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Special Issue "Immunosensors"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Loïc J. Blum (Website)

Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, Institut de Chimie et Biochimie Moléculaires et Supramoléculmaires, ICBMS-UMR5246 Bâtiment Curien, 43 Boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cédex, France
Phone: +33 472 43 13 97
Fax: +33 4 72 44 79 70
Interests: chemi- and bio-luminescence; electrochemiluminescence; immunosensors; biochips; fiberoptic biosensors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Immunosensors are biosensors based on specific antigen-antibody interactions and in which the transducer detect either directly or indirectly the immunochemical reactions. In the indirect approach, the detection of the immune complex is achieved through the labelling of either the antibody or the antigen depending on the immunoassay format (sandwich type, competition, capture). Most often, an optical detection (fluorescence chemiluminescence, electrochemiluminescence, absorbance) is used although electrochemical detection has been also described. Direct detection approaches are label-free methods, in which the specific binding event between the antibody and the target analyte (the antigen) is monitored by a change or a variation in physicochemical properties. In that case, the detection methods include electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, microgravimetry and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In addition, these direct detection methods can also provide kinetics information on the antigen-antibody reaction.
Beyond the specific detection of analytes, the constant search for high-performance systems has led with the help of micro and nanotechnologies and the integration of microfluidics to the development of miniaturized immunosensor-based devices with for some of them high-throughput analytical properties. Not only clinical analysis, the traditional field of application of immunoanalysis, will benefit from these new developments but also environmental analysis, quality control in pharmaceutical and food industries, biosecurity and prevention of bioterrorism and finally the proteomic era with protein profiling and protein-protein interaction studies.

Prof. Dr. Loïc Jacques Blum
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • immunosensors
  • immunoassays
  • immunoanalysis
  • electrochemical immunosensors
  • chemiluminescent immunosensors
  • capacitive immunosensors
  • protein immobilization
  • Langmuir-Blodgett films
  • total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF)
  • Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) immunosensors
  • Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)
  • label-free immunosensors
  • antigen immobilization
  • antibody immobilization
  • protein chips
  • immunochips
  • microarrays
  • flow immunosensors
  • Immuno-PCR

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Displaying articles 1-9
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Research

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Open AccessArticle Detection of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 11633-11643; doi:10.3390/s101211633
Received: 26 October 2010 / Revised: 10 December 2010 / Accepted: 11 December 2010 / Published: 20 December 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current methods for diagnosing early stage osteoarthritis (OA) based on the magnetic resonance imaging and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods are specific, but require specialized laboratory facilities and highly trained personal to obtain a definitive result. In this work, a user friendly and [...] Read more.
Current methods for diagnosing early stage osteoarthritis (OA) based on the magnetic resonance imaging and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods are specific, but require specialized laboratory facilities and highly trained personal to obtain a definitive result. In this work, a user friendly and non-invasive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor method has been developed to detect Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP) for early stage OA diagnosis. This QCM immunosensor was fabricated to immobilize COMP antibodies utilizing the self-assembled monolayer technique. The surface properties of the immunosensor were characterized by its FTIR and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The feasibility study was based on urine samples obtained from 41 volunteers. Experiments were carried out in a flow system and the reproducibility of the electrodes was evaluated by the impedance measured by EIS. Its potential dynamically monitored the immunoreaction processes and could increase the efficiency and sensitivity of COMP detection in laboratory-cultured preparations and clinical samples. The frequency responses of the QCM immunosensor changed from 6 kHz when testing 50 ng/mL COMP concentration. The linear regression equation of frequency shift and COMP concentration was determined as: y = 0.0872 x + 1.2138 (R2 = 0.9957). The COMP in urine was also determined by both QCM and EIS for comparison. A highly sensitive, user friendly and cost effective analytical method for the early stage OA diagnosis has thus been successfully developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunosensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study on the Immunoassay of Human Immunoglobulin Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 11498-11511; doi:10.3390/s101211498
Received: 3 November 2010 / Revised: 29 November 2010 / Accepted: 6 December 2010 / Published: 15 December 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We investigate a immunoassay biosensor that employs a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) to detect the specific binding reaction of the (Human IgG1)-(Anti-Human IgG1) protein pair under physiological conditions. In addition to experiments, a three dimensional time domain finite element method (FEM) was [...] Read more.
