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Special Issue "Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Jaime Lloret Mauri

Integrated Management Coastal Research Institute, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera 46022, Valencia, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +34 96 2849313
Interests: Wireless Sensor Networks; Wireless Local Area Networks; routing protocols; P2P networks Video Streaming

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

More than the 70% of the earth surface is covered with water (almost all of that is the ocean). New technologies have brought us new ways to monitor and sense aquatic environments. Marine surveillance, pollution detection and monitoring, and oceanographic data collection are needed to explore, protect, and commercial exploit the aquatic environment. Many potential applications exist such as fish and mussels grow observation, deep-sea archaeology, seismic and volcanic prediction, oil monitoring and so on.

This special issue tries to collect the recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks to measure, monitor, surveillance and control underwater environments. Because of the environment nature, many features must be taken into account: the need of large number of nodes, limited energy of the nodes, short-distance radio communications, large propagation latency, low bandwidth capacity and high error rate. All these constraints make underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks a special case of the regular ones.

Contributions from 8th IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems (IEEE MASS 2011) with extended results are welcomed, http://mass2011.upv.es/. Contributions from the 4th and 5th IEEE/IFIP International Workshop on Ubiquitous UnderWater Sensor Network (UUWSN2010 and UUWSN2011) with extended results are welcomed, http://www.uuwsn.org/. Manuscripts from conferences of IEEE MASS 2011 and UUWSN should have at least 40% extension compared with the conference ones.

Topics of interest of this special issue include, but are not limited to, the following topics:

  • Sensor nodes to measure water parameters (salinity, conductivity, turbidity, pH, oxygen, temperature, depth, etc.)
  • Sediments and pollution sensor nodes
  • Acoustic sensors
  • Underwater sensor network architectures
  • Wired and wireless protocols for underwater sensor networks
  • Localization systems for underwater wireless sensor networks
  • Target tracking using underwater sensor networks
  • Optical, acoustic and electromagnetic communications for underwater sensor networks
  • Modems for underwater sensor networks
  • Study cases, implementations and real deployments of underwater sensor networks
  • Routing protocols specialized for underwater wireless sensor networks
  • Cooperation in underwater sensor networks
  • Modeling and simulation in underwater sensor networks
  • Data collection, storage, and retrieval by underwater sensor network

Dr. Jaime Lloret Mauri
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • underwater sensor nodes
  • underwater sensor networks
  • UWSNs (Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks)
  • underwater uensor communications

Published Papers (31 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Underwater Sensor Nodes and Networks
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 11782-11796; doi:10.3390/s130911782
Received: 4 September 2013 / Accepted: 5 September 2013 / Published: 5 September 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sensor technology has matured enough to be used in any type of environment. The appearance of new physical sensors has increased the range of environmental parameters for gathering data. Because of the huge amount of unexploited resources in the ocean environment, there is
[...] Read more.
Sensor technology has matured enough to be used in any type of environment. The appearance of new physical sensors has increased the range of environmental parameters for gathering data. Because of the huge amount of unexploited resources in the ocean environment, there is a need of new research in the field of sensors and sensor networks. This special issue is focused on collecting recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks in order to measure, monitor, surveillance of and control of underwater environments. On the one hand, from the sensor node perspective, we will see works related with the deployment of physical sensors, development of sensor nodes and transceivers for sensor nodes, sensor measurement analysis and several issues such as layer 1 and 2 protocols for underwater communication and sensor localization and positioning systems. On the other hand, from the sensor network perspective, we will see several architectures and protocols for underwater environments and analysis concerning sensor network measurements. Both sides will provide us a complete view of last scientific advances in this research field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Underwater Communications for Video Surveillance Systems at 2.4 GHz
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1769; doi:10.3390/s16101769
Received: 30 July 2016 / Revised: 11 October 2016 / Accepted: 19 October 2016 / Published: 23 October 2016
PDF Full-text (4984 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Video surveillance is needed to control many activities performed in underwater environments. The use of wired media can be a problem since the material specially designed for underwater environments is very expensive. In order to transmit the images and videos wirelessly under water,
[...] Read more.
Video surveillance is needed to control many activities performed in underwater environments. The use of wired media can be a problem since the material specially designed for underwater environments is very expensive. In order to transmit the images and videos wirelessly under water, three main technologies can be used: acoustic waves, which do not provide high bandwidth, optical signals, although the effect of light dispersion in water severely penalizes the transmitted signals and therefore, despite offering high transfer rates, the maximum distance is very small, and electromagnetic (EM) waves, which can provide enough bandwidth for video delivery. In the cases where the distance between transmitter and receiver is short, the use of EM waves would be an interesting option since they provide high enough data transfer rates to transmit videos with high resolution. This paper presents a practical study of the behavior of EM waves at 2.4 GHz in freshwater underwater environments. First, we discuss the minimum requirements of a network to allow video delivery. From these results, we measure the maximum distance between nodes and the round trip time (RTT) value depending on several parameters such as data transfer rate, signal modulations, working frequency, and water temperature. The results are statistically analyzed to determine their relation. Finally, the EM waves’ behavior is modeled by a set of equations. The results show that there are some combinations of working frequency, modulation, transfer rate and temperature that offer better results than others. Our work shows that short communication distances with high data transfer rates is feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle An Ultra-Low Power and Flexible Acoustic Modem Design to Develop Energy-Efficient Underwater Sensor Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(6), 6837-6856; doi:10.3390/s120606837
Received: 3 April 2012 / Revised: 8 May 2012 / Accepted: 16 May 2012 / Published: 25 May 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper is focused on the description of the physical layer of a new acoustic modem called ITACA. The modem architecture includes as a major novelty an ultra-low power asynchronous wake-up system implementation for underwater acoustic transmission that is based on a low-cost
[...] Read more.
