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Special Issue "Supercritical Carbon Dioxide"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2010)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Tomoko Matsuda

Tokyo Institute of Technology, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Department of Bioengineering, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-850, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +81-45-924-5757
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Matthew Z. Yates

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 5852732335

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Supercritical carbon dioxide has been recognized as a green solvent with high functionality as it possesses both gas-like low viscosities, high diffusivities, and liquid-like solubilizing power together with a tunability of these properties. The advantages of nonflammability, low toxicity and high availability have also promoted the development in applications using supercritical carbon dioxide. Importantly, these successes are owing to achievements of basic researches. Therefore, this special issue will present novel, unique and innovative application research as well as basic research with high quality concerning supercritical carbon dioxide to create new fields in its application. I also hope that this issue will contribute to build a sustainable society.

Tomoko Matsuda
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • supercritical carbon dioxide
  • green chemistry
  • green solvent, reaction
  • catalyst, biocatalyst
  • extraction
  • chromatography

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Mutual Solubility Study in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Tocopherols from Crude Palm Oil Using CO2 Solvent
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 3649-3659; doi:10.3390/ijms11103649
Received: 13 July 2010 / Revised: 24 August 2010 / Accepted: 7 September 2010 / Published: 28 September 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this article, the mutual solubility of tocopherols from crude palm oil was studied using carbon dioxide as a solvent at the temperatures of 80, 100 and 120 ºC. Each sample from the phase equilibrium unit contained two parts. The liquid part was
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In this article, the mutual solubility of tocopherols from crude palm oil was studied using carbon dioxide as a solvent at the temperatures of 80, 100 and 120 ºC. Each sample from the phase equilibrium unit contained two parts. The liquid part was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) in order to measure the tocopherol composition and, on the other hand, the vapor phase was conducted in an expansion vessel in order to measure the pressure increment during the expansion process. Two phase equilibrium data was calculated using the liquid phase composition and pressure increments during the expansion process. Results showed that the maximum solubility of tocopherols was around 2.27% at a temperature of 120 ºC and at pressure of 5.44 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supercritical Carbon Dioxide)
Open AccessArticle β-Sitosterol: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction from Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Seeds
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(4), 1842-1850; doi:10.3390/ijms11041842
Received: 3 February 2010 / Accepted: 20 April 2010 / Published: 22 April 2010
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (168 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Supercritical fluid extraction represents an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for isolation of phytosterols from different plant sources. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 15–60 MPa and temperatures of 40-80 °C. Oil
[...] Read more.
Supercritical fluid extraction represents an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for isolation of phytosterols from different plant sources. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 15–60 MPa and temperatures of 40-80 °C. Oil and β-sitosterol yields were measured in the extraction course and compared with Soxhlet extraction with hexane. The average yield of β-sitosterol was 0.31 mg/g of seeds. The maximum concentration of β-sitosterol in the extract, 0.5% w/w, was achieved at 15 MPa, 40 °C, and a carbon dioxide consumption of 50 g/g of seeds. The extraction rate was maximal at 60 MPa and 40 °C. Both β-sitosterol yield and its concentration in the extract obtained with hexane were lower than with carbon dioxide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supercritical Carbon Dioxide)
Open AccessCommunication Development of a Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Heterogeneous Catalysis in Supercritical CO2
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(1), 164-172; doi:10.3390/ijms11010164
Received: 16 December 2009 / Revised: 5 January 2010 / Accepted: 6 January 2010 / Published: 13 January 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (947 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel type of high-pressure membrane reactor has been developed for hydrogenation in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). The main objectives of the design of the reactor are the separate feeding of hydrogen and substrate in scCO2 for safe reactions in
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A novel type of high-pressure membrane reactor has been developed for hydrogenation in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). The main objectives of the design of the reactor are the separate feeding of hydrogen and substrate in scCO2 for safe reactions in a continuous flow process, and to reduce the reaction time. By using this new reactor, hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde into hydrocinnamaldehyde has been successfully carried out with 100% selectivity at 50 °C in 10 MPa (H2: 1 MPa, CO2: 9 MPa) with a flow rate of substrate ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 mL/min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supercritical Carbon Dioxide)
Figures

