E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Topical Collection "Nanomedicine"

A topical collection in Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This collection belongs to the section "Medicinal Chemistry".

Editor

Collection Editor
Prof. Didier Astruc

ISM, UMR CNRS 5255, University of Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nanomaterials; functional Au and other transition metal nanoparticles; targeted drug delivery; taxanes; sensors; dendrimers; polymers; catalysis; redox processes

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomedicine involves the applications of nanotechnology, controlled mater in the 1–100 nm range, to the diagnosis, and treatment of major diseases using engineered targeted delivery of diagnostic agents and drugs to specific organs in order to maximize efficiency and avoid side effects. An approach for building a drug delivery system is to incorporate the drug within the nanocarrier that results in increased solubility, metabolic stability, and improved circulation time. The precise targets are cells and receptors including phagocytes, dendritic cells, endothelial cells, tumor cells, and tumor neovasculature that guide the rational approach to appropriate nanocarriers. Chemotherapy has limitations due to the lack of selectivity with severe toxicity. Under these circumstances tumor-targeted delivery of anticancer drugs is probably one of the most important steps for cancer chemotherapy. Therefore ongoing research concerns the “magic bullets” that comprises particle design and formulation that are applied to many drugs and are invading industry with huge potential benefits.

The specific properties of such engineered nanomaterials can be used to overcome some of the limitations found in traditional therapeutic and diagnostic agents. In particular, commonly used materials for nanoparticle carriers of nanodrugs for cancer chemotherapy including cisplatin, carboplatin, bleomycin, 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, dactinomycin, 6-mercaptopurine, paclitaxel, docetaxel, topotecan, vinblastin and etoposide etc., are dendrimers, polymers, liposomes, micelles, inorganic, organic nanoparticles, whereas the commonly used nano drugs are liposomes. Other nanoparticles such as tailored polymer nananoparticles, gold nanoparticles and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) disclose different properties from those of bulk materials owing to the quantum physics and enhanced surface chemistry related to their nanosize and appear most useful for theranostics, i.e. therapy + diagnostics. Finally, the concept of enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect of solid tumors that involves high drug concentration in tumor compared to that of the blood warrants the development of polymeric drugs, while monoclonal antibody conjugates are another direction with increasing recent interest.

This Topical Collection aims to provide a forum for the dissemination of the latest information on related and new aspects of nanomedicine.

Dr. Didier Astruc
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanomedicine
  • cancer
  • theranostics
  • targeted drug delivery
  • diagnosis
  • therapy
  • disease
  • nanocarrier
  • metabolic stability
  • improved circulation time
  • phagocytes
  • dendritic cells
  • endothelial cells
  • tumor cells
  • tumor neovasculature
  • magic bullet
  • cisplatin
  • carboplatin
  • bleomycin
  • 5-fluorouracil
  • doxorubicin
  • dactinomycin
  • 6-mercaptopurine
  • paclitaxel
  • docetaxel
  • topotecan
  • vinblastine
  • etoposide
  • dendrimer
  • polymer
  • liposome
  • micelle
  • nanoparticle
  • gold
  • superparamagnetic iron oxide
  • SPION
  • plasmon
  • enhanced permeability and retention
  • EPR

Published Papers (25 papers)