This paper is focused on the description of the physical layer of a new acoustic modem called ITACA. The modem architecture includes as a major novelty an ultra-low power asynchronous wake-up system implementation for underwater acoustic transmission that is based on a low-cost off-the-shelf RFID peripheral integrated circuit. This feature enables a reduced power dissipation of 10 µW in stand-by mode and registers very low power values during reception and transmission. The modem also incorporates clear channel assessment (CCA) to support CSMA-based medium access control (MAC) layer protocols. The design is part of a compact platform for a long-life short/medium range underwater wireless sensor network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Localization with a Mobile Beacon in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(5), 5486-5501; doi:10.3390/s120505486
Received: 21 March 2012 / Revised: 23 April 2012 / Accepted: 23 April 2012 / Published: 27 April 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (701 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Localization is one of the most important issues associated with underwater acoustic sensor networks, especially when sensor nodes are randomly deployed. Given that it is difficult to deploy beacon nodes at predetermined locations, localization schemes with a mobile beacon on the sea surface
[...] Read more.
Localization is one of the most important issues associated with underwater acoustic sensor networks, especially when sensor nodes are randomly deployed. Given that it is difficult to deploy beacon nodes at predetermined locations, localization schemes with a mobile beacon on the sea surface or along the planned path are inherently convenient, accurate, and energy-efficient. In this paper, we propose a new range-free Localization with a Mobile Beacon (LoMoB). The mobile beacon periodically broadcasts a beacon message containing its location. Sensor nodes are individually localized by passively receiving the beacon messages without inter-node communications. For location estimation, a set of potential locations are obtained as candidates for a node’s location and then the node’s location is determined through the weighted mean of all the potential locations with the weights computed based on residuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle On the Selection of Transmission Range in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(4), 4715-4729; doi:10.3390/s120404715
Received: 2 March 2012 / Revised: 5 April 2012 / Accepted: 5 April 2012 / Published: 11 April 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (406 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Transmission range plays an important role in the deployment of a practical underwater acoustic sensor network (UWSN), where sensor nodes equipping with only basic functions are deployed at random locations with no particular geometrical arrangements. The selection of the transmission range directly influences
[...] Read more.
Transmission range plays an important role in the deployment of a practical underwater acoustic sensor network (UWSN), where sensor nodes equipping with only basic functions are deployed at random locations with no particular geometrical arrangements. The selection of the transmission range directly influences the energy efficiency and the network connectivity of such a random network. In this paper, we seek analytical modeling to investigate the tradeoff between the energy efficiency and the network connectivity through the selection of the transmission range. Our formulation offers a design guideline for energy-efficient packet transmission operation given a certain network connectivity requirement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle A Network Coding Based Routing Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(4), 4559-4577; doi:10.3390/s120404559
Received: 15 February 2012 / Revised: 14 March 2012 / Accepted: 22 March 2012 / Published: 10 April 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (734 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the particularities of the underwater environment, some negative factors will seriously interfere with data transmission rates, reliability of data communication, communication range, and network throughput and energy consumption of underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). Thus, full consideration of node energy savings, while
[...] Read more.
Due to the particularities of the underwater environment, some negative factors will seriously interfere with data transmission rates, reliability of data communication, communication range, and network throughput and energy consumption of underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). Thus, full consideration of node energy savings, while maintaining a quick, correct and effective data transmission, extending the network life cycle are essential when routing protocols for underwater sensor networks are studied. In this paper, we have proposed a novel routing algorithm for UWSNs. To increase energy consumption efficiency and extend network lifetime, we propose a time-slot based routing algorithm (TSR).We designed a probability balanced mechanism and applied it to TSR. The theory of network coding is introduced to TSBR to meet the requirement of further reducing node energy consumption and extending network lifetime. Hence, time-slot based balanced network coding (TSBNC) comes into being. We evaluated the proposed time-slot based balancing routing algorithm and compared it with other classical underwater routing protocols. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol can reduce the probability of node conflicts, shorten the process of routing construction, balance energy consumption of each node and effectively prolong the network lifetime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle A Reverse Localization Scheme for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(4), 4352-4380; doi:10.3390/s120404352
Received: 16 February 2012 / Revised: 18 March 2012 / Accepted: 19 March 2012 / Published: 29 March 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) provide new opportunities to observe and predict the behavior of aquatic environments. In some applications like target tracking or disaster prevention, sensed data is meaningless without location information. In this paper, we propose a novel 3D centralized, localization
[...] Read more.
