Special Issue "Selected Papers from AMS8 Conference (July 2013, Xi’an, China)"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2013)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mikel Duke

Institute of Sustainability and Innovation, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria 8001, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +61 399 197696
Interests: desalination; water treatment; gas separation; membrane distillation; ceramic membranes; zeolites; silica; nanocomposite materials; microbiology; membrane bioreactor; dairy processing; membrane recycling; molecular scale and process modelling
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Toshinori Tsuru

Department of Chemical Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8527, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +49 4152 872444
Interests: inorganic membranes; inorganic/ organic hybrid membranes; nano/subnano-porous membranes for gas; PV, RO/NF; membrane reactor; transport mechanism through nano/subnano-porous membranes
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Xiao-Lin Wang

Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +86-10-62794742
Interests: membrane separation science (membrane transport mechanism, membrane process integration, preparation of new-type separation membranes) and electro-chemical engineering (sodium chloride electrolysis by ion-exchange membrane method with oxygen cathode; direct methanol fuel cell)
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Wanqin Jin

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, China
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +86-25-83172292
Interests: mixed ionic-electronic conducting (MIEC) materials; porous ceramic membrane reactors; pervaporation membrane and process; bio-sensor for blood glucose detection; MOFs (metal-organic frameworks) membrane; photocatalysis based on TiO2 materials
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kueir-Rarn Lee

Department of Chemical Engineering, R&D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +886-3-2654190
Interests: pervaporation; membrane module design; gas separation; membrane structure characterization
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hong-Sik Byun

Department of Chemical System Engineering, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701, Korea
E-Mail
Fax: 82-53-580-6305
Interests: nanofibers; polymeric membrane; IPN; artificial muscle

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The current special issue includes peer-reviewed papers presented at AMS8 Conference (16–19 July, Xi’an, China, http://www.ams8.org) hosted by the Astanian Membrane Society and co-organized by Tsinghua University (THU), Nanjing University of Technology (NUT) and Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology (XAUAT). The main topics covered in these papers are:

  • Membrane Materials and Formation
  • Membrane Characterization and Modeling
  • Membrane Processes for Gas/Vapor Separation
  • Membrane Processes for Water Treatment and Reuse
  • Membrane Reactor/Bio-Reactors
  • Electro-Membrane Processes (e.g., Fuel Cell, Electrodialysis)
  • Seawater and Brackish Water Desalination
  • Membrane Fouling and Controlling
  • New Membrane Processes (e.g., Forward Osmosis)

Prof. Dr. Mikel Duke
Prof. Dr. Toshinori Tsuru
Prof. Dr. Xiao-Lin Wang
Prof. Dr. Wanqin Jin
Prof. Dr. Kueir-Rarn Lee
Prof. Dr. Hong-Sik Byun
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Membranes is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 500 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • ceramic membranes
  • polymeric membranes
  • flat sheet membranes
  • hollow fibre membranes
  • membrane fouling
  • membrane reactors
  • desalination
  • water recycling and treatment
  • gas separation
  • membranes in food manufacturing
  • membranes in energy generation

Published Papers (8 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation into the Transmembrane Electrical Potential of the Forward Osmosis Membrane Process in Electrolyte Solutions
Membranes 2014, 4(2), 275-286; doi:10.3390/membranes4020275
Received: 12 March 2014 / Revised: 29 April 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The transmembrane electrical potential (TMEP) in a forward osmosis membrane process with a single electrolyte solution as the draw and feed solutions was investigated by experiments. The effects of membrane orientation, the electrolyte species (KCl, NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2),
[...] Read more.
The transmembrane electrical potential (TMEP) in a forward osmosis membrane process with a single electrolyte solution as the draw and feed solutions was investigated by experiments. The effects of membrane orientation, the electrolyte species (KCl, NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2), concentration and concentration ratio of solutions at both sides of membrane on water flux and TMEP were investigated. The results showed that the TMEPs at different membrane orientation cannot completely coincide, which confirmed the effect of membrane asymmetry. The ion diffusion coefficients significantly affected the TMEP across the membrane, with different patterns for different electrolytes and concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from AMS8 Conference (July 2013, Xi’an, China))
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Effect of Chain Structures on the Crystallization Behavior and Membrane Formation of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Copolymers
Membranes 2014, 4(2), 243-256; doi:10.3390/membranes4020243
Received: 12 March 2014 / Revised: 23 April 2014 / Accepted: 13 May 2014 / Published: 19 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1863 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The crystallization behaviors of two copolymers of PVDF were studied, and the effect of copolymerized chains on the crystallization behavior was investigated. The results indicated that both copolymers had a lowered crystallization temperature and crystallinity. The crystallization rate was improved by the copolymer
[...] Read more.
The crystallization behaviors of two copolymers of PVDF were studied, and the effect of copolymerized chains on the crystallization behavior was investigated. The results indicated that both copolymers had a lowered crystallization temperature and crystallinity. The crystallization rate was improved by the copolymer with symmetrical units in PVDF chains, but hindered by asymmetrical units, compared with the neat PVDF. The symmetrical units in PVDF chains favored the β-crystals with fiber-like structures. According to the solubility parameter rule, methyl salicylate (MS) can be chosen as a diluent for PVDF copolymers. Both diluted systems had liquid-liquid (L-L) regions in the phase diagrams, which was due to the lowered crystallization temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from AMS8 Conference (July 2013, Xi’an, China))
Figures