2017

Jump to: 2016, 2015

Open AccessReview The Use of Liposomes and Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Systems to Improve Cancer Treatment in Dogs and Cats
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2167; doi:10.3390/molecules22122167
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Cancer remains a leading cause of death in companion animals. In human medicine, liposomes and nanoparticles have been extensively investigated as drug delivery systems (DDS) for anticancer agents due to their ability to target cancerous cells and reduce the negative side effects
[...] Read more.
Background: Cancer remains a leading cause of death in companion animals. In human medicine, liposomes and nanoparticles have been extensively investigated as drug delivery systems (DDS) for anticancer agents due to their ability to target cancerous cells and reduce the negative side effects of free cytostatic drugs. In this review, the authors discuss the results of clinical trials using liposomes and polymer-based nanoparticles as DDS to improve cancer treatment in dogs and cats, indicating which ones seem worth further evaluation. The authors then overview ongoing animal cancer clinical trials, evaluating nano-DDS registered on the American Veterinary Medical Association Animal Health Studies Database. Finally, the authors indicate the nano-drugs that require further in vivo evaluation based on the encouraging results obtained from in vitro studies. Conclusions: Liposomes have been the most investigated nano-DDS in veterinary medicine. The lack of cardiotoxicity of the commercially available liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil/Caelyx) suggests it should be used in dogs with cardiac disorders, rather than using free doxorubicin. Cisplatin-incorporated hyaluronic acid nanoparticles, nanocrystals of cisplatin, and paclitaxel are the most promising nano-drugs for potent applications in treating various canine cancers (e.g. oral melanoma, oral sarcoma, and anal gland adenocarcinoma) and their translation into the treatment of human diseases. Full article
Open AccessArticle Novel Anti-Tuberculosis Nanodelivery Formulation of Ethambutol with Graphene Oxide
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1560; doi:10.3390/molecules22101560
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial disease responsible for millions of infections and preventable deaths each year. Its treatment is complicated by patients’ noncompliance due to dosing frequency, lengthy treatment, and adverse side effects associated with current chemotherapy. However, no modifications to the half-a-century
[...] Read more.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial disease responsible for millions of infections and preventable deaths each year. Its treatment is complicated by patients’ noncompliance due to dosing frequency, lengthy treatment, and adverse side effects associated with current chemotherapy. However, no modifications to the half-a-century old standard chemotherapy have been made based on a nanoformulation strategy to improve pharmacokinetic efficacy. In this study, we have designed a new nanodelivery formulation, using graphene oxide as the nanocarrier, loaded with the anti-TB antibiotic, ethambutol. The designed formulation was characterized using a number of molecular analytical techniques. It was found that sustained release of the drug resulted in better bioavailability. In addition, the designed formulation demonstrated high biocompatibility with mouse fibroblast cells. The anti-TB activity of the nanodelivery formulation was determined using whole-cell resazurin microtiter plate assay, modified-spot culture growth inhibition assay, and biofilm inhibition assay. The nanodelivery formulation showed good anti-mycobacterial activity. The anti-mycobacterial activity of Ethambutol was unaffected by the drug loading and release process. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of this new nanodelivery formulation strategy to be considered for modifying existing chemotherapy to yield more efficacious antibiotic treatment against TB. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Rapid Complexation of Aptamers by Their Specific Antidotes
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 954; doi:10.3390/molecules22060954
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 4 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
PDF Full-text (2294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nucleic acid ligands, aptamers, harbor the unique characteristics of small molecules and antibodies. The specificity and high affinity of aptamers enable their binding to different targets, such as small molecules, proteins, or cells. Chemical modifications of aptamers allow increased bioavailability. A further great
[...] Read more.
Nucleic acid ligands, aptamers, harbor the unique characteristics of small molecules and antibodies. The specificity and high affinity of aptamers enable their binding to different targets, such as small molecules, proteins, or cells. Chemical modifications of aptamers allow increased bioavailability. A further great benefit of aptamers is the antidote (AD)-mediated controllability of their effect. In this study, the AD-mediated complexation and neutralization of the thrombin binding aptamer NU172 and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) binding R10-60 aptamer were determined. Thereby, the required time for the generation of aptamer/AD-complexes was analyzed at 37 °C in human serum using gel electrophoresis. Afterwards, the blocking of aptamers’ effects was analyzed by determining the activated clotting time (ACT) in the case of the NU172 aptamer, or the expression of immune activation related genes IFN-1β, IL-6, CXCL-10, and IL-1β in the case of the R10-60 aptamer. Gel electrophoresis analyses demonstrated the rapid complexation of the NU172 and R10-60 aptamers by complementary AD binding after just 2 min of incubation in human serum. A rapid neutralization of anticoagulant activity of NU172 was also demonstrated in fresh human whole blood 5 min after addition of AD. Furthermore, the TLR9-mediated activation of PMDC05 cells was interrupted after the addition of the R10-60 AD. Using these two different aptamers, the rapid antagonizability of the aptamers was demonstrated in different environments; whole blood containing numerous proteins, cells, and different small molecules, serum, or cell culture media. Thus, nucleic acid ADs are promising molecules, which offer several possibilities for different in vivo applications, such as antagonizing aptamer-based drugs, immobilization, or delivery of oligonucleotides to defined locations. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