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) provide new opportunities to observe and predict the behavior of aquatic environments. In some applications like target tracking or disaster prevention, sensed data is meaningless without location information. In this paper, we propose a novel 3D centralized, localization scheme for mobile underwater wireless sensor network, named Reverse Localization Scheme or RLS in short. RLS is an event-driven localization method triggered by detector sensors for launching localization process. RLS is suitable for surveillance applications that require very fast reactions to events and could report the location of the occurrence. In this method, mobile sensor nodes report the event toward the surface anchors as soon as they detect it. They do not require waiting to receive location information from anchors. Simulation results confirm that the proposed scheme improves the energy efficiency and reduces significantly localization response time with a proper level of accuracy in terms of mobility model of water currents. Major contributions of this method lie on reducing the numbers of message exchange for localization, saving the energy and decreasing the average localization response time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Underwater Wireless Sensor Communications in the 2.4 GHz ISM Frequency Band
Sensors 2012, 12(4), 4237-4264; doi:10.3390/s120404237
Received: 20 February 2012 / Revised: 19 March 2012 / Accepted: 26 March 2012 / Published: 28 March 2012
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (865 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the main problems in underwater communications is the low data rate available due to the use of low frequencies. Moreover, there are many problems inherent to the medium such as reflections, refraction, energy dispersion, etc., that greatly degrade communication between
[...] Read more.
One of the main problems in underwater communications is the low data rate available due to the use of low frequencies. Moreover, there are many problems inherent to the medium such as reflections, refraction, energy dispersion, etc., that greatly degrade communication between devices. In some cases, wireless sensors must be placed quite close to each other in order to take more accurate measurements from the water while having high communication bandwidth. In these cases, while most researchers focus their efforts on increasing the data rate for low frequencies, we propose the use of the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band in these special cases. In this paper, we show our wireless sensor node deployment and its performance obtained from a real scenario and measures taken for different frequencies, modulations and data transfer rates. The performed tests show the maximum distance between sensors, the number of lost packets and the average round trip time. Based on our measurements, we provide some experimental models of underwater communication in fresh water using EM waves in the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band. Finally, we compare our communication system proposal with the existing systems. Although our proposal provides short communication distances, it provides high data transfer rates. It can be used for precision monitoring in applications such as contaminated ecosystems or for device communicate at high depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Acoustic Transmitters for Underwater Neutrino Telescopes
Sensors 2012, 12(4), 4113-4132; doi:10.3390/s120404113
Received: 29 February 2012 / Revised: 20 March 2012 / Accepted: 22 March 2012 / Published: 27 March 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1319 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper acoustic transmitters that were developed for use in underwater neutrino telescopes are presented. Firstly, an acoustic transceiver has been developed as part of the acoustic positioning system of neutrino telescopes. These infrastructures are not completely rigid and require a positioning
[...] Read more.
In this paper acoustic transmitters that were developed for use in underwater neutrino telescopes are presented. Firstly, an acoustic transceiver has been developed as part of the acoustic positioning system of neutrino telescopes. These infrastructures are not completely rigid and require a positioning system in order to monitor the position of the optical sensors which move due to sea currents. To guarantee a reliable and versatile system, the transceiver has the requirements of reduced cost, low power consumption, high pressure withstanding (up to 500 bars), high intensity for emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring and processing received signals. Secondly, a compact acoustic transmitter array has been developed for the calibration of acoustic neutrino detection systems. The array is able to mimic the signature of ultra-high-energy neutrino interaction in emission directivity and signal shape. The technique of parametric acoustic sources has been used to achieve the proposed aim. The developed compact array has practical features such as easy manageability and operation. The prototype designs and the results of different tests are described. The techniques applied for these two acoustic systems are so powerful and versatile that may be of interest in other marine applications using acoustic transmitters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Submersible UV-Vis Spectroscopy for Quantifying Streamwater Organic Carbon Dynamics: Implementation and Challenges before and after Forest Harvest in a Headwater Stream
Sensors 2012, 12(4), 3798-3813; doi:10.3390/s120403798
Received: 3 March 2012 / Revised: 14 March 2012 / Accepted: 21 March 2012 / Published: 23 March 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organic material, including total and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), is ubiquitous within aquatic ecosystems, playing a variety of important and diverse biogeochemical and ecological roles. Determining how land-use changes affect DOC concentrations and bioavailability within aquatic ecosystems is an important means of evaluating
[...] Read more.
Organic material, including total and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), is ubiquitous within aquatic ecosystems, playing a variety of important and diverse biogeochemical and ecological roles. Determining how land-use changes affect DOC concentrations and bioavailability within aquatic ecosystems is an important means of evaluating the effects on ecological productivity and biogeochemical cycling. This paper presents a methodology case study looking at the deployment of a submersible UV-Vis absorbance spectrophotometer (UV-Vis spectro::lyzer model, s::can, Vienna, Austria) to determine stream organic carbon dynamics within a headwater catchment located near Campbell River (British Columbia, Canada). Field-based absorbance measurements of DOC were made before and after forest harvest, highlighting the advantages of high temporal resolution compared to traditional grab sampling and laboratory measurements. Details of remote deployment are described. High-frequency DOC data is explored by resampling the 30 min time series with a range of resampling time intervals (from daily to weekly time steps). DOC export was calculated for three months from the post-harvest data and resampled time series, showing that sampling frequency has a profound effect on total DOC export. DOC exports derived from weekly measurements were found to underestimate export by as much as 30% compared to DOC export calculated from high-frequency data. Additionally, the importance of the ability to remotely monitor the system through a recently deployed wireless connection is emphasized by examining causes of prior data losses, and how such losses may be prevented through the ability to react when environmental or power disturbances cause system interruption and data loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Ocean Bottom Seismometer: Design and Test of a Measurement System for Marine Seismology
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3693-3719; doi:10.3390/s120303693
Received: 21 February 2012 / Accepted: 12 March 2012 / Published: 19 March 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1647 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) is a key instrument for the geophysical study of sea sub-bottom layers. At present, more reliable autonomous instruments capable of recording underwater for long periods of time and therefore handling large data storage are needed. This paper presents
[...] Read more.
The Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) is a key instrument for the geophysical study of sea sub-bottom layers. At present, more reliable autonomous instruments capable of recording underwater for long periods of time and therefore handling large data storage are needed. This paper presents a new Ocean Bottom Seismometer designed to be used in long duration seismic surveys. Power consumption and noise level of the acquisition system are the key points to optimize the autonomy and the data quality. To achieve our goals, a new low power data logger with high resolution and Signal–to-Noise Ratio (SNR) based on Compact Flash memory card is designed to enable continuous data acquisition. The equipment represents the achievement of joint work from different scientific and technological disciplines as electronics, mechanics, acoustics, communications, information technology, marine geophysics, etc. This easy to handle and sophisticated equipment allows the recording of useful controlled source and passive seismic data, as well as other time varying data, with multiple applications in marine environment research. We have been working on a series of prototypes for ten years to improve many of the aspects that make the equipment easy to handle and useful to work in deep-water areas. Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) have received growing attention from the geoscience community during the last forty years. OBS sensors recording motion of the ocean floor hold key information in order to study offshore seismicity and to explore the Earth’s crust. In a seismic survey, a series of OBSs are placed on the seabed of the area under study, where they record either natural seismic activity or acoustic signals generated by compressed air-guns on the ocean surface. The resulting data sets are subsequently used to model both the earthquake locations and the crustal structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Wireless Sensor Node for Surface Seawater Density Measurements
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 2954-2968; doi:10.3390/s120302954
Received: 31 January 2012 / Revised: 9 February 2012 / Accepted: 21 February 2012 / Published: 2 March 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (705 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes’ law depends on the density of the water. The
[...] Read more.
An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes’ law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Ranging in an Underwater Medium with Multiple Isogradient Sound Speed Profile Layers
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 2996-3017; doi:10.3390/s120302996
Received: 17 December 2011 / Revised: 20 February 2012 / Accepted: 24 February 2012 / Published: 2 March 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (3577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we analyze the problem of acoustic ranging between sensor nodes in an underwater environment. The underwater medium is assumed to be composed of multiple isogradient sound speed profile (SSP) layers where in each layer the sound speed is linearly related
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we analyze the problem of acoustic ranging between sensor nodes in an underwater environment. The underwater medium is assumed to be composed of multiple isogradient sound speed profile (SSP) layers where in each layer the sound speed is linearly related to the depth. Furthermore, each sensor node is able to measure its depth and can exchange this information with other nodes. Under these assumptions, we first show how the problem of underwater localization can be converted to the traditional range-based terrestrial localization problem when the depth information of the nodes is known a priori. Second, we relate the pair-wise time of flight (ToF) measurements between the nodes to their positions. Next, based on this relation, we propose a novel ranging algorithm for an underwater medium. The proposed ranging algorithm considers reflections from the seabed and sea surface. We will show that even without any reflections, the transmitted signal may travel through more than one path between two given nodes. The proposed algorithm analyzes them and selects the fastest one (first arrival path) based on the measured ToF and the nodes’ depth measurements. Finally, in order to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm we run several simulations and compare the results with other existing algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Design and Implementation of an Omni-Directional Underwater Acoustic Micro-Modem Based on a Low-Power Micro-Controller Unit
Sensors 2012, 12(2), 2309-2323; doi:10.3390/s120202309
Received: 20 December 2011 / Revised: 2 February 2012 / Accepted: 2 February 2012 / Published: 20 February 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (939 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For decades, underwater acoustic communication has been restricted to the point-to-point long distance applications such as deep sea probes and offshore oil fields. For this reason, previous acoustic modems were typically characterized by high data rates and long working ranges at the expense
[...] Read more.
For decades, underwater acoustic communication has been restricted to the point-to-point long distance applications such as deep sea probes and offshore oil fields. For this reason, previous acoustic modems were typically characterized by high data rates and long working ranges at the expense of large size and high power consumption. Recently, as the need for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has increased, the research and development of compact and low-power consuming communication devices has become the focus. From the consideration that the requisites of acoustic modems for UWSNs are low power consumption, omni-directional beam pattern, low cost and so on, in this paper, we design and implement an omni-directional underwater acoustic micro-modem satisfying these requirements. In order to execute fast digital domain signal processing and support flexible interfaces with other peripherals, an ARM Cortex-M3 is embedded in the micro-modem. Also, for the realization of small and omni-directional properties, a spherical transducer having a resonant frequency of 70 kHz and a diameter of 34 mm is utilized for the implementation. Physical layer frame format and symbol structure for efficient packet-based underwater communication systems are also investigated. The developed acoustic micro-modem is verified analytically and experimentally in indoor and outdoor environments in terms of functionality and performance. Since the modem satisfies the requirements for use in UWSNs, it could be deployed in a wide range of applications requiring underwater acoustic communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Experimental Assessment of Different Receiver Structures for Underwater Acoustic Communications over Multipath Channels
Sensors 2012, 12(2), 2118-2135; doi:10.3390/s120202118
Received: 20 December 2011 / Revised: 1 February 2012 / Accepted: 3 February 2012 / Published: 14 February 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Underwater communication channels are often complicated, and in particular multipath propagation may cause intersymbol interference (ISI). This paper addresses how to remove ISI, and evaluates the performance of three different receiver structures and their implementations. Using real data collected in a high-frequency (10–14
[...] Read more.