We investigate a immunoassay biosensor that employs a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) to detect the specific binding reaction of the (Human IgG1)-(Anti-Human IgG1) protein pair under physiological conditions. In addition to experiments, a three dimensional time domain finite element method (FEM) was used to perform simulations for the biomolecular binding reaction in microfluidic channels. In particular, we discuss the unsteady convective diffusion in the transportation tube, which conveys the buffer solution containing the analyte molecules into the micro-channel where the QCM sensor lies. It is found that the distribution of the analyte concentration in the tube is strongly affected by the flow field, yielding large discrepancies between the simulations and experimental results. Our analysis shows that the conventional assumption of the analyte concentration in the inlet of the micro-channel being uniform and constant in time is inadequate. In addition, we also show that the commonly used procedure in kinetic analysis for estimating binding rate constants from the experimental data would underestimate these rate constants due to neglected diffusion processes from the inlet to the reaction surface. A calibration procedure is proposed to supplement the basic kinetic analysis, thus yielding better consistency with experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunosensors)
Open AccessArticle Direct Detection of the Biological Toxin in Acidic Environment by Electrochemical Impedimetric Immunosensor
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 11414-11427; doi:10.3390/s101211414
Received: 29 September 2010 / Revised: 27 October 2010 / Accepted: 22 November 2010 / Published: 13 December 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1031 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study describes the direct detection of the biological toxin (Ricin) in acidic environment without pH adjustment by hydrophobically modified electrochemical impedance immunosensor (EII). The nano-porous aluminum substrate for EII was hydrophobically modified via self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of APTES. Biosensor for the [...] Read more.
This study describes the direct detection of the biological toxin (Ricin) in acidic environment without pH adjustment by hydrophobically modified electrochemical impedance immunosensor (EII). The nano-porous aluminum substrate for EII was hydrophobically modified via self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of APTES. Biosensor for the detection of the Ricin was fabricated by the covalent cross-linking of antibody (Ab) with APTES-SAM. The immunoreactions between the immobilized Ab and the biological toxin in several diagnostic solutions were monitored by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) under the polarization of EII versus reference electrode. EII could detect the presence of the biological toxin in acidic foods in 20 mins without pH adjustment. The negatively charged ions including hydroxides would be adsorbed on the hydrophobic body of APTES-SAMs by the polarization during EIS analysis, and offset the effect of acids on the immunological activity of the immobilized Ab. It suggested that the adsorption of negatively charged ions helped to keep the immunological activities of the immobilized Ab on EII in acidic environment. Proposed mechanism of the localized pH adjustment that makes possible immunoreaction occurrence in low pH sample matrix is briefly discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunosensors)
Open AccessArticle A Highly Sensitive Enzyme-Amplified Immunosensor Based on a Nanoporous Niobium Oxide (Nb2O5) Electrode
Sensors 2010, 10(5), 5160-5170; doi:10.3390/s100505160
Received: 26 March 2010 / Revised: 13 April 2010 / Accepted: 10 May 2010 / Published: 25 May 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1033 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report on the development of an enzyme-amplified sandwich-type immunosensor based on a thin gold film sputtered on an anodic nanoporous niobium oxide (Au@Nb2O5) electrode. The electrocatalytic activity of enzymatically amplified electroactive species and a stable electrode consisting [...] Read more.