2016

Jump to: 2017, 2015

Open AccessReview Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy for Characterization of Dendritic Polymer Nanoparticles and Applications in Nanomedicine
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 17; doi:10.3390/molecules22010017
Received: 16 September 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 24 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6036 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The emerging field of nanomedicine provides new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, for symptom relief and for monitoring of disease progression. One route of realizing this approach is through carefully constructed nanoparticles. Due to the small size inherent to the
[...] Read more.
The emerging field of nanomedicine provides new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, for symptom relief and for monitoring of disease progression. One route of realizing this approach is through carefully constructed nanoparticles. Due to the small size inherent to the nanoparticles a proper characterization is not trivial. This review highlights the application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) for the analysis of nanoparticles, covering aspects ranging from molecular properties to particle detection in tissue samples. The latter technique is particularly important as FLIM allows for distinguishing of target molecules from the autofluorescent background and, due to the environmental sensitivity of the fluorescence lifetime, also offers insights into the local environment of the nanoparticle or its interactions with other biomolecules. Thus, these techniques offer highly suitable tools in the fields of particle development, such as organic chemistry, and in the fields of particle application, such as in experimental dermatology or pharmaceutical research. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle New Oral Formulation and in Vitro Evaluation of Docetaxel-Loaded Nanomicelles
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1265; doi:10.3390/molecules21091265
Received: 23 August 2016 / Revised: 17 September 2016 / Accepted: 17 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
PDF Full-text (1622 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intravenous administration of Taxotere® (a commercial form of docetaxel, DTX) leads to many problems such as hypersensitivity, hemolysis, cutaneous allergy, and patient refusal due to its prolonged injection. The oral absorption of DTX is very low due to its hydrophobic nature. The
[...] Read more.
Intravenous administration of Taxotere® (a commercial form of docetaxel, DTX) leads to many problems such as hypersensitivity, hemolysis, cutaneous allergy, and patient refusal due to its prolonged injection. The oral absorption of DTX is very low due to its hydrophobic nature. The purpose of this study was to prepare and carry out an in vitro evaluation of DTX-loaded nanomicelles for oral administration in order to increase the oral delivery of DTX. Studied formulations were prepared with the two surfactants Tween 20 and Tween 80 and were characterized for their particle size, zeta potential, stability, encapsulation efficiency, stability studies in gastric fluid and intestinal fluid, toxicity studies in C26 colon carcinoma cell line, and cellular uptake. The prepared nanomicelles with particle size of around 14 nm and encapsulation efficiency of 99% were stable in gastric fluid and intestinal fluid for at least 6 h and IC50 decreased significantly after 72 h exposure compared to that of Taxotere®. Nanomicelles increased the water solubility of DTX more than 1500 times (10 mg/mL in nanomicelles compared to 6 µg/mL in water). Results of this study reveal that the new formulation of DTX could be used for the oral delivery of DTX and merits further investigation. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Layered Double Hydroxide as a Vehicle to Increase Toxicity of Gallate Ions against Adenocarcinoma Cells
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 928; doi:10.3390/molecules21070928
Received: 14 April 2016 / Revised: 11 July 2016 / Accepted: 13 July 2016 / Published: 16 July 2016
PDF Full-text (1709 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The antineoplasic activity of gallic acid has been reported. This compound induces apoptosis and inhibits the growth of several neoplasic cells. However, this molecule is easily oxidized and degraded in the body. The aim of this work was to intercalate gallate ions into
[...] Read more.
The antineoplasic activity of gallic acid has been reported. This compound induces apoptosis and inhibits the growth of several neoplasic cells. However, this molecule is easily oxidized and degraded in the body. The aim of this work was to intercalate gallate ions into layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles under controlled conditions to reduce oxidation of gallate and to evaluate its toxicity against the A549 adenocarcinoma cell line. An isopropanol medium under nitrogen atmosphere was adequate to intercalate gallate ions with a lesser oxidation degree as detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Concentrations of the hybrid LDH-gallate nanoparticles between 0.39 and 25 µg/mL reduced the cell viability to 67%, while the value reached with the pure gallic acid and LDH was 90% and 78%, respectively, thus proving that the combination of gallate ions with the inorganic nanoparticles increases the toxicity potential within this dose range. Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview Nanoparticles: Alternatives Against Drug-Resistant Pathogenic Microbes
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 836; doi:10.3390/molecules21070836
Received: 15 March 2016 / Revised: 17 June 2016 / Accepted: 20 June 2016 / Published: 27 June 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antimicrobial substances may be synthetic, semisynthetic, or of natural origin (i.e., from plants and animals). Antimicrobials are considered “miracle drugs” and can determine if an infected patient/animal recovers or dies. However, the misuse of antimicrobials has led to the development of multi-drug-resistant bacteria,
[...] Read more.
Antimicrobial substances may be synthetic, semisynthetic, or of natural origin (i.e., from plants and animals). Antimicrobials are considered “miracle drugs” and can determine if an infected patient/animal recovers or dies. However, the misuse of antimicrobials has led to the development of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, which is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare practitioners and is a significant global threat. The major concern with the development of antimicrobial resistance is the spread of resistant organisms. The replacement of conventional antimicrobials by new technology to counteract antimicrobial resistance is ongoing. Nanotechnology-driven innovations provide hope for patients and practitioners in overcoming the problem of drug resistance. Nanomaterials have tremendous potential in both the medical and veterinary fields. Several nanostructures comprising metallic particles have been developed to counteract microbial pathogens. The effectiveness of nanoparticles (NPs) depends on the interaction between the microorganism and the NPs. The development of effective nanomaterials requires in-depth knowledge of the physicochemical properties of NPs and the biological aspects of microorganisms. However, the risks associated with using NPs in healthcare need to be addressed. The present review highlights the antimicrobial effects of various nanomaterials and their potential advantages, drawbacks, or side effects. In addition, this comprehensive information may be useful in the discovery of broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs for use against multi-drug-resistant microbial pathogens in the near future. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Optimization of Preparation Conditions for Lysozyme Nanoliposomes Using Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Their Stability