Underwater communication channels are often complicated, and in particular multipath propagation may cause intersymbol interference (ISI). This paper addresses how to remove ISI, and evaluates the performance of three different receiver structures and their implementations. Using real data collected in a high-frequency (10–14 kHz) field experiment, the receiver structures are evaluated by off-line data processing. The three structures are multichannel decision feedback equalizer (DFE), passive time reversal receiver (passive-phase conjugation (PPC) with a single channel DFE), and the joint PPC with multichannel DFE. In sparse channels, dominant arrivals represent the channel information, and the matching pursuit (MP) algorithm which exploits the channel sparseness has been investigated for PPC processing. In the assessment, it is found that: (1) it is advantageous to obtain spatial gain using the adaptive multichannel combining scheme; and (2) the MP algorithm improves the performance of communications using PPC processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Sunlight Intensity Based Global Positioning System for Near-Surface Underwater Sensors
Sensors 2012, 12(2), 1930-1949; doi:10.3390/s120201930
Received: 15 December 2011 / Revised: 1 February 2012 / Accepted: 7 February 2012 / Published: 10 February 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1452 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water monitoring is important in domains including documenting climate change, weather prediction and fishing. This paper presents a simple and energy efficient localization strategy for near surface buoy based sensors. Sensors can be dropped randomly in the ocean and thus self-calibrate in terms
[...] Read more.
Water monitoring is important in domains including documenting climate change, weather prediction and fishing. This paper presents a simple and energy efficient localization strategy for near surface buoy based sensors. Sensors can be dropped randomly in the ocean and thus self-calibrate in terms of geographic location such that geo-tagged observations of water quality can be made without the need for costly and energy consuming GPS-hardware. The strategy is based on nodes with an accurate clock and light sensors that can regularly sample the level of light intensity. The measurements are fitted into a celestial model of the earth motion around the sun. By identifying the trajectory of the sun across the skies one can accurately determine sunrise and sunset times, and thus extract the longitude and latitude of the sensor. Unlike previous localization techniques for underwater sensors, the current approach does not rely on stationary or mobile reference points. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Secure Cooperation of Autonomous Mobile Sensors Using an Underwater Acoustic Network
Sensors 2012, 12(2), 1967-1989; doi:10.3390/s120201967
Received: 17 December 2011 / Revised: 27 January 2012 / Accepted: 7 February 2012 / Published: 10 February 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Methodologies and algorithms are presented for the secure cooperation of a team of autonomous mobile underwater sensors, connected through an acoustic communication network, within surveillance and patrolling applications. In particular, the work proposes a cooperative algorithm in which the mobile underwater sensors (installed
[...] Read more.
Methodologies and algorithms are presented for the secure cooperation of a team of autonomous mobile underwater sensors, connected through an acoustic communication network, within surveillance and patrolling applications. In particular, the work proposes a cooperative algorithm in which the mobile underwater sensors (installed on Autonomous Underwater Vehicles—AUVs) respond to simple local rules based on the available information to perform the mission and maintain the communication link with the network (behavioral approach). The algorithm is intrinsically robust: with loss of communication among the vehicles the coverage performance (i.e., the mission goal) is degraded but not lost. The ensuing form of graceful degradation provides also a reactive measure against Denial of Service. The cooperative algorithm relies on the fact that the available information from the other sensors, though not necessarily complete, is trustworthy. To ensure trustworthiness, a security suite has been designed, specifically oriented to the underwater scenario, and in particular with the goal of reducing the communication overhead introduced by security in terms of number and size of messages. The paper gives implementation details on the integration between the security suite and the cooperative algorithm and provides statistics on the performance of the system as collected during the UAN project sea trial held in Trondheim, Norway, in May 2011. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle AURP: An AUV-Aided Underwater Routing Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(2), 1827-1845; doi:10.3390/s120201827
Received: 19 December 2011 / Revised: 20 January 2012 / Accepted: 7 February 2012 / Published: 9 February 2012
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deploying a multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) in a large area brings about new challenges in reliable data transmissions and survivability of network due to the limited underwater communication range/bandwidth and the limited energy of underwater sensor nodes. In order to address
[...] Read more.
