Chemical Exposures and Chemotherapeutic Drugs)
Open AccessArticle Using Bioinformatic Approaches to Identify Pathways Targeted by Human Leukemogens
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(7), 2479-2503; doi:10.3390/ijerph9072479
Received: 18 May 2012 / Revised: 25 June 2012 / Accepted: 26 June 2012 / Published: 12 July 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We have applied bioinformatic approaches to identify pathways common to chemical leukemogens and to determine whether leukemogens could be distinguished from non-leukemogenic carcinogens. From all known and probable carcinogens classified by IARC and NTP, we identified 35 carcinogens that were associated with leukemia
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We have applied bioinformatic approaches to identify pathways common to chemical leukemogens and to determine whether leukemogens could be distinguished from non-leukemogenic carcinogens. From all known and probable carcinogens classified by IARC and NTP, we identified 35 carcinogens that were associated with leukemia risk in human studies and 16 non-leukemogenic carcinogens. Using data on gene/protein targets available in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) for 29 of the leukemogens and 11 of the non-leukemogenic carcinogens, we analyzed for enrichment of all 250 human biochemical pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. The top pathways targeted by the leukemogens included metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, glutathione metabolism, neurotrophin signaling pathway, apoptosis, MAPK signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling and various cancer pathways. The 29 leukemogens formed 18 distinct clusters comprising 1 to 3 chemicals that did not correlate with known mechanism of action or with structural similarity as determined by 2D Tanimoto coefficients in the PubChem database. Unsupervised clustering and one-class support vector machines, based on the pathway data, were unable to distinguish the 29 leukemogens from 11 non-leukemogenic known and probable IARC carcinogens. However, using two-class random forests to estimate leukemogen and non-leukemogen patterns, we estimated a 76% chance of distinguishing a random leukemogen/non-leukemogen pair from each other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leukemia Arising from Chemical Exposures and Chemotherapeutic Drugs)
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Open AccessArticle The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway: A Key Component of the microRNA-Mediated AML Signalisome
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(5), 1939-1953; doi:10.3390/ijerph9051939
Received: 21 March 2012 / Revised: 27 April 2012 / Accepted: 8 May 2012 / Published: 18 May 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Recent research has spotlighted the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as critical epigenetic regulators of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and leukemia development. Despite the recent advances in knowledge surrounding epigenetics and leukemia, the mechanisms underlying miRNAs’ influence on leukemia development have yet to be
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Recent research has spotlighted the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as critical epigenetic regulators of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and leukemia development. Despite the recent advances in knowledge surrounding epigenetics and leukemia, the mechanisms underlying miRNAs’ influence on leukemia development have yet to be clearly elucidated. Our aim was to identify high ranking biological pathways altered at the gene expression level and under epigenetic control. Specifically, we set out to test the hypothesis that miRNAs dysregulated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) converge on a common pathway that can influence signaling related to hematopoiesis and leukemia development. We identified genes altered in AML patients that are under common regulation of seven key miRNAs. By mapping these genes to a global interaction network, we identified the “AML Signalisome”. The AML Signalisome comprises 53 AML-associated molecules, and is enriched for proteins that play a role in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway, a major regulator of hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we show biological enrichment for hematopoiesis-related proteins within the AML Signalisome. These findings provide important insight into miRNA-regulated pathways in leukemia, and may help to prioritize targets for disease prevention and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leukemia Arising from Chemical Exposures and Chemotherapeutic Drugs)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Leukemia and Benzene
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2875-2893; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082875
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 5 July 2012 / Accepted: 7 August 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Excessive exposure to benzene has been known for more than a century to damage the bone marrow resulting in decreases in the numbers of circulating blood cells, and ultimately, aplastic anemia. Of more recent vintage has been the appreciation that an alternative outcome
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Excessive exposure to benzene has been known for more than a century to damage the bone marrow resulting in decreases in the numbers of circulating blood cells, and ultimately, aplastic anemia. Of more recent vintage has been the appreciation that an alternative outcome of benzene exposure has been the development of one or more types of leukemia. While many investigators agree that the array of toxic metabolites, generated in the liver or in the bone marrow, can lead to traumatic bone marrow injury, the more subtle mechanisms leading to leukemia have yet to be critically dissected. This problem appears to have more general interest because of the recognition that so-called “second cancer” that results from prior treatment with alkylating agents to yield tumor remissions, often results in a type of leukemia reminiscent of benzene-induced leukemia. Furthermore, there is a growing literature attempting to characterize the fine structure of the marrow and the identification of so called “niches” that house a variety of stem cells and other types of cells. Some of these “niches” may harbor cells capable of initiating leukemias. The control of stem cell differentiation and proliferation via both inter- and intra-cellular signaling will ultimately determine the fate of these transformed stem cells. The ability of these cells to avoid checkpoints that would prevent them from contributing to the leukemogenic response is an additional area for study. Much of the study of benzene-induced bone marrow damage has concentrated on determining which of the benzene metabolites lead to leukemogenesis. The emphasis now should be directed to understanding how benzene metabolites alter bone marrow cell biology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leukemia Arising from Chemical Exposures and Chemotherapeutic Drugs)
