Next Article in Journal
A Characterization of Conserved Quantities in Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics
Next Article in Special Issue
Entropy and Equilibria in Competitive Systems
Previous Article in Journal
Risk Contagion in Chinese Banking Industry: A Transfer Entropy-Based Analysis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Structural Patterns in Complex Systems Using Multidendrograms
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Entropy 2013, 15(12), 5565-5579; doi:10.3390/e15125565

Global Inequality in Energy Consumption from 1980 to 2010

Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-4111, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 October 2013 / Revised: 12 December 2013 / Accepted: 12 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2469 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

We study the global probability distribution of energy consumption per capita around the world using data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) for 1980–2010. We find that the Lorenz curves have moved up during this time period, and the Gini coefficient, G, has decreased from 0.66 in 1980 to 0.55 in 2010, indicating a decrease in inequality. The global probability distribution of energy consumption per capita in 2010 is close to the exponential distribution withG = 0:5. We attribute this result to the globalization of the world economy, which mixes the world and brings it closer to the state of maximal entropy. We argue that global energy production is a limited resource that is partitioned among the world population. The most probable partition is the one that maximizes entropy, thus resulting in the exponential distribution function. A consequence of the latter is the law of 1/3: the top 1/3 of the world population consumes 2/3 of produced energy. We also find similar results for the global probability distribution of CO2 emissions per capita.
Keywords: inequality; energy consumption; carbon emission; maximal entropy; exponential distribution; Lorenz curve; Gini coefficient; econophysics; the law of 1/3; globalization inequality; energy consumption; carbon emission; maximal entropy; exponential distribution; Lorenz curve; Gini coefficient; econophysics; the law of 1/3; globalization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary materials

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lawrence, S.; Liu, Q.; Yakovenko, V.M. Global Inequality in Energy Consumption from 1980 to 2010. Entropy 2013, 15, 5565-5579.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Entropy EISSN 1099-4300 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top