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 741; doi:10.3390/molecules21060741
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 25 May 2016 / Accepted: 31 May 2016 / Published: 8 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to optimize the preparation of lysozyme nanoliposomes using response surface methodology and measure their stability. The stabilities of lysozyme nanoliposomes in simulated gastrointestinal fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), as well as pH, temperature and sonication
[...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study was to optimize the preparation of lysozyme nanoliposomes using response surface methodology and measure their stability. The stabilities of lysozyme nanoliposomes in simulated gastrointestinal fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), as well as pH, temperature and sonication treatment time were evaluated. Reverse-phase evaporation method is an easy, speedy, and beneficial approach for nanoliposomes’ preparation and optimization. The optimal preparative conditions were as follows: phosphatidylcholine-to-cholesterol ratio of 3.86, lysozyme concentration of 1.96 mg/mL, magnetic stirring time of 40.61 min, and ultrasound time of 14.15 min. At the optimal point, encapsulation efficiency and particle size were found to be 75.36% ± 3.20% and 245.6 nm ± 5.2 nm, respectively. The lysozyme nanoliposomes demonstrated certain stability in SGF and SIF at a temperature of 37 °C for 4 h, and short sonication handling times were required to attain nano-scaled liposomes. Under conditions of high temperature, acidity and alkalinity, lysozyme nanoliposomes are unstable. Full article
Open AccessArticle Poly (l-γ-glutamylglutamine) Polymer Enhances Doxorubicin Accumulation in Multidrug Resistant Breast Cancer Cells
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 720; doi:10.3390/molecules21060720
Received: 28 February 2016 / Revised: 22 May 2016 / Accepted: 27 May 2016 / Published: 2 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Drug resistance is one of the bottlenecks of cancer chemotherapy in the clinic. Polymeric nanomedicine is one of the most promising strategies for overcoming poor chemotherapy responses due to the multidrug resistance (MDR). Methods: In this study, a new polymer-based
[...] Read more.
Background: Drug resistance is one of the bottlenecks of cancer chemotherapy in the clinic. Polymeric nanomedicine is one of the most promising strategies for overcoming poor chemotherapy responses due to the multidrug resistance (MDR). Methods: In this study, a new polymer-based drug delivery system, poly (l-γ-glutamylglutamine)-doxorubicin (PGG-Dox) conjugate, was studied in both drug-induced resistant human breast cancer MDA-MB-231/MDR cells and their parent human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. The effect of PGG on facilitating the growth inhibition of Dox against multidrug resistant cells were investigated by evaluating the cytotoxicity of PGG-Dox conjugate, PGG/Dox unconjugated complex and free Dox on both cells. The underlying mechanisms in resistant cells were further studied via the intracellular traffic studies. Results: Both conjugated and unconjugated PGG significantly increased Dox uptake, prolonged Dox retention and reduced Dox efflux in the MDA-MB-231/MDR cells. The PGG-Dox conjugate is taken up by tumor cells mainly by pinocytosis pathway, in which PGG-Dox conjugate-containing vesicles are formed and enter the cells. Conclusions: This study indicated that both polymer-drug conjugate and unconjugated complex are promising strategies of overcoming resistance of anti-tumor drugs. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Electrostatically Self-Assembled Ternary Nanocomplex as a Non-Viral Vector for the Delivery of Plasmid DNA into Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 572; doi:10.3390/molecules21050572
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 22 April 2016 / Accepted: 26 April 2016 / Published: 29 April 2016
PDF Full-text (4164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we developed electrostatically self-assembled ternary nanocomplexes as a safe and effective non-viral vector for the delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA) into human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). Although polyethylenimine (PEI) polymers initially showed excellent performance as gene delivery carriers, their broad
[...] Read more.
In this study, we developed electrostatically self-assembled ternary nanocomplexes as a safe and effective non-viral vector for the delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA) into human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). Although polyethylenimine (PEI) polymers initially showed excellent performance as gene delivery carriers, their broad use has been limited by cytotoxicity resulting from their strong positive charge. To reduce the cytotoxicity, we utilized anionic hyaluronic acid (HA) as a corona layer material for pDNA/PEI binary nanocomplexes. HA was also introduced to increase the targeting efficiency of pDNA/PEI nanocomplexes because HA has can bind CD44 that is highly expressed on the surface of hASCs. We confirmed that the addition of HA changed the surface charge of pDNA/PEI nanocomplexes from positive to negative. The pDNA/PEI/HA ternary nanocomplexes showed high transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity compared with commercially available products. When hASCs were pretreated with HA to passivate CD44, the transfection efficiency of pDNA/PEI/HA nanocomplexes was significantly reduced. These results suggest that HA that can act as a targeting ligand to CD44 contributed to the improved transfection of pDNA into hASCs. Our novel pDNA/PEI/HA nanocomplexes may be used as an effective non-viral pDNA delivery system for hASCs. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Nano-TiO2 as a Novel Deswelling Material
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 57; doi:10.3390/molecules21010057
Received: 26 September 2015 / Revised: 18 December 2015 / Accepted: 28 December 2015 / Published: 4 January 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2598 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nano-TiO2 is widely applied in the automobile exhaust hose reels as a catalyst to reduce oxynitride emissions, including nitric oxide (NO). In the biomedicine field, NO plays an important role in vasodilation and edema formation in human bodies. However, the deswelling activity
[...] Read more.
Nano-TiO2 is widely applied in the automobile exhaust hose reels as a catalyst to reduce oxynitride emissions, including nitric oxide (NO). In the biomedicine field, NO plays an important role in vasodilation and edema formation in human bodies. However, the deswelling activity of nano-TiO2 has not been reported. Here, we demonstrated that nano-TiO2 can significantly degrade the production of NO in LPS-induced RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. Further study indicated that nano-TiO2 exhibited an effect on vascular permeability inhibition, and prevented carrageenan-induced footpad edema. Therefore, we prepared a nano-TiO2 ointment and observed similar deswelling effects. In conclusion, nano-TiO2 might act as a novel deswelling agent related with its degradation of NO, which will aid in our ability to design effective interventions for edema involved diseases. Full article

2015

Jump to: 2017, 2016

Open AccessArticle Detecting and Quantifying Biomolecular Interactions of a Dendritic Polyglycerol Sulfate Nanoparticle Using Fluorescence Lifetime Measurements
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 22; doi:10.3390/molecules21010022
Received: 13 November 2015 / Revised: 16 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 24 December 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1896 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interactions of nanoparticles with biomaterials determine the biological activity that is key for the physiological response. Dendritic polyglycerol sulfates (dPGS) were found recently to act as an inhibitor of inflammation by blocking selectins. Systemic application of dPGS would present this nanoparticle to various
[...] Read more.
Interactions of nanoparticles with biomaterials determine the biological activity that is key for the physiological response. Dendritic polyglycerol sulfates (dPGS) were found recently to act as an inhibitor of inflammation by blocking selectins. Systemic application of dPGS would present this nanoparticle to various biological molecules that rapidly adsorb to the nanoparticle surface or lead to adsorption of the nanoparticle to cellular structures such as lipid membranes. In the past, fluorescence lifetime measurements of fluorescently tagged nanoparticles at a molecular and cellular/tissue level have been proven to reveal valuable information on the local nanoparticle environment via characteristic fluorescent lifetime signatures of the nanoparticle bound dye. Here, we established fluorescence lifetime measurements as a tool to determine the binding affinity to fluorescently tagged dPGS (dPGS-ICC; ICC: indocarbocyanine). The binding to a cell adhesion molecule (L-selectin) and a human complement protein (C1q) to dPGS-ICC was evaluated by the concentration dependent change in the unique fluorescence lifetime signature of dPGS-ICC. The apparent binding affinity was found to be in the nanomolar range for both proteins (L-selectin: 87 ± 4 nM and C1q: 42 ± 12 nM). Furthermore, the effect of human serum on the unique fluorescence lifetime signature of dPGS-ICC was measured and found to be different from the interactions with the two proteins and lipid membranes. A comparison between the unique lifetime signatures of dPGS-ICC in different biological environments shows that fluorescence lifetime measurements of unique dPGS-ICC fluorescence lifetime signatures are a versatile tool to probe the microenvironment of dPGS in cells and tissue. Full article
Open AccessEditorial Introduction to Nanomedicine
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 4; doi:10.3390/molecules21010004
Received: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 22 December 2015
PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although mentions of nanoparticles in relation to biomedicine appeared in the late 1970s and are now the subject of over 10,000 publications per year, the term “Nanomedicine” only appeared at the turn of this century, and less than 30 papers including this term
[...] Read more.
Although mentions of nanoparticles in relation to biomedicine appeared in the late 1970s and are now the subject of over 10,000 publications per year, the term “Nanomedicine” only appeared at the turn of this century, and less than 30 papers including this term were published up to 2005. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Anti-Lymphoma Efficacy Comparison of Anti-Cd20 Monoclonal Antibody-Targeted and Non-Targeted Star-Shaped Polymer-Prodrug Conjugates
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 19849-19864; doi:10.3390/molecules201119664
Received: 9 September 2015 / Revised: 20 October 2015 / Accepted: 21 October 2015 / Published: 4 November 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Here we describe the synthesis and biological properties of two types of star-shaped polymer-doxorubicin conjugates: non-targeted conjugate prepared as long-circulating high-molecular-weight (HMW) polymer prodrugs with a dendrimer core and a targeted conjugate with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) rituximab (RTX). The copolymers were
[...] Read more.
Here we describe the synthesis and biological properties of two types of star-shaped polymer-doxorubicin conjugates: non-targeted conjugate prepared as long-circulating high-molecular-weight (HMW) polymer prodrugs with a dendrimer core and a targeted conjugate with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) rituximab (RTX). The copolymers were linked to the dendrimer core or to the reduced mAb via one-point attachment forming a star-shaped structure with a central antibody or dendrimer surrounded by hydrophilic polymer chains. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was attached to the N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA)-based copolymer chain in star polymer systems via a pH-labile hydrazone linkage. Such polymer-DOX conjugates were fairly stable in aqueous solutions at pH 7.4, and the drug was readily released in mildly acidic environments at pH 5–5.5 by hydrolysis of the hydrazone bonds. The cytotoxicity of the polymer conjugates was tested on several CD20-positive or negative human cell lines. Similar levels of in vitro cytotoxicity were observed for all tested polymer conjugates regardless of type or structure. In vivo experiments using primary cell-based murine xenograft models of human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma confirmed the superior anti-lymphoma efficacy of the polymer-bound DOX conjugate when compared with the original drug. Targeting with RTX did not further enhance the anti-lymphoma efficacy relative to the non-targeted star polymer conjugate. Two mechanisms could play roles in these findings: changes in the binding ability to the CD-20 receptor and a significant loss of the immunological properties of RTX in the polymer conjugates. Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview The Phe-Phe Motif for Peptide Self-Assembly in Nanomedicine
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 19775-19788; doi:10.3390/molecules201119658
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 25 October 2015 / Accepted: 27 October 2015 / Published: 3 November 2015
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (2664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since its discovery, the Phe-Phe motif has gained in popularity as a minimalist building block to drive the self-assembly of short peptides and their analogues into nanostructures and hydrogels. Molecules based on the Phe-Phe motif have found a range of applications in nanomedicine,
[...] Read more.
Since its discovery, the Phe-Phe motif has gained in popularity as a minimalist building block to drive the self-assembly of short peptides and their analogues into nanostructures and hydrogels. Molecules based on the Phe-Phe motif have found a range of applications in nanomedicine, from drug delivery and biomaterials to new therapeutic paradigms. Here we discuss the various production methods for this class of compounds, and the characterization, nanomorphologies, and application of their self-assembled nanostructures. We include the most recent findings on their remarkable properties, which hold substantial promise for the creation of the next generation nanomedicines. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Tetracycline-Containing MCM-41 Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Escherichia coli
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 19690-19698; doi:10.3390/molecules201119650
Received: 14 August 2015 / Revised: 21 October 2015 / Accepted: 22 October 2015 / Published: 30 October 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tetracycline (TC) is a well-known broad spectrum antibiotic, which is effective against many Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Controlled release nanoparticle formulations of TC have been reported, and could be beneficial for application in the treatment of periodontitis and dental bone infections.
[...] Read more.
Tetracycline (TC) is a well-known broad spectrum antibiotic, which is effective against many Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Controlled release nanoparticle formulations of TC have been reported, and could be beneficial for application in the treatment of periodontitis and dental bone infections. Furthermore, TC-controlled transcriptional regulation systems (Tet-on and Tet-off) are useful for controlling transgene expression in vitro and in vivo for biomedical research purposes; controlled TC release systems could be useful here, as well. Mesoporous silica nanomaterials (MSNs) are widely studied for drug delivery applications; Mobile crystalline material 41 (MCM-41), a type of MSN, has a mesoporous structure with pores forming channels in a hexagonal fashion. We prepared 41 ± 4 and 406 ± 55 nm MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanoparticles and loaded TC for controlled dug release; TC content in the TC-MCM-41 nanoparticles was 18.7% and 17.7% w/w, respectively. Release of TC from TC-MCM-41 nanoparticles was then measured in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2, at 37 °C over a period of 5 h. Most antibiotic was released from both over this observation period; however, the majority of TC was released over the first hour. Efficacy of the TC-MCM-41 nanoparticles was then shown to be superior to free TC against Escherichia coli (E. coli) in culture over a 24 h period, while blank nanoparticles had no effect. Full article
Open AccessArticle Poly(Propylene Imine) Dendrimers and Amoxicillin as Dual-Action Antibacterial Agents
Molecules 2015, 20(10), 19330-19342; doi:10.3390/molecules201019330
Received: 25 September 2015 / Revised: 14 October 2015 / Accepted: 16 October 2015 / Published: 23 October 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Besides acting as antimicrobial compounds, dendrimers can be considered as agents that improve the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. In this work we present a new approach to using amoxicillin (AMX) against reference strains of common Gram-negative pathogens, alone and in combination with
[...] Read more.
Besides acting as antimicrobial compounds, dendrimers can be considered as agents that improve the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. In this work we present a new approach to using amoxicillin (AMX) against reference strains of common Gram-negative pathogens, alone and in combination with poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers, or derivatives thereof, in which 100% of the available hydrogen atoms are substituted with maltose (PPI 100%malG3). The concentrations of dendrimers used remained in the range non-toxic to eukaryotic cells. The results indicate that PPI dendrimers significantly enhance the antibacterial effect of amoxicillin alone, allowing antibiotic doses to be reduced. It is important to reduce doses of amoxicillin because its widespread use in medicine could lead to the development of bacterial resistance and environmental pollution. This is the first report on the combined antibacterial activity of PPI surface-modified maltose dendrimers and amoxicillin. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Treatment Efficiency of Free and Nanoparticle-Loaded Mitoxantrone for Magnetic Drug Targeting in Multicellular Tumor Spheroids
Molecules 2015, 20(10), 18016-18030; doi:10.3390/molecules201018016
Received: 14 August 2015 / Revised: 14 September 2015 / Accepted: 24 September 2015 / Published: 30 September 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Major problems of cancer treatment using systemic chemotherapy are severe side effects. Magnetic drug targeting (MDT) employing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) loaded with chemotherapeutic agents may overcome this dilemma by increasing drug accumulation in the tumor and reducing toxic side effects in
[...] Read more.
Major problems of cancer treatment using systemic chemotherapy are severe side effects. Magnetic drug targeting (MDT) employing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) loaded with chemotherapeutic agents may overcome this dilemma by increasing drug accumulation in the tumor and reducing toxic side effects in the healthy tissue. For translation of nanomedicine from bench to bedside, nanoparticle-mediated effects have to be studied carefully. In this study, we compare the effect of SPION, unloaded or loaded with the cytotoxic drug mitoxantrone (MTO) with the effect of free MTO, on the viability and proliferation of HT-29 cells within three-dimensional multicellular tumor spheroids. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry showed that both free MTO, as well as SPION-loaded MTO (SPIONMTO) are able to penetrate into tumor spheroids and thereby kill tumor cells, whereas unloaded SPION did not affect cellular viability. Since SPIONMTO has herewith proven its effectivity also in complex multicellular tumor structures with its surrounding microenvironment, we conclude that it is a promising candidate for further use in magnetic drug targeting in vivo. Full article
Open AccessReview Designing Dendrimer and Miktoarm Polymer Based Multi-Tasking Nanocarriers for Efficient Medical Therapy
Molecules 2015, 20(9), 16987-17015; doi:10.3390/molecules200916987
Received: 11 August 2015 / Revised: 9 September 2015 / Accepted: 11 September 2015 / Published: 17 September 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2031 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To address current complex health problems, there has been an increasing demand for smart nanocarriers that could perform multiple complimentary biological tasks with high efficacy. This has provoked the design of tailor made nanocarriers, and the scientific community has made tremendous effort in
[...] Read more.
To address current complex health problems, there has been an increasing demand for smart nanocarriers that could perform multiple complimentary biological tasks with high efficacy. This has provoked the design of tailor made nanocarriers, and the scientific community has made tremendous effort in meeting daunting challenges associated with synthetically articulating multiple functions into a single scaffold. Branched and hyper-branched macromolecular architectures have offered opportunities in enabling carriers with capabilities including location, delivery, imaging etc. Development of simple and versatile synthetic methodologies for these nanomaterials has been the key in diversifying macromolecule based medical therapy and treatment. This review highlights the advancement from conventional “only one function” to multifunctional nanomedicine. It is achieved by synthetic elaboration of multivalent platforms in miktoarm polymers and dendrimers by physical encapsulation, covalent linking and combinations thereof. Full article
Open AccessArticle Inorganic Phosphate Prevents Erk1/2 and Stat3 Activation and Improves Sensitivity to Doxorubicin of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells
Molecules 2015, 20(9), 15910-15928; doi:10.3390/molecules200915910
Received: 7 July 2015 / Revised: 19 August 2015 / Accepted: 26 August 2015 / Published: 1 September 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to its expression profile, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is refractory to the most effective targeted therapies available for breast cancer treatment. Thus, cytotoxic chemotherapy represents the mainstay of treatment for early and metastatic TNBC. Therefore, it would be greatly beneficial to develop
[...] Read more.
Due to its expression profile, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is refractory to the most effective targeted therapies available for breast cancer treatment. Thus, cytotoxic chemotherapy represents the mainstay of treatment for early and metastatic TNBC. Therefore, it would be greatly beneficial to develop therapeutic approaches that cause TNBC cells to increase their sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs. Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is emerging as an important signaling molecule in many cell types. Interestingly, it has been shown that Pi greatly enhances the sensitivity of human osteosarcoma cell line (U2OS) to doxorubicin. We investigated the effects of Pi on the sensitivity of TNBC cells to doxorubicin and the underlying molecular mechanisms, carrying out flow cytometry-based assays of cell-cycle progression and cell death, MTT assays, direct cell number counting and immunoblotting experiments. We report that Pi inhibits the proliferation of triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells mainly by slowing down cell cycle progression. Interestingly, we found that Pi strongly increases doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells by apoptosis induction, as revealed by a marked increase of sub-G1 population, Bcl-2 downregulation, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Remarkably, Pi/doxorubicin combination-induced cytotoxicity was dynamically accompanied by profound changes in Erk1/2 and Stat3 protein and phosphorylation levels. Altogether, our data enforce the evidence of Pi acting as a signaling molecule in MDA-MB-231 cells, capable of inhibiting Erk and Stat3 pathways and inducing sensitization to doxorubicin of TNBC cells, and suggest that targeting Pi levels at local sites might represent the rationale for developing effective and inexpensive strategies for improving triple-negative breast cancer therapy. Full article
Open AccessArticle Anti-Tumor Effects of Bak-Proteoliposomes against Glioblastoma
Molecules 2015, 20(9), 15893-15909; doi:10.3390/molecules200915893
Received: 20 July 2015 / Revised: 21 August 2015 / Accepted: 27 August 2015 / Published: 1 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite palliative treatments, glioblastoma (GBM) remains a devastating malignancy with a mean survival of about 15 months after diagnosis. Programmed cell-death is de-regulated in almost all GBM and the re-activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway through exogenous bioactive proteins may represent a powerful
[...] Read more.
Despite palliative treatments, glioblastoma (GBM) remains a devastating malignancy with a mean survival of about 15 months after diagnosis. Programmed cell-death is de-regulated in almost all GBM and the re-activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway through exogenous bioactive proteins may represent a powerful therapeutic tool to treat multidrug resistant GBM. We have reported that human Bak protein integrated in Liposomes (LB) was able, in vitro, to activate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in colon cancer cells. To evaluate the anti-tumor effects of LB on GBM, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays and Western blot analysis were performed on GL26 murine cell line. LB treatment shows a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability, followed by an up-regulation of Bax and a down-modulation of JNK1 proteins. In GL26-bearing mice, two different routes of administration were tested: intra-tumor and intravenous. Biodistribution, tumor growth and animal survival rates were followed. LB show long-lasting tumor accumulation. Moreover, the intra-tumor administration of LB induces tumor growth delay and total tumor regression in about 40% of treated mice, while the intravenous injection leads to a significant increased life span of mice paralleled by an increased tumor cells apoptosis. Our findings are functional to the design of LB with potentiated therapeutic efficacy for GBM. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Combined Molecular Docking/Dynamics Approach to Probe the Binding Mode of Cancer Drugs with Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecules 2015, 20(8), 14915-14935; doi:10.3390/molecules200814915
Received: 8 July 2015 / Revised: 11 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cytarabine, daunorubicin, doxorubicin and vincristine are clinically used for combinatorial therapies of cancers in different combinations. However, the knowledge about the interaction of these drugs with the metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 is limited. Therefore, we utilized computational methods to predict and assess the
[...] Read more.
Cytarabine, daunorubicin, doxorubicin and vincristine are clinically used for combinatorial therapies of cancers in different combinations. However, the knowledge about the interaction of these drugs with the metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 is limited. Therefore, we utilized computational methods to predict and assess the drug-binding modes. In this study, we performed docking, MD simulations and free energy landscape analysis to understand the drug-enzyme interactions, protein domain motions and the most populated free energy minimum conformations of the docked protein-drug complexes, respectively. The outcome of docking and MD simulations predicted the productive, as well as the non-productive binding modes of the selected drugs. Based on these interaction studies, we observed that S119, R212 and R372 are the major drug-binding residues in CYP3A4. The molecular mechanics Poisson–Boltzmann surface area analysis revealed the dominance of hydrophobic forces in the CYP3A4-drug association. Further analyses predicted the residues that may contain favorable drug-specific interactions. The probable binding modes of the cancer drugs from this study may extend the knowledge of the protein-drug interaction and pave the way to design analogs with reduced toxicity. In addition, they also provide valuable insights into the metabolism of the cancer drugs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: A Potential Multifunctional Approach towards Rheumatoid Arthritis Theranostics
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11103-11118; doi:10.3390/molecules200611103
Received: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 12 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2774 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common joint-related autoimmune disease and one of the most severe. Despite intensive investigation, the RA inflammatory process remains largely unknown and finding effective and long lasting therapies that specifically target RA is a challenging task. This study
[...] Read more.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common joint-related autoimmune disease and one of the most severe. Despite intensive investigation, the RA inflammatory process remains largely unknown and finding effective and long lasting therapies that specifically target RA is a challenging task. This study proposes a different approach for RA therapy, taking advantage of the new emerging field of nanomedicine to develop a targeted theranostic system for intravenous administration, using solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), a biocompatible and biodegradable colloidal delivery system, surface-functionalized with an anti-CD64 antibody that specifically targets macrophages in RA. Methotrexate (MTX) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were co-encapsulated inside the SLNs to be used as therapeutic and imaging agents, respectively. All the formulations presented sizes under 250 nm and zeta potential values lower than −16 mV, suitable characteristics for intravenous administration. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) photographs indicated that the SPIONs were encapsulated inside the SLN matrix and MTX association efficiency values were higher than 98%. In vitro studies, using THP-1 cells, demonstrated that all formulations presented low cytotoxicity at concentrations lower than 500 μg/mL. It was proven that the proposed NPs were not cytotoxic, that both a therapeutic and imaging agent could be co-encapsulated and that the SLN could be functionalized for a potential future application such as anti-body specific targeting. The proposed formulations are, therefore, promising candidates for future theranostic applications. Full article
Open AccessReview Multifunctional Iron Bound Lactoferrin and Nanomedicinal Approaches to Enhance Its Bioactive Functions
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 9703-9731; doi:10.3390/molecules20069703
Received: 23 February 2015 / Accepted: 13 May 2015 / Published: 26 May 2015
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (1616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-binding protein from the transferrin family has been reported to have numerous functions. Even though Lf was first isolated from milk, it is also found in most exocrine secretions and in the secondary granules of neutrophils. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity
[...] Read more.
Lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-binding protein from the transferrin family has been reported to have numerous functions. Even though Lf was first isolated from milk, it is also found in most exocrine secretions and in the secondary granules of neutrophils. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity reports on lactoferrin identified its significance in host defense against infection and extreme inflammation. Anticarcinogenic reports on lactoferrin make this protein even more valuable. This review is focused on the structural configuration of iron-containing and iron-free forms of lactoferrin obtained from different sources such as goat, camel and bovine. Apart for emphasizing on the specific beneficial properties of lactoferrin from each of these sources, the general antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anticancer activities of lactoferrin are discussed here. Implementation of nanomedicinial strategies that enhance the bioactive function of lactoferrin are also discussed, along with information on lactoferrin in clinical trials. Full article
Open AccessArticle Self-Assembled Polyelectrolyte Nanoparticles as Fluorophore-Free Contrast Agents for Multicolor Optical Imaging
Molecules 2015, 20(3), 4369-4382; doi:10.3390/molecules20034369
Received: 17 February 2015 / Revised: 2 March 2015 / Accepted: 3 March 2015 / Published: 9 March 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, we describe the fabrication of self-assembled polyelectrolyte nanoparticles that provide a multicolor optical imaging modality. Poly(γ-glutamic acid)(γ-PGA) formed self-assembled nanoparticles through electrostatic interactions with two different cationic polymers: poly(L-lysine)(PLL) and chitosan. The self-assembled γ-PGA/PLL and γ-PGA/chitosan nanoparticles were crosslinked by
[...] Read more.
In this work, we describe the fabrication of self-assembled polyelectrolyte nanoparticles that provide a multicolor optical imaging modality. Poly(γ-glutamic acid)(γ-PGA) formed self-assembled nanoparticles through electrostatic interactions with two different cationic polymers: poly(L-lysine)(PLL) and chitosan. The self-assembled γ-PGA/PLL and γ-PGA/chitosan nanoparticles were crosslinked by glutaraldehyde. Crosslinking of the ionic self-assembled nanoparticles with glutaraldehyde not only stabilized the nanoparticles but also generated a strong autofluorescence signal. Fluorescent Schiff base bonds (C=N) and double bonds (C=C) were generated simultaneously by crosslinking of the amine moiety of the cationic polyelectrolytes with monomeric glutaraldehyde or with polymeric glutaraldehyde. The unique optical properties of the nanoparticles that resulted from the crosslinking by glutaraldehyde were analyzed using UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. We observed that the fluorescence intensity of the nanoparticles could be regulated by adjusting the crosslinker concentration and the reaction time. The nanoparticles also exhibited high performance in the labeling and monitoring of therapeutic immune cells (macrophages and dendritic cells). These self-assembled nanoparticles are expected to be a promising multicolor optical imaging contrast agent for the labeling, detection, and monitoring of cells. Full article
Back to Top