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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(2), 3860-3873; doi:10.3390/ijms14023860

Effect of Artocarpus communis Extract on UVB Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hairless Mice

1 Department of Nursing, Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Research Center, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Chia-Yi, Taiwan 2 Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 3 Department of Pathology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 4 School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 October 2012 / Revised: 28 January 2013 / Accepted: 28 January 2013 / Published: 12 February 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UV-Induced Cell Death 2012)
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Administration of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents is an effective strategy for preventing ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced skin damage. Artocarpus communis possesses several pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammation. However, the photoprotective activity of methanol extract of A. communis heartwood (ACM) in ultraviolet irradiation-induced skin damage has not yet been investigated. The present study was performed using ultraviolet absorption, histopathological observation, antioxidant and anti-inflammation assays to elucidate the mechanism of the photoprotective activity of ACM. Our results indicated that ACM displayed a UVA and UVB absorption effect and then effectively decreased scaly skin, epidermis thickness and sunburn cells during ultraviolet irradiation in hairless mice. ACM not only decreased ultraviolet irradiation-mediated oxidative stress, including lowering the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05), but also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β. Additionally, ACM can decrease the synthesis of cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular cell adhesion molecular-1 via inhibiting TNF-α-independent pathways (p < 0.05) in UVB-mediated inflammation and formation of sunburn cells. Consequently, we concluded that ACM extract has a photoprotective effect against UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation due to its sunscreen property, and its topical formulations may be developed as therapeutic and/or cosmetic products in further studies.
Keywords: Artocarpus communis; ultraviolet; antioxidant; anti-inflammation; photoprotective Artocarpus communis; ultraviolet; antioxidant; anti-inflammation; photoprotective
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Lee, C.-W.; Ko, H.-H.; Chai, C.-Y.; Chen, W.-T.; Lin, C.-C.; Yen, F.-L. Effect of Artocarpus communis Extract on UVB Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hairless Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 3860-3873.

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