Open AccessArticle Preparation of Sulfobetaine-Grafted PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes with a Stably Anti-Protein-Fouling Performance
Membranes 2014, 4(2), 181-199; doi:10.3390/membranes4020181
Received: 12 March 2014 / Revised: 17 March 2014 / Accepted: 27 March 2014 / Published: 8 April 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3481 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on a two-step polymerization method, two sulfobetaine-based zwitterionic monomers, including 3-(methacryloylamino) propyl-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide (MPDSAH) and 2-(methacryloyloxyethyl) ethyl-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium (MEDSA), were successfully grafted from poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane surfaces in the presence of N,N′-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAA) as
[...] Read more.
Based on a two-step polymerization method, two sulfobetaine-based zwitterionic monomers, including 3-(methacryloylamino) propyl-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide (MPDSAH) and 2-(methacryloyloxyethyl) ethyl-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium (MEDSA), were successfully grafted from poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane surfaces in the presence of N,N′-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAA) as a cross-linking agent. The mechanical properties of the PVDF membrane were improved by the zwitterionic surface layers. The surface hydrophilicity of PVDF membranes was significantly enhanced and the polyMPDSAH-g-PVDF membrane showed a higher hydrophilicity due to the higher grafting amount. Compared to the polyMEDSA-g-PVDF membrane, the polyMPDSAH-g-PVDF membrane showed excellent significantly better anti-protein-fouling performance with a flux recovery ratio (RFR) higher than 90% during the cyclic filtration of a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. The polyMPDSAH-g-PVDF membrane showed an obvious electrolyte-responsive behavior and its protein-fouling-resistance performance was improved further during the filtration of the protein solution with 100 mmol/L of NaCl. After cleaned with a membrane cleaning solution for 16 days, the grafted MPDSAH layer on the PVDF membrane could be maintain without any chang; however, the polyMEDSA-g-PVDF membrane lost the grafted MEDSA layer after this treatment. Therefore, the amide group of sulfobetaine, which contributed significantly to the higher hydrophilicity and stability, was shown to be imperative in modifying the PVDF membrane for a stable anti-protein-fouling performance via the two-step polymerization method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from AMS8 Conference (July 2013, Xi’an, China))
Figures

Open AccessArticle Effect of Cross-Linking on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimer/Poly(vinyl alcohol) Hybrid Membranes for CO2 Separation
Membranes 2014, 4(2), 200-209; doi:10.3390/membranes4020200
Received: 12 January 2014 / Revised: 18 February 2014 / Accepted: 26 March 2014 / Published: 8 April 2014
PDF Full-text (516 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers were incorporated into cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) separation performance at elevated pressures. In our previous studies, PAMAM/PVA hybrid membranes showed high CO2 separation properties from CO2/H2 mixed gases.
[...] Read more.
Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers were incorporated into cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) separation performance at elevated pressures. In our previous studies, PAMAM/PVA hybrid membranes showed high CO2 separation properties from CO2/H2 mixed gases. In this study, three types of organic Ti metal compounds were selected as PVA cross-linkers that were used to prepare PAMAM/cross-linked PVA hybrid membranes. Characterization of the PAMAM/cross-linked PVA hybrid membranes was conducted using nanoindentation and thermogravimetric analyses. The effects of the cross-linker and CO2 partial pressure in the feed gas on CO2 separation performance were discussed. H2O and CO2 sorption of the PAMAM/PVA hybrid membranes were investigated to explain the obtained CO2 separation efficiencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from AMS8 Conference (July 2013, Xi’an, China))
Figures

Open AccessArticle Solidification Behavior of Polymer Solution during Membrane Preparation by Thermally Induced Phase Separation
Membranes 2014, 4(1), 113-122; doi:10.3390/membranes4010113
Received: 10 January 2014 / Revised: 10 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 28 February 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (817 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The solidification behavior of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) solution during membrane preparation by thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) was investigated. Apparatus newly developed in our laboratory was used to quantitatively measure membrane stiffness during phase separation. In this apparatus, a cooling polymer solution, placed
[...] Read more.
The solidification behavior of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) solution during membrane preparation by thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) was investigated. Apparatus newly developed in our laboratory was used to quantitatively measure membrane stiffness during phase separation. In this apparatus, a cooling polymer solution, placed on a stage, is moved upwards and the surface of the polymer solution contacts a sphere attached to the tip of a needle. The displacement of a blade spring attached to the needle is then measured by a laser displacement sensor. Different phase separation modes, such as liquid-liquid (L-L) phase separation and solid-liquid (S-L) phase separation (polymer crystallization) were investigated. In the case of S-L phase separation, the stiffness of the solution surface began to increase significantly just before termination of crystallization. In contrast, L-L phase separation delayed solidification of the solution. This was because mutual contact of the spherulites was obstructed by droplets of polymer-lean phase formed during L-L phase separation. Thus, the solidification rate was slower for the L-L phase separation system than for the S-L phase separation system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from AMS8 Conference (July 2013, Xi’an, China))
Figures