We report on the development of an enzyme-amplified sandwich-type immunosensor based on a thin gold film sputtered on an anodic nanoporous niobium oxide (Au@Nb2O5) electrode. The electrocatalytic activity of enzymatically amplified electroactive species and a stable electrode consisting of Au@Nb2O5 were used to obtain a powerful signal amplification of the electrochemical immunobiosensor. The method using this electrochemical biosensor based on an Au@Nb2O5 electrode provides a much better performance than those based on conventional bulk gold or niobium oxide electrodes. Our novel approach does not require any time-consuming cleaning steps to yield reproducible electrochemical signals. In addition, the strong adhesion of gold films on the niobium oxide electrodes offers a very stable substrate during electrochemical biosensing. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicate that non-specific binding of proteins to the modified Au@Nb2O5 surface is sufficiently low to be ignored in the case of our novel system. Finally, we demonstrated the ability of the biosensor based on an Au@Nb2O5 offering the enhanced performance with a high resolution and sensitivity. Therefore, it is expected that the biosensor based on an Au@Nb2O5 has great potential for highly efficient biological devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunosensors)
Open AccessArticle Multiplexed Electrochemical Detection of Yersinia Pestis and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B using an Antibody Microarray
Sensors 2010, 10(4), 3351-3362; doi:10.3390/s100403351
Received: 8 February 2010 / Revised: 28 February 2010 / Accepted: 26 March 2010 / Published: 6 April 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (411 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The CombiMatrix antibody microarray is a versatile, sensitive detection platform based on the generation and transduction of electrochemical signals following antigen binding to surface antibodies. The sensor chip described herein is comprised of microelectrodes coupled to an adjacent bio-friendly matrix coated with [...] Read more.
The CombiMatrix antibody microarray is a versatile, sensitive detection platform based on the generation and transduction of electrochemical signals following antigen binding to surface antibodies. The sensor chip described herein is comprised of microelectrodes coupled to an adjacent bio-friendly matrix coated with antibodies to the biological pathogens Yersinia pestis and Bacillus anthracis, and the bacterial toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). Using this system, we were able to detect SEB and inactivated Y. pestis individually as well as in two-plex assays at concentrations as low as 5 pg/mL and 106 CFU/mL, respectively. We also introduce super avidin-biotin system (SABS) as a viable and effective means to enhance assay signal responses and lower detection limits. Together these technologies represent substantial advances in point-of-care and point-of-use detection applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunosensors)
Open AccessArticle Signal Amplification by Enzymatic Reaction in an Immunosensor Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR)
Sensors 2010, 10(3), 2045-2053; doi:10.3390/s100302045
Received: 20 January 2010 / Revised: 15 February 2010 / Accepted: 4 March 2010 / Published: 12 March 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (618 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An enzymatic reaction was employed as a means to enhance the sensitivity of an immunosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The reaction occurs after intermolecular binding between an antigen and an antibody on gold nano-island (NI) surfaces. For LSPR sensing, [...] Read more.
An enzymatic reaction was employed as a means to enhance the sensitivity of an immunosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The reaction occurs after intermolecular binding between an antigen and an antibody on gold nano-island (NI) surfaces. For LSPR sensing, the gold NI surface was fabricated on glass substrates using vacuum evaporation and heat treatment. The interferon-g (IFN-g) capture antibody was immobilized on the gold NIs, followed by binding of IFN-g to the antibody. Subsequently, a biotinylated antibody and a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated with avidin were simultaneously introduced. A solution of 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN) was then used for precipitation; precipitation was the result of the enzymatic reaction catalyzed the HRP on gold NIs. The LSPR spectra were obtained after each binding process. Using this method, the enzyme-catalyzed precipitation reaction on the gold NI surface was found to effectively amplify the change in the signal of the LSPR immunosensor after intermolecular binding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunosensors)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Ca2+-Regulated Photoproteins: Effective Immunoassay Reporters
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 11287-11300; doi:10.3390/s101211287
Received: 29 October 2010 / Revised: 24 November 2010 / Accepted: 3 December 2010 / Published: 10 December 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ca2+-regulated photoproteins of luminous marine coelenterates are of interest and a challenge for researchers as a unique bioluminescent system and as a promising analytical instrument for both in vivo and in vitro applications. The proteins are comprehensively studied as to [...] Read more.