Deploying a multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) in a large area brings about new challenges in reliable data transmissions and survivability of network due to the limited underwater communication range/bandwidth and the limited energy of underwater sensor nodes. In order to address those challenges and achieve the objectives of maximization of data delivery ratio and minimization of energy consumption of underwater sensor nodes, this paper proposes a new underwater routing scheme, namely AURP (AUV-aided underwater routing protocol), which uses not only heterogeneous acoustic communication channels but also controlled mobility of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In AURP, the total data transmissions are minimized by using AUVs as relay nodes, which collect sensed data from gateway nodes and then forward to the sink. Moreover, controlled mobility of AUVs makes it possible to apply a short-range high data rate underwater channel for transmissions of a large amount of data. To the best to our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to employ multiple AUVs as relay nodes in a multi-hop UASN to improve the network performance in terms of data delivery ratio and energy consumption. Simulations, which are incorporated with a realistic underwater acoustic communication channel model, are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, and the results indicate that a high delivery ratio and low energy consumption can be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Performance Study of the Application of Artificial Neural Networks to the Completion and Prediction of Data Retrieved by Underwater Sensors
Sensors 2012, 12(2), 1468-1481; doi:10.3390/s120201468
Received: 27 December 2011 / Revised: 23 January 2012 / Accepted: 30 January 2012 / Published: 2 February 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a proposal for an Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based architecture for completion and prediction of data retrieved by underwater sensors. Due to the specific conditions under which these sensors operate, it is not uncommon for them to fail, and maintenance operations
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This paper presents a proposal for an Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based architecture for completion and prediction of data retrieved by underwater sensors. Due to the specific conditions under which these sensors operate, it is not uncommon for them to fail, and maintenance operations are difficult and costly. Therefore, completion and prediction of the missing data can greatly improve the quality of the underwater datasets. A performance study using real data is presented to validate the approach, concluding that the proposed architecture is able to provide very low errors. The numbers show as well that the solution is especially suitable for cases where large portions of data are missing, while in situations where the missing values are isolated the improvement over other simple interpolation methods is limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Use of a Real-Time Remote Monitoring Network (RTRM) to Characterize the Guadalquivir Estuary (Spain)
Sensors 2012, 12(2), 1398-1421; doi:10.3390/s120201398
Received: 30 December 2011 / Revised: 21 January 2012 / Accepted: 30 January 2012 / Published: 1 February 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (2030 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The temporal variability of hydrological variables in the Guadalquivir estuary was examined during three years through a real-time remote monitoring network (RTRM). The network was developed with the aim of studying the influence of hydrodynamical and hydrological features within the estuary on the
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The temporal variability of hydrological variables in the Guadalquivir estuary was examined during three years through a real-time remote monitoring network (RTRM). The network was developed with the aim of studying the influence of hydrodynamical and hydrological features within the estuary on the functioning of the pelagic ecosystem. Completing this data-gathering network, monthly cruises were performed in order to measure biogeochemical variables that are indicative of the trophic status of the aquatic environment. The results showed that several sources of physical forcing, such as wind, tide-associated currents and river discharge were responsible for the spatio-temporal patterns of dissolved oxygen, salinity and turbidity in the estuary. The analysis was conducted under tidal and flood regime, which allowed us to identify river discharge as the main forcing agent of the hydrology inside the estuary. In particular, episodes of elevated turbidity detected by the network, together with episodes of low salinity and dissolved oxygen were closely related to the increase in water supply from a dam located upstream. The network installed provided accurate data that can be rapidly used for research or educational applications and by policy-makers or agencies in charge of the management of the coastal area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: How Do Acoustic Propagation Models Impact the Performance of Higher-Level Protocols?
Sensors 2012, 12(2), 1312-1335; doi:10.3390/s120201312
Received: 12 December 2011 / Revised: 13 January 2012 / Accepted: 29 January 2012 / Published: 31 January 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several Medium Access Control (MAC) and routing protocols have been developed in the last years for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). One of the main difficulties to compare and validate the performance of different proposals is the lack of a common standard to
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Several Medium Access Control (MAC) and routing protocols have been developed in the last years for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). One of the main difficulties to compare and validate the performance of different proposals is the lack of a common standard to model the acoustic propagation in the underwater environment. In this paper we analyze the evolution of underwater acoustic prediction models from a simple approach to more detailed and accurate models. Then, different high layer network protocols are tested with different acoustic propagation models in order to determine the influence of environmental parameters on the obtained results. After several experiments, we can conclude that higher-level protocols are sensitive to both: (a) physical layer parameters related to the network scenario and (b) the acoustic propagation model. Conditions like ocean surface activity, scenario location, bathymetry or floor sediment composition, may change the signal propagation behavior. So, when designing network architectures for UWSNs, the role of the physical layer should be seriously taken into account in order to assert that the obtained simulation results will be close to the ones obtained in real network scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Enhancing the Reliability of Head Nodes in Underwater Sensor Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(2), 1194-1210; doi:10.3390/s120201194
Received: 15 December 2011 / Revised: 20 January 2012 / Accepted: 21 January 2012 / Published: 31 January 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (628 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Underwater environments are quite different from terrestrial environments in terms of the communication media and operating conditions associated with those environments. In underwater sensor networks, the probability of node failure is high because sensor nodes are deployed in harsher environments than ground-based networks.