Open AccessArticle Preparation of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Hollow Fiber Hemodialysis Membranes
Membranes 2014, 4(1), 81-95; doi:10.3390/membranes4010081
Received: 15 November 2013 / Revised: 7 January 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2014 / Published: 27 February 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (909 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber hemodialysis membranes were prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS). The influences of PVDF membrane thickness and polyethylene glycol (PEG) content on membrane morphologies, pore size, mechanical and permeable performance were investigated. It was
[...] Read more.
In this study, the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber hemodialysis membranes were prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS). The influences of PVDF membrane thickness and polyethylene glycol (PEG) content on membrane morphologies, pore size, mechanical and permeable performance were investigated. It was found that membrane thickness and PEG content affected both the structure and performance of hollow fiber membranes. The tensile strength and rejection of bovine serum albumin (BSA) increased with increasing membrane thickness, while the Ultrafiltration flux (UF) flux of pure water was the opposite. The tensile strength, porosity and rejection of BSA increased with increasing PEG content within a certain range. Compared with commercial F60S membrane, the PVDF hollow fiber membrane showed higher mechanical and permeable performance. It was proven that PVDF material had better hydrophilicity and lower BSA adsorption, which was more suitable for hemodialysis. All the results indicate that PVDF hollow fiber membrane is promising as a hemodialysis membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from AMS8 Conference (July 2013, Xi’an, China))
Open AccessArticle A Pervaporation Study of Ammonia Solutions Using Molecular Sieve Silica Membranes
Membranes 2014, 4(1), 40-54; doi:10.3390/membranes4010040
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 10 January 2014 / Accepted: 6 February 2014 / Published: 17 February 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (728 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An innovative concept is proposed to recover ammonia from industrial wastewater using a molecular sieve silica membrane in pervaporation (PV), benchmarked against vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). Cobalt and iron doped molecular sieve silica-based ceramic membranes were evaluated based on the ammonia concentration factor
[...] Read more.
An innovative concept is proposed to recover ammonia from industrial wastewater using a molecular sieve silica membrane in pervaporation (PV), benchmarked against vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). Cobalt and iron doped molecular sieve silica-based ceramic membranes were evaluated based on the ammonia concentration factor downstream and long-term performance. A modified low-temperature membrane evaluation system was utilized, featuring the ability to capture and measure ammonia in the permeate. It was found that the silica membrane with confirmed molecular sieving features had higher water selectivity over ammonia. This was due to a size selectivity mechanism that favoured water, but blocked ammonia. However, a cobalt doped silica membrane previously treated with high temperature water solutions demonstrated extraordinary preference towards ammonia by achieving up to a 50,000 mg/L ammonia concentration (a reusable concentration level) measured in the permeate when fed with 800 mg/L of ammonia solution. This exceeded the concentration factor expected by the benchmark VMD process by four-fold, suspected to be due to the competitive adsorption of ammonia over water into the silica structure with pores now large enough to accommodate ammonia. However, this membrane showed a gradual decline in selectivity, suspected to be due to the degradation of the silica material/pore structure after several hours of operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from AMS8 Conference (July 2013, Xi’an, China))
Open AccessArticle Effect of Preparation Methods on Crystallization Behavior and Tensile Strength of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Membranes
Membranes 2013, 3(4), 389-405; doi:10.3390/membranes3040389
Received: 12 October 2013 / Revised: 9 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (685 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were prepared by non solvent induced phase separation (NIPS), melt spinning and the solution-cast method. The effect of preparation methods with different membrane formation mechanisms on crystallization behavior and tensile strength of PVDF membranes was investigated. Fourier transform infrared
[...] Read more.
Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were prepared by non solvent induced phase separation (NIPS), melt spinning and the solution-cast method. The effect of preparation methods with different membrane formation mechanisms on crystallization behavior and tensile strength of PVDF membranes was investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to examine the crystal form of the surface layers and the overall membranes, respectively. Spherulite morphologies and thermal behavior of the membranes were studied by polarized light optical microscopy (PLO) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) separately. It was found that the crystallization behavior of PVDF membranes was closely related to the preparation methods. For membranes prepared by the NIPS method, the skin layers had a mixture of α and β phases, the overall membranes were predominantly α phase, and the total crystallinity was 60.0% with no spherulite. For melt spinning membranes, the surface layers also showed a mixture of α and β phases, the overall membranes were predominantly α phase. The total crystallinity was 48.7% with perfect spherulites. Whereas the crystallization behavior of solution-cast membranes was related to the evaporation temperature and the additive, when the evaporation temperature was 140 °C with a soluble additive in the dope solution, obvious spherulites appeared. The crystalline morphology of PVDF exerted a great influence on the tensile strength of the membranes, which was much higher with perfect spherulites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from AMS8 Conference (July 2013, Xi’an, China))

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Membranes Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
membranes@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Membranes
Back to Top