Special Issue "Updates in Pediatric Sleep and Child Psychiatry"

A special issue of Medical Sciences (ISSN 2076-3271).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Ujjwal Ramtekkar

Director, Specialty Clinic and Telehealth outreach, Compass Health Network, St. Louis, MO, USA
Adj Assistant Professor, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO, USA
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Guest Editor
Dr. Anna Ivanenko

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Ann and Robert Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sleep-related symptoms are common in several psychiatric diagnostic categories. The overlap of sleep and psychiatric disorder has been demonstrated in several studies. The understanding of sleep and psychiatry has progressively evolved in the last decade and newer insights are developed regarding the complex interaction between sleep and psychopathology. In addition to the revision in diagnostic categories and criteria in the DSM-5, there have also been advances in psychopharmacology, comorbidities including substance use, psychiatric issues in medical disorders and medical sequelae of psychiatric treatments. The concurrent impact of these changes and advances on sleep symptoms is important to understand for effective outcomes.

This Special Issue will address such under-represented topics in sleep medicine and child psychiatry. Short and focused reviews will be considered for publication. Examples could include manuscripts that discuss the effect of newer psychiatric medications on sleep, post-concussive syndrome and effects of sleep, cannabis use and sleep in youth, etc.

We hope that this Special Issue will provide an update on advances and challenges in the field of pediatric sleep medicine and child psychiatry with the goal of generating thought-provoking directions for further investigation, and provide quick references on the latest trends in sleep and psychiatry for busy pediatric and psychiatric practitioners.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Ujjwal Ramtekkar
Dr. Anna Ivanenko
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Medical Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sleep complaints and sleep habits in children with Obesity

  • Chronic pain and sleep in children and adolescents

  • New Medications for ADHD and sleep

  • Cannabis and Sleep in adolescents

  • Sleep and adolescent suicide

  • Sleep related eating disorders in children and adolescents.

  • Psychopharmacological treatments of sleep disturbances in Autism

  • Sleep disorders in pediatric patients with post-concussion syndrome

  • Psychiatric symptoms in early-onset narcolepsy

  • Parasomnias in children with psychiatric disorders. 

  • Pediatric behavioral sleep medicine in the era of telemedicine

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Sleep Problems: Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes and Practices in a Group of Community Child Psychiatrists
Med. Sci. 2018, 6(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6010018
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
As part of a university-based quality improvement project, we aimed to evaluate child psychiatrists’ knowledge, skills, attitudes, and practices regarding assessment and treatment of pediatric sleep problems. We developed a nine-question survey of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and practices regarding assessing for and treating
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As part of a university-based quality improvement project, we aimed to evaluate child psychiatrists’ knowledge, skills, attitudes, and practices regarding assessment and treatment of pediatric sleep problems. We developed a nine-question survey of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and practices regarding assessing for and treating sleep complaints in pediatric patients, and administered this survey to child psychiatrists in training and in practice in the state of Missouri. Respondents reported sleep hygiene as the first-line treatment strategy, followed by the use of supplements or over-the-counter remedies. The most common barriers to evidence-based assessment and treatment of sleep problems were the lack of ability to obtain reliable history, and parental preference for medications over behavioral approaches for sleep concerns. These results suggest potential opportunities for enhancing knowledge regarding validated assessment tools and non-pharmacological treatment options for sleep problems. Additional research is needed to further assess the quality and type of sleep education provided in child psychiatry training programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates in Pediatric Sleep and Child Psychiatry)
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Review