Open AccessArticle A Study of the Crystallization, Melting, and Foaming Behaviors of Polylactic Acid in Compressed CO2
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(12), 5381-5397; doi:10.3390/ijms10125381
Received: 27 October 2009 / Revised: 26 November 2009 / Accepted: 14 December 2009 / Published: 16 December 2009
Cited by 71 | PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The crystallization and melting behaviors of linear polylactic acid (PLA) treated by compressed CO2 was investigated. The isothermal crystallization test indicated that while PLA exhibited very low crystallization kinetics under atmospheric pressure, CO2 exposure significantly increased PLA’s crystallization rate; a high
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The crystallization and melting behaviors of linear polylactic acid (PLA) treated by compressed CO2 was investigated. The isothermal crystallization test indicated that while PLA exhibited very low crystallization kinetics under atmospheric pressure, CO2 exposure significantly increased PLA’s crystallization rate; a high crystallinity of 16.5% was achieved after CO2 treatment for only 1 min at 100 °C and 6.89 MPa. One melting peak could be found in the DSC curve, and this exhibited a slight dependency on treatment times, temperatures, and pressures. PLA samples tended to foam during the gas release process, and a foaming window as a function of time and temperature was established. Based on the foaming window, crystallinity, and cell morphology, it was found that foaming clearly reduced the needed time for PLA’s crystallization equilibrium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supercritical Carbon Dioxide)
Open AccessArticle Microwave Effect for Glycosylation Promoted by Solid Super Acid in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(12), 5285-5295; doi:10.3390/ijms10125285
Received: 27 October 2009 / Revised: 9 November 2009 / Accepted: 5 December 2009 / Published: 8 December 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of microwave irradiation (2.45 GHz, 200 W) on glycosylation promoted by a solid super acid in supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated with particular attention paid to the structure of the acceptor substrate. Because of the symmetrical structure and high diffusive property
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The effects of microwave irradiation (2.45 GHz, 200 W) on glycosylation promoted by a solid super acid in supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated with particular attention paid to the structure of the acceptor substrate. Because of the symmetrical structure and high diffusive property of supercritical carbon dioxide, microwave irradiation did not alter the temperature of the reaction solution, but enhanced reaction yield when aliphatic acceptors are employed. Interestingly, the use of a phenolic acceptor under the same reaction conditions did not show these promoting effects due to microwave irradiation. In the case of aliphatic diol acceptors, the yield seemed to be dependent on the symmetrical properties of the acceptors. The results suggest that microwave irradiation do not affect the reactivity of the donor nor promoter independently. We conclude that the effect of acceptor structure on glycosylation yield is due to electric delocalization of hydroxyl group and dielectrically symmetric structure of whole molecule. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supercritical Carbon Dioxide)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Enzymatic Reactions in Near Critical CO2: The Effect of Pressure on Phenol Removal by Tyrosinase
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(12), 5217-5223; doi:10.3390/ijms10125217
Received: 14 August 2009 / Revised: 9 November 2009 / Accepted: 16 November 2009 / Published: 1 December 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (182 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of enzymes in supercritical CO2 (SCCO2) has received extensive attention in recent years. Biocatalysts have the advantage of substrate specificity and SCCO2 offers several advantages over liquid solvents. This work deals with the utilization of SCCO2
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The use of enzymes in supercritical CO2 (SCCO2) has received extensive attention in recent years. Biocatalysts have the advantage of substrate specificity and SCCO2 offers several advantages over liquid solvents. This work deals with the utilization of SCCO2 as a medium for the enzymatic removal of phenol from aqueous solutions using tyrosinase. Since the presence of oxygen is crucial for the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation, the substantial solvating power of SCCO2 makes it a promising medium for such reactions. The conversion of phenol was higher at 10 MPa. Under near critical conditions (7 MPa, 35 ºC), the addition of air at 5 × 105 Pa of pressure improved phenol removal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supercritical Carbon Dioxide)

Review

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Open AccessReview A Review on the Effects of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide on Enzyme Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(1), 233-253; doi:10.3390/ijms11010233
Received: 23 November 2009 / Revised: 7 January 2010 / Accepted: 9 January 2010 / Published: 19 January 2010
Cited by 49 | PDF Full-text (198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Different types of enzymes such as lipases, several phosphatases, dehydrogenases, oxidases, amylases and others are well suited for the reactions in SC-CO2. The stability and the activity of enzymes exposed to carbon dioxide under high pressure depend on enzyme species, water
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Different types of enzymes such as lipases, several phosphatases, dehydrogenases, oxidases, amylases and others are well suited for the reactions in SC-CO2. The stability and the activity of enzymes exposed to carbon dioxide under high pressure depend on enzyme species, water content in the solution and on the pressure and temperature of the reaction system. The three-dimensional structure of enzymes may be significantly altered under extreme conditions, causing their denaturation and consequent loss of activity. If the conditions are less adverse, the protein structure may be largely retained. Minor structural changes may induce an alternative active protein state with altered enzyme activity, specificity and stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supercritical Carbon Dioxide)

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