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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 11040-11053; doi:10.3390/ijms150611040
Article

Cellulose Nanocrystals/ZnO as a Bifunctional Reinforcing Nanocomposite for Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Chitosan Blend Films: Fabrication, Characterization and Properties

1,* , 1,* , 1,4
,
2
 and
3,4
1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 2 Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 3 Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 4 Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad 9187147578, Iran
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 April 2014 / Revised: 14 May 2014 / Accepted: 26 May 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Materials)
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Abstract

In this study, cellulose nanocrystals/zinc oxide (CNCs/ZnO) nanocomposites were dispersed as bifunctional nano-sized fillers into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan (Cs) blend by a solvent casting method to prepare PVA/Cs/CNCs/ZnO bio-nanocomposites films. The morphology, thermal, mechanical and UV-vis absorption properties, as well antimicrobial effects of the bio-nanocomposite films were investigated. It demonstrated that CNCs/ZnO were compatible with PVA/Cs and dispersed homogeneously in the polymer blend matrix. CNCs/ZnO improved tensile strength and modulus of PVA/Cs significantly. Tensile strength and modulus of bio-nanocomposite films increased from 55.0 to 153.2 MPa and from 395 to 932 MPa, respectively with increasing nano-sized filler amount from 0 to 5.0 wt %. The thermal stability of PVA/Cs was also enhanced at 1.0 wt % CNCs/ZnO loading. UV light can be efficiently absorbed by incorporating ZnO nanoparticles into a PVA/Cs matrix, signifying that these bio-nanocomposite films show good UV-shielding effects. Moreover, the biocomposites films showed antibacterial activity toward the bacterial species Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The improved physical properties obtained by incorporating CNCs/ZnO can be useful in variety uses.
Keywords: biocomposites; cellulose nanocrystals; bi-functional filler; poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan blend; UV absorption biocomposites; cellulose nanocrystals; bi-functional filler; poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan blend; UV absorption
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Azizi, S.; Ahmad, M.B.; Ibrahim, N.A.; Hussein, M.Z.; Namvar, F. Cellulose Nanocrystals/ZnO as a Bifunctional Reinforcing Nanocomposite for Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Chitosan Blend Films: Fabrication, Characterization and Properties. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 11040-11053.

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