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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 18, Issue 12 (December 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The unprecedented crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis O6-alkylguanine-DNA [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Leptin Stimulates Prolactin mRNA Expression in the Goldfish Pituitary through a Combination of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, MKK3/6/p38MAPK and MEK1/2/ERK1/2 Signalling Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2781; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122781
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 17 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Leptin actions at the pituitary level have been extensively investigated in mammalian species, but remain insufficiently characterized in lower vertebrates, especially in teleost fish. Prolactin (PRL) is a pituitary hormone of central importance to osmoregulation in fish. Using goldfish as a model, we
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Leptin actions at the pituitary level have been extensively investigated in mammalian species, but remain insufficiently characterized in lower vertebrates, especially in teleost fish. Prolactin (PRL) is a pituitary hormone of central importance to osmoregulation in fish. Using goldfish as a model, we examined the global and brain-pituitary distribution of a leptin receptor (lepR) and examined the relationship between expression of lepR and major pituitary hormones in different pituitary regions. The effects of recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII on PRL mRNA expression in the pituitary were further analysed, and the mechanisms underlying signal transduction for leptin-induced PRL expression were determined by pharmacological approaches. Our results showed that goldfish lepR is abundantly expressed in the brain-pituitary regions, with highly overlapping PRL transcripts within the pituitary. Recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII proteins could stimulate PRL mRNA expression in dose- and time-dependent manners in the goldfish pituitary, by both intraperitoneal injection and primary cell incubation approaches. Moreover, the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, MKK3/6/p38MAPK, and MEK1/2/ERK1/2—but not JAK2/STAT 1, 3 and 5 cascades—were involved in leptin-induced PRL mRNA expression in the goldfish pituitary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Biosynthesis, Accumulation and Antioxidant Activityof Vitamin E in Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) during Kernel Development
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2780; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122780
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Sweet corn kernels were used in this research to study the dynamics of vitamin E, by evaluatingthe expression levels of genes involved in vitamin E synthesis, the accumulation of vitamin E, and the antioxidant activity during the different stage of kernel development. Results
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Sweet corn kernels were used in this research to study the dynamics of vitamin E, by evaluatingthe expression levels of genes involved in vitamin E synthesis, the accumulation of vitamin E, and the antioxidant activity during the different stage of kernel development. Results showed that expression levels of ZmHPT and ZmTC genes increased, whereas ZmTMT gene dramatically decreased during kernel development. The contents of all the types of vitamin E in sweet corn had a significant upward increase during kernel development, and reached the highest level at 30 days after pollination (DAP). Amongst the eight isomers of vitamin E, the content of γ-tocotrienol was the highest, and increased by 14.9 folds, followed by α-tocopherolwith an increase of 22 folds, and thecontents of isomers γ-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol, δ-tocopherol,δ-tocotrienol, and β-tocopherol were also followed during kernel development. The antioxidant activity of sweet corn during kernel development was increased, and was up to 101.8 ± 22.3 μmol of α-tocopherol equivlent/100 g in fresh weight (FW) at 30 DAP. There was a positive correlation between vitamin E contents and antioxidant activity in sweet corn during the kernel development, and a negative correlation between the expressions of ZmTMT gene and vitamin E contents. These results revealed the relations amongst the content of vitamin E isomers and the gene expression, vitamin E accumulation, and antioxidant activity. The study can provide a harvesting strategy for vitamin E bio-fortification in sweet corn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Transformations of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Anomalous Behavior of Hyaluronan Crosslinking Due to the Presence of Excess Phospholipids in the Articular Cartilage System of Osteoarthritis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2779; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122779
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Lubrication of articular cartilage is a complex multiscale phenomenon in synovial joint organ systems. In these systems, synovial fluid properties result from synergistic interactions between a variety of molecular constituent. Two molecular classes in particular are of importance in understanding lubrication mechanisms: hyaluronic
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Lubrication of articular cartilage is a complex multiscale phenomenon in synovial joint organ systems. In these systems, synovial fluid properties result from synergistic interactions between a variety of molecular constituent. Two molecular classes in particular are of importance in understanding lubrication mechanisms: hyaluronic acid and phospholipids. The purpose of this study is to evaluate interactions between hyaluronic acid and phospholipids at various functionality levels during normal and pathological synovial fluid conditions. Molecular dynamic simulations of hyaluronic acid and phospholipids complexes were performed with the concentration of hyaluronic acid set at a constant value for two organizational forms, extended (normal) and coiled (pathologic). The results demonstrated that phospholipids affect the crosslinking mechanisms of hyaluronic acid significantly and the influence is higher during pathological conditions. During normal conditions, hyaluronic acid and phospholipid interactions seem to have no competing mechanism to that of the interaction between hyaluronic acid to hyaluronic acid. On the other hand, the structures formed under pathologic conditions were highly affected by phospholipid concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biophysics)
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Open AccessReview Iron Overload and Chelation Therapy in Non-Transfusion Dependent Thalassemia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2778; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122778
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 17 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Iron overload (IOL) due to increased intestinal iron absorption constitutes a major clinical problem in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT), which is a cumulative process with advancing age. Current models for iron metabolism in patients with NTDT suggest that suppression of serum hepcidin
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Iron overload (IOL) due to increased intestinal iron absorption constitutes a major clinical problem in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT), which is a cumulative process with advancing age. Current models for iron metabolism in patients with NTDT suggest that suppression of serum hepcidin leads to an increase in iron absorption and subsequent release of iron from the reticuloendothelial system, leading to depletion of macrophage iron, relatively low levels of serum ferritin, and liver iron loading. The consequences of IOL in patients with NTDT are multiple and multifactorial. Accurate and reliable methods of diagnosis and monitoring of body iron levels are essential, and the method of choice for measuring iron accumulation will depend on the patient’s needs and on the available facilities. Iron chelation therapy (ICT) remains the backbone of NTDT management and is one of the most effective and practical ways of decreasing morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to describe the mechanism of IOL in NTDT, and the clinical complications that can develop as a result, in addition to the current and future therapeutic options available for the management of IOL in NTDT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thalassemia in 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Kidney Injury Is Dependent on an IL-18 Receptor Signaling Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2777; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122777
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-18 is an important mediator of the organ failure induced by endotoxemia. IL-18 (known as an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) inducing factor), and other inflammatory cytokines have important roles in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). We investigated the effect of
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The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