Ca2+-regulated photoproteins of luminous marine coelenterates are of interest and a challenge for researchers as a unique bioluminescent system and as a promising analytical instrument for both in vivo and in vitro applications. The proteins are comprehensively studied as to biochemical properties, tertiary structures, bioluminescence mechanism, etc. This knowledge, along with available recombinant proteins serves the basis for development of unique bioluminescent detection systems that are “self-contained”, triggerable, fast, highly sensitive, and non-hazardous. In the paper, we focus on the use of photoproteins as reporters in binding assays based on immunological recognition element—bioluminescent immunoassay and hybridization immunoassay, their advantages and prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunosensors)
Open AccessReview Small Molecule Immunosensing Using Surface Plasmon Resonance
Sensors 2010, 10(8), 7323-7346; doi:10.3390/s100807323
Received: 18 June 2010 / Revised: 15 July 2010 / Accepted: 25 July 2010 / Published: 4 August 2010
Cited by 62 | PDF Full-text (544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors utilize refractive index changes to sensitively detect mass changes at noble metal sensor surface interfaces. As such, they have been extensively applied to immunoassays of large molecules, where their high mass and use of sandwich immunoassay formats [...] Read more.
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors utilize refractive index changes to sensitively detect mass changes at noble metal sensor surface interfaces. As such, they have been extensively applied to immunoassays of large molecules, where their high mass and use of sandwich immunoassay formats can result in excellent sensitivity. Small molecule immunosensing using SPR is more challenging. It requires antibodies or high-mass or noble metal labels to provide the required signal for ultrasensitive assays. Also, it can suffer from steric hindrance between the small antigen and large antibodies. However, new studies are increasingly meeting these and other challenges to offer highly sensitive small molecule immunosensor technologies through careful consideration of sensor interface design and signal enhancement. This review examines the application of SPR transduction technologies to small molecule immunoassays directed to different classes of small molecule antigens, including the steroid hormones, toxins, drugs and explosives residues. Also considered are the matrix effects resulting from measurement in chemically complex samples, the construction of stable sensor surfaces and the development of multiplexed assays capable of detecting several compounds at once. Assay design approaches are discussed and related to the sensitivities obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunosensors)
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Open AccessReview Prospects of Nanotechnology in Clinical Immunodiagnostics
Sensors 2010, 10(7), 6535-6581; doi:10.3390/s100706535
Received: 30 May 2010 / Revised: 12 June 2010 / Published: 7 July 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (748 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanostructured materials are promising compounds that offer new opportunities as sensing platforms for the detection of biomolecules. Having micrometer-scale length and nanometer-scale diameters, nanomaterials can be manipulated with current nanofabrication methods, as well as self-assembly techniques, to fabricate nanoscale bio-sensing devices. Nanostructured [...] Read more.
Nanostructured materials are promising compounds that offer new opportunities as sensing platforms for the detection of biomolecules. Having micrometer-scale length and nanometer-scale diameters, nanomaterials can be manipulated with current nanofabrication methods, as well as self-assembly techniques, to fabricate nanoscale bio-sensing devices. Nanostructured materials possess extraordinary physical, mechanical, electrical, thermal and multifunctional properties. Such unique properties advocate their use as biomimetic membranes to immobilize and modify biomolecules on the surface of nanoparticles. Alignment, uniform dispersion, selective growth and diameter control are general parameters which play critical roles in the successful integration of nanostructures for the fabrication of bioelectronic sensing devices. In this review, we focus on different types and aspects of nanomaterials, including their synthesis, properties, conjugation with biomolecules and their application in the construction of immunosensing devices. Some key results from each cited article are summarized by relating the concept and mechanism behind each sensor, experimental conditions and the behavior of the sensor under different conditions, etc. The variety of nanomaterial-based bioelectronic devices exhibiting novel functions proves the unique properties of nanomaterials in such sensing devices, which will surely continue to expand in the future. Such nanomaterial based devices are expected to have a major impact in clinical immunodiagnostics, environmental monitoring, security surveillance and for ensuring food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunosensors)
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