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Open AccessReview It Takes a Village: Multidisciplinary Approach to Screening and Prevention of Pediatric Sleep Issues
Med. Sci. 2018, 6(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6030077
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Sleep is essential to human development. Poor sleep can have significant effects on cognition, learning and memory, physical and behavioral health, and social-emotional well-being. This paper highlights the prevalence of common pediatric sleep problems and posits that a multidisciplinary approach to the assessment
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Sleep is essential to human development. Poor sleep can have significant effects on cognition, learning and memory, physical and behavioral health, and social-emotional well-being. This paper highlights the prevalence of common pediatric sleep problems and posits that a multidisciplinary approach to the assessment and intervention of sleep problems is ideal. Primary care providers are often the first professionals to discuss sleep issues with youth and families. However, dentists, otolaryngologists, childcare providers, school personnel, and behavioral health providers have a vital role in screening and prevention, providing intervention, and monitoring the progress of daily functioning. The strengths of this approach include better provider-to-provider and provider-to-family communication, streamlined assessment and intervention, earlier identification of sleep issues with more efficient referral, and longer-term monitoring of progress and impact on daily functioning. Barriers to this approach include difficulty initiating and maintaining collaboration among providers, limited provider time to obtain the necessary patient permission to collaborate among all multidisciplinary providers, lack of financial support for consultation and collaboration outside of seeing patients face-to-face, geographic location, and limited resources within communities. Research investigating the utility of this model and the overall impact on pediatric patient sleep issues is warranted and strongly encouraged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates in Pediatric Sleep and Child Psychiatry)
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Open AccessReview Relationship between Sleep and Psychosis in the Pediatric Population: A Brief Review
Med. Sci. 2018, 6(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6030076
Received: 19 August 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Sleep disorders are common in several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. In the pediatric population, the relationship between sleep and psychosis is not completely understood due to limited research studies investigating the link. Insomnia is noted to be a predictor of psychosis, especially in
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Sleep disorders are common in several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. In the pediatric population, the relationship between sleep and psychosis is not completely understood due to limited research studies investigating the link. Insomnia is noted to be a predictor of psychosis, especially in ultrahigh risk adolescents. Sleep difficulties are also associated with a two to three-fold increase in paranoid thinking. Biological factors, such as decrease in thalamic volume, have been observed in children with schizophrenia and ultrahigh risk adolescents with associated sleep impairment. Objective studies have indicated possible actigraphy base measures to be the predictor of psychosis after a one year follow-up. The studies using polysomnography have rare and inconsistent results. In this brief review, we provide an overview of existing literature. We also posit that future research will be beneficial in understanding the initiation, course and progression of sleep disturbance in the high risk pediatric population with the goal of implementing interventions to alter the development of psychosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates in Pediatric Sleep and Child Psychiatry)
Open AccessReview Insomnia in Adolescence
Med. Sci. 2018, 6(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6030072
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
Adolescent insomnia is a common condition that negatively impacts a developing young adult’s mental and physical health. While the treatment of adult insomnia has been standardized, the treatment of pediatric insomnia is very practitioner-dependent and few large-scale studies are available to determine a
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Adolescent insomnia is a common condition that negatively impacts a developing young adult’s mental and physical health. While the treatment of adult insomnia has been standardized, the treatment of pediatric insomnia is very practitioner-dependent and few large-scale studies are available to determine a standard recommended practice. There is great hope that as the adolescent medicine and sleep medicine fields flourish, larger cohort analyses will be performed to determine the prevalence and precipitating factors of adolescent insomnia, allowing for standardized treatment recommendations and systematic efforts to make these recommendations available to all adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates in Pediatric Sleep and Child Psychiatry)
Open AccessReview Sleep Disturbances in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Disorders: A Review of the Variability of Objective Sleep Markers
Med. Sci. 2018, 6(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6020046
Received: 25 March 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
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Abstract
Sleep disturbances are often observed in child and adolescent mental health disorders. Although previous research has identified consistent subjective reports of sleep disturbances, specific objective sleep markers have not yet been identified. We evaluated the current research on subjective and objective sleep markers
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Sleep disturbances are often observed in child and adolescent mental health disorders. Although previous research has identified consistent subjective reports of sleep disturbances, specific objective sleep markers have not yet been identified. We evaluated the current research on subjective and objective sleep markers in relation to attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, autism spectrum disorders, anxiety and depressive disorders. Subjective sleep markers are more consistent than objective markers of actigraphy, polysomnography, and circadian measures. We discuss the causes of variability in objective sleep findings and suggest future directions for research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates in Pediatric Sleep and Child Psychiatry)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview Narcolepsy and Psychiatric Disorders: Comorbidities or Shared Pathophysiology?
Med. Sci. 2018, 6(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6010016
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
Narcolepsy and psychiatric disorders have a significant but unrecognized relationship, which is an area of evolving interest, but unfortunately, the association is poorly understood. It is not uncommon for the two to occur co-morbidly. However, narcolepsy is frequently misdiagnosed initially as a psychiatric
[...] Read more.