Open AccessReview DNA Damage and Repair in Human Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms and Contribution to Therapy-Related Leukemias
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2636-2657; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082636
Received: 23 May 2012 / Revised: 12 June 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most antitumour therapies damage tumour cell DNA either directly or indirectly. Without repair, damage can result in genetic instability and eventually cancer. The strong association between the lack of DNA damage repair, mutations and cancer is dramatically demonstrated by a number of cancer-prone
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Most antitumour therapies damage tumour cell DNA either directly or indirectly. Without repair, damage can result in genetic instability and eventually cancer. The strong association between the lack of DNA damage repair, mutations and cancer is dramatically demonstrated by a number of cancer-prone human syndromes, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia and Fanconi anemia. Notably, DNA damage responses, and particularly DNA repair, influence the outcome of therapy. Because DNA repair normally excises lethal DNA lesions, it is intuitive that efficient repair will contribute to intrinsic drug resistance. Unexpectedly, a paradoxical relationship between DNA mismatch repair and drug sensitivity has been revealed by model studies in cell lines. This suggests that connections between DNA repair mechanism efficiency and tumour therapy might be more complex. Here, we review the evidence for the contribution of carcinogenic properties of several drugs as well as of alterations in specific mechanisms involved in drug-induced DNA damage response and repair in the pathogenesis of therapy-related cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leukemia Arising from Chemical Exposures and Chemotherapeutic Drugs)
Open AccessReview Secondary Leukemia Associated with the Anti-Cancer Agent, Etoposide, a Topoisomerase II Inhibitor
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(7), 2444-2453; doi:10.3390/ijerph9072444
Received: 16 May 2012 / Revised: 27 June 2012 / Accepted: 28 June 2012 / Published: 10 July 2012
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (112 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Etoposide is an anticancer agent, which is successfully and extensively used in treatments for various types of cancers in children and adults. However, due to the increases in survival and overall cure rate of cancer patients, interest has arisen on the potential risk
[...] Read more.
Etoposide is an anticancer agent, which is successfully and extensively used in treatments for various types of cancers in children and adults. However, due to the increases in survival and overall cure rate of cancer patients, interest has arisen on the potential risk of this agent for therapy-related secondary leukemia. Topoisomerase II inhibitors, including etoposide and teniposide, frequently cause rearrangements involving the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene on chromosome 11q23, which is associated with secondary leukemia. The prognosis is extremely poor for leukemias associated with rearrangements in the MLL gene, including etoposide-related secondary leukemias. It is of great importance to gain precise knowledge of the clinical aspects of these diseases and the mechanism underlying the leukemogenesis induced by this agent to ensure correct assessments of current and future therapy strategies. Here, I will review current knowledge regarding the clinical aspects of etoposide-related secondary leukemia, some probable mechanisms, and strategies for treating etoposide-induced leukemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leukemia Arising from Chemical Exposures and Chemotherapeutic Drugs)
Open AccessReview Mechanism of Generation of Therapy Related Leukemia in Response to Anti-Topoisomerase II Agents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2075-2091; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062075
Received: 2 May 2012 / Revised: 23 May 2012 / Accepted: 29 May 2012 / Published: 31 May 2012
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Type II DNA topoisomerases have the ability to generate a transient DNA double-strand break through which a second duplex can be passed; an activity essential for DNA decatenation and unknotting. Topoisomerase poisons stabilize the normally transient topoisomerase-induced DSBs and are potent and widely
[...] Read more.
Type II DNA topoisomerases have the ability to generate a transient DNA double-strand break through which a second duplex can be passed; an activity essential for DNA decatenation and unknotting. Topoisomerase poisons stabilize the normally transient topoisomerase-induced DSBs and are potent and widely used anticancer drugs. However, their use is associated with therapy-related secondary leukemia, often bearing 11q23 translocations involving the MLL gene. We will explain recent discoveries in the fields of topoisomerase biology and transcription that have consequences for our understanding of the etiology of leukemia, especially therapy-related secondary leukemia and describe how these findings may help minimize the occurrence of these neoplasias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leukemia Arising from Chemical Exposures and Chemotherapeutic Drugs)
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