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Underwater environments are quite different from terrestrial environments in terms of the communication media and operating conditions associated with those environments. In underwater sensor networks, the probability of node failure is high because sensor nodes are deployed in harsher environments than ground-based networks. The sensor nodes are surrounded by salt water and moved around by waves and currents. Many studies have focused on underwater communication environments in an effort to improve the data transmission throughput. In this paper, we present a checkpointing scheme for the head nodes to quickly recover from a head node failure. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme enhances the reliability of the networks and makes them more efficient in terms of energy consumption and the recovery latency compared to the previous scheme without checkpointing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Underwater Sensor Networks: A New Energy Efficient and Robust Architecture
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 704-731; doi:10.3390/s120100704
Received: 30 November 2011 / Revised: 5 January 2012 / Accepted: 9 January 2012 / Published: 10 January 2012
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (2128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The specific characteristics of underwater environments introduce new challenges for networking protocols. In this paper, a specialized architecture for underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) is proposed and evaluated. Experiments are conducted in order to analyze the suitability of this protocol for the subaquatic transmission
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The specific characteristics of underwater environments introduce new challenges for networking protocols. In this paper, a specialized architecture for underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) is proposed and evaluated. Experiments are conducted in order to analyze the suitability of this protocol for the subaquatic transmission medium. Moreover, different scheduling techniques are applied to the architecture in order to study their performance. In addition, given the harsh conditions of the underwater medium, different retransmission methods are combined with the scheduling techniques. Finally, simulation results illustrate the performance achievements of the proposed protocol in end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio and energy consumption, showing that this protocol can be very suitable for the underwater medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Marine Vehicle Sensor Network Architecture and Protocol Designs for Ocean Observation
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 373-390; doi:10.3390/s120100373
Received: 12 December 2011 / Revised: 24 December 2011 / Accepted: 27 December 2011 / Published: 2 January 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1721 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The micro-scale and meso-scale ocean dynamic processes which are nonlinear and have large variability, have a significant impact on the fisheries, natural resources, and marine climatology. A rapid, refined and sophisticated observation system is therefore needed in marine scientific research. The maneuverability and
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The micro-scale and meso-scale ocean dynamic processes which are nonlinear and have large variability, have a significant impact on the fisheries, natural resources, and marine climatology. A rapid, refined and sophisticated observation system is therefore needed in marine scientific research. The maneuverability and controllability of mobile sensor platforms make them a preferred choice to establish ocean observing networks, compared to the static sensor observing platform. In this study, marine vehicles are utilized as the nodes of mobile sensor networks for coverage sampling of a regional ocean area and ocean feature tracking. A synoptic analysis about marine vehicle dynamic control, multi vehicles mission assignment and path planning methods, and ocean feature tracking and observing techniques is given. Combined with the observation plan in the South China Sea, we provide an overview of the mobile sensor networks established with marine vehicles, and the corresponding simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle A Query Result Merging Scheme for Providing Energy Efficiency in Underwater Sensor Networks
Sensors 2011, 11(12), 11833-11855; doi:10.3390/s111211833
Received: 26 November 2011 / Revised: 7 December 2011 / Accepted: 15 December 2011 / Published: 20 December 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Underwater sensor networks are emerging as a promising distributed data management system for various applications in underwater environments, despite their limited accessibility and restricted energy capacity. With the aid of recent developments in ubiquitous data computing, an increasing number of users are expected
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Underwater sensor networks are emerging as a promising distributed data management system for various applications in underwater environments, despite their limited accessibility and restricted energy capacity. With the aid of recent developments in ubiquitous data computing, an increasing number of users are expected to overcome low accessibility by applying queries to underwater sensor networks. However, when multiple users send queries to an underwater sensor network in a disorganized manner, it may incur lethal energy waste and problematic network traffic. The current query management mechanisms cannot effectively deal with this matter due to their limited applicability and unrealistic assumptions. In this paper, a novel query management scheme involving query result merging is proposed for underwater sensor networks. The mechanism is based on a relational database model and is adjusted to the practical restrictions affecting underwater communication environments. Network simulations will prove that the scheme becomes more efficient with a greater number of queries and a smaller period range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle A Cost Effective Block Framing Scheme for Underwater Communication
Sensors 2011, 11(12), 11717-11735; doi:10.3390/s111211717
Received: 16 November 2011 / Revised: 13 December 2011 / Accepted: 13 December 2011 / Published: 16 December 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (638 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the Selective Multiple Acknowledgement (SMA) method, based on Multiple Acknowledgement (MA), is proposed to efficiently reduce the amount of data transmission by redesigning the transmission frame structure and taking into consideration underwater transmission characteristics. The method is suited to integrated
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In this paper, the Selective Multiple Acknowledgement (SMA) method, based on Multiple Acknowledgement (MA), is proposed to efficiently reduce the amount of data transmission by redesigning the transmission frame structure and taking into consideration underwater transmission characteristics. The method is suited to integrated underwater system models, as the proposed method can handle the same amount of data in a much more compact frame structure without any appreciable loss of reliability. Herein, the performance of the proposed SMA method was analyzed and compared to those of the conventional Automatic Repeat-reQuest (ARQ), Block Acknowledgement (BA), block response, and MA methods. The efficiency of the underwater sensor network, which forms a large cluster and mostly contains uplink data, is expected to be improved by the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle A Hierarchical Communication Architecture for Oceanic Surveillance Applications
Sensors 2011, 11(12), 11343-11356; doi:10.3390/s111211343
