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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2644; doi:10.3390/ijms18122644

Poly-γ-glutamic Acid Synthesis, Gene Regulation, Phylogenetic Relationships, and Role in Fermentation

1
Graduate School of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan city 32003, Taiwan
2
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan city 32003, Taiwan
3
Department of Medical Research, Hsinchu Mackay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu city 300, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract

Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a biodegradable biopolymer produced by several bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis and other Bacillus species; it has good biocompatibility, is non-toxic, and has various potential biological applications in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and other industries. In this review, we have described the mechanisms of γ-PGA synthesis and gene regulation, its role in fermentation, and the phylogenetic relationships among various pgsBCAE, a biosynthesis gene cluster of γ-PGA, and pgdS, a degradation gene of γ-PGA. We also discuss potential applications of γ-PGA and highlight the established genetic recombinant bacterial strains that produce high levels of γ-PGA, which can be useful for large-scale γ-PGA production. View Full-Text
Keywords: poly-γ-glutamic acid; Bacillus species; phylogenetic analysis; fermentation poly-γ-glutamic acid; Bacillus species; phylogenetic analysis; fermentation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hsueh, Y.-H.; Huang, K.-Y.; Kunene, S.C.; Lee, T.-Y. Poly-γ-glutamic Acid Synthesis, Gene Regulation, Phylogenetic Relationships, and Role in Fermentation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2644.

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