Narcolepsy and psychiatric disorders have a significant but unrecognized relationship, which is an area of evolving interest, but unfortunately, the association is poorly understood. It is not uncommon for the two to occur co-morbidly. However, narcolepsy is frequently misdiagnosed initially as a psychiatric condition, contributing to the protracted time to accurate diagnosis and treatment. Narcolepsy is a disabling neurodegenerative condition that carries a high risk for development of social and occupational dysfunction. Deterioration in function may lead to the secondary development of psychiatric symptoms. Inversely, the development of psychiatric symptoms can lead to the deterioration in function and quality of life. The overlap in pharmaceutical intervention may further enhance the difficulty to distinguish between diagnoses. Comprehensive care for patients with narcolepsy should include surveillance for psychiatric illness and appropriate treatment when necessary. Further research is necessary to better understand the underlying pathophysiology between psychiatric disease and narcolepsy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates in Pediatric Sleep and Child Psychiatry)
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Open AccessReview Traumatic Brain Injury, Sleep Disorders, and Psychiatric Disorders: An Underrecognized Relationship
Med. Sci. 2018, 6(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6010015
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 4 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is commonplace among pediatric patients and has a complex, but intimate relationship with psychiatric disease and disordered sleep. Understanding the factors that influence the risk for the development of TBI in pediatrics is a critical component of beginning to
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is commonplace among pediatric patients and has a complex, but intimate relationship with psychiatric disease and disordered sleep. Understanding the factors that influence the risk for the development of TBI in pediatrics is a critical component of beginning to address the consequences of TBI. Features that may increase risk for experiencing TBI sometimes overlap with factors that influence the development of post-concussive syndrome (PCS) and recovery course. Post-concussive syndrome includes physical, psychological, cognitive and sleep–wake dysfunction. The comorbid presence of sleep–wake dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms can lead to a more protracted recovery and deleterious outcomes. Therefore, a multidisciplinary evaluation following TBI is necessary. Treatment is generally symptom specific and mainly based on adult studies. Further research is necessary to enhance diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, as well as improve the understanding of contributing pathophysiology for the shared development of psychiatric disease and sleep–wake dysfunction following TBI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates in Pediatric Sleep and Child Psychiatry)
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Open AccessReview Exploring Interventions for Sleep Disorders in Adolescent Cannabis Users
Med. Sci. 2018, 6(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6010011
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
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Abstract
This review summarizes the available literature on the intersection of adolescent cannabis use and sleep disturbances, along with interventions for adolescent cannabis users who suffer sleep impairments. Adolescents are susceptible to various sleep disorders, which are often exacerbated by the use of substances
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This review summarizes the available literature on the intersection of adolescent cannabis use and sleep disturbances, along with interventions for adolescent cannabis users who suffer sleep impairments. Adolescents are susceptible to various sleep disorders, which are often exacerbated by the use of substances such as cannabis. The relationship between cannabis and sleep is bidirectional. Interventions to improve sleep impairments among adolescent cannabis users to date have demonstrated limited efficacy, although few studies indicating the benefits of behavioral interventions—such as Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Insomnia or Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction—appear promising in the treatment of sleep disorders, which are present for users of cannabis. Further research is necessary to elucidate the precise mechanisms by which cannabis use coexists with sleep impairments, along with effective interventions for those users who suffer sleep difficulties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates in Pediatric Sleep and Child Psychiatry)
Open AccessReview Cognitive and Behavioral Consequences of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children
Med. Sci. 2017, 5(4), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci5040030
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract
There is now a plethora of evidence that children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) show deficits in neurocognitive performance, behavioral impairments, and school performance. The following review will focus on the neurobehavioral impacts of SDB, pediatric sleep investigation challenges, potential mechanisms of behavioral
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There is now a plethora of evidence that children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) show deficits in neurocognitive performance, behavioral impairments, and school performance. The following review will focus on the neurobehavioral impacts of SDB, pediatric sleep investigation challenges, potential mechanisms of behavioral and cognitive deficits in children with SDB, and the impact of SDB treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates in Pediatric Sleep and Child Psychiatry)
Open AccessReview The Association between Sleep and Theory of Mind in School Aged Children with ADHD
Med. Sci. 2017, 5(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci5030018
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Theory of Mind (ToM) is defined as the ability to infer a range of internal mental states of others, including beliefs, intentions, desires, and emotions. These abilities are associated with children’s ability to socialize effectively with peers. ToM impairments are associated with peer
[...] Read more.
Theory of Mind (ToM) is defined as the ability to infer a range of internal mental states of others, including beliefs, intentions, desires, and emotions. These abilities are associated with children’s ability to socialize effectively with peers. ToM impairments are associated with peer rejection and psychiatric disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Previous studies have found poor sleep negatively impacts executive functioning (EF) and emotional information processing, which are essential for the effective use of ToM. Youth with ADHD have EF deficits and sleep problems. However, the relationship between sleep, executive functioning, and ToM in children with ADHD has not been studied. In this review, we propose that the poor social and interpersonal skills characterizing individuals with ADHD could be explained by the impact of poor sleep on the emotional and cognitive mechanisms underlying ToM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates in Pediatric Sleep and Child Psychiatry)
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