Received: 18 October 2011 / Revised: 18 November 2011 / Accepted: 27 November 2011 / Published: 30 November 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (790 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The interest in monitoring applications using underwater sensor networks has been growing in recent years. The severe communication restrictions imposed by underwater channels make that efficient monitoring be a challenging task. Though a lot of research has been conducted on underwater sensor networks,
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The interest in monitoring applications using underwater sensor networks has been growing in recent years. The severe communication restrictions imposed by underwater channels make that efficient monitoring be a challenging task. Though a lot of research has been conducted on underwater sensor networks, there are only few concrete applications to a real-world case study. In this work, hence, we propose a general three tier architecture leveraging low cost wireless technologies for acoustic communications between underwater sensors and standard technologies, Zigbee and Wireless Fidelity (WiFi), for water surface communications. We have selected a suitable Medium Access Control (MAC) layer, after making a comparison with some common MAC protocols. Thus the performance of the overall system in terms of Signals Discarding Rate (SDR), signalling delay at the surface gateway as well as the percentage of true detection have been evaluated by simulation, pointing out good results which give evidence in applicability’s favour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Sensor Network Architectures for Monitoring Underwater Pipelines
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 10738-10764; doi:10.3390/s111110738
Received: 29 September 2011 / Revised: 31 October 2011 / Accepted: 4 November 2011 / Published: 15 November 2011
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (Radio Frequency) wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and
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This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (Radio Frequency) wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network architectures. The reliability evaluation, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages among these architectures are discussed and compared. Three reliability factors are used for the discussion and comparison: the network connectivity, the continuity of power supply for the network, and the physical network security. In addition, the paper also develops and evaluates a hierarchical sensor network framework for underwater pipeline monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Design and Implementation of an Underwater Sound Recording Device
Sensors 2011, 11(9), 8519-8535; doi:10.3390/s110908519
Received: 29 June 2011 / Revised: 22 August 2011 / Accepted: 24 August 2011 / Published: 1 September 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To monitor the underwater sound and pressure waves generated by anthropogenic activities such as underwater blasting and pile driving, an autonomous system was designed to record underwater acoustic signals. The underwater sound recording device (USR) allows for connections of two hydrophones or other
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To monitor the underwater sound and pressure waves generated by anthropogenic activities such as underwater blasting and pile driving, an autonomous system was designed to record underwater acoustic signals. The underwater sound recording device (USR) allows for connections of two hydrophones or other dynamic pressure sensors, filters high frequency noise out of the collected signals, has a gain that can be independently set for each sensor, and allows for 2 h of data collection. Two versions of the USR were created: a submersible model deployable to a maximum depth of 300 m, and a watertight but not fully submersible model. Tests were performed on the USR in the laboratory using a data acquisition system to send single-frequency sinusoidal voltages directly to each component. These tests verified that the device operates as designed and performs as well as larger commercially available data acquisition systems, which are not suited for field use. On average, the designed gain values differed from the actual measured gain values by about 0.35 dB. A prototype of the device was used in a case study to measure blast pressures while investigating the effect of underwater rock blasting on juvenile Chinook salmon and rainbow trout. In the case study, maximum positive pressure from the blast was found to be significantly correlated with frequency of injury for individual fish. The case study also demonstrated that the device withstood operation in harsh environments, making it a valuable tool for collecting field measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)

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Open AccessReview A Survey on Intermediation Architectures for Underwater Robotics
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 190; doi:10.3390/s16020190
Received: 14 December 2015 / Revised: 24 January 2016 / Accepted: 29 January 2016 / Published: 4 February 2016
PDF Full-text (6122 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, there is a plethora of solutions regarding interconnectivity and interoperability for networked robots so that they will fulfill their purposes in a coordinated manner. In addition to that, middleware architectures are becoming increasingly popular due to the advantages that they are capable
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Currently, there is a plethora of solutions regarding interconnectivity and interoperability for networked robots so that they will fulfill their purposes in a coordinated manner. In addition to that, middleware architectures are becoming increasingly popular due to the advantages that they are capable of guaranteeing (hardware abstraction, information homogenization, easy access for the applications above, etc.). However, there are still scarce contributions regarding the global state of the art in intermediation architectures for underwater robotics. As far as the area of robotics is concerned, this is a major issue that must be tackled in order to get a holistic view of the existing proposals. This challenge is addressed in this paper by studying the most compelling pieces of work for this kind of software development in the current literature. The studied works have been assessed according to their most prominent features and capabilities. Furthermore, by studying the individual pieces of work and classifying them several common weaknesses have been revealed and are highlighted. This provides a starting ground for the development of a middleware architecture for underwater robotics capable of dealing with these issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessReview Localization Algorithms of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey
Sensors 2012, 12(2), 2026-2061; doi:10.3390/s120202026
Received: 4 January 2012 / Revised: 20 January 2012 / Accepted: 30 January 2012 / Published: 13 February 2012
Cited by 57 | PDF Full-text (680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs), localization is one of most important technologies since it plays a critical role in many applications. Motivated by widespread adoption of localization, in this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of localization algorithms. First, we classify localization
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In Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs), localization is one of most important technologies since it plays a critical role in many applications. Motivated by widespread adoption of localization, in this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of localization algorithms. First, we classify localization algorithms into three categories based on sensor nodes’ mobility: stationary localization algorithms, mobile localization algorithms and hybrid localization algorithms. Moreover, we compare the localization algorithms in detail and analyze future research directions of localization algorithms in UWSNs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)

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