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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10090-10106; doi:10.3390/ijms140510090

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Induces CXCL1 Chemokine Release via JNK and PI-3K-Dependent Pathways in Human Lung Carcinoma Epithelial Cells

School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan
Section of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei 11101, Taiwan
Department of Internal Medicine, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan 71004, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 February 2013 / Revised: 23 April 2013 / Accepted: 2 May 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signalling Molecules and Signal Transduction in Cells)
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Lung cancer cells express different chemokines and chemokine receptors that modulate leukocyte infiltration within tumor microenvironment. In this study we screened several mediators/growth factors on CXCL1 release in human carcinoma epithelial cells. Of the tested mediators, VEGF was found to have a robust increase in causing CXCL1 release. VEGF stimulated CXCL1 release and mRNA expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The release was inhibited by the VEGF receptor antagonists and the JNK, PI-3K, tyrosine kinase, and transcription inhibitors. In parallel, VEGF induced JNK, PI3K and Akt activation. Strikingly, among these inhibitors only the JNK inhibitor could reduce VEGF-induced CXCL1 mRNA expression, suggesting that JNK participated in VEGF-induced CXCL1 synthesis, whereas PI-3K was responsible for cellular CXCL1 secretory process. In addition, the steroid dexamethasone and TGF-β suppressed CXCL1 release through a transcriptional regulation. We also showed that cells stimulated with VEGF significantly attracted monocyte migration, which could be abolished by CXCL1 B/N Ab, CXC receptor 2 antagonist, TGF-β, and dexamethasone. In summary, we provide here evidence showing JNK activation for VEGF-induced CXCL1 DNA transcription and PI-3K pathway for extracellular CXCL1 release in human carcinoma epithelial cells. The released CXCL1 was functionally linked to recruiting monocytes into lung cancer cell microenvironment. View Full-Text
Keywords: A549; chemokine; CXCL1; GRO alpha; signaling; VEGF A549; chemokine; CXCL1; GRO alpha; signaling; VEGF

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lo, H.-M.; Shieh, J.-M.; Chen, C.-L.; Tsou, C.-J.; Wu, W.-B. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Induces CXCL1 Chemokine Release via JNK and PI-3K-Dependent Pathways in Human Lung Carcinoma Epithelial Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 10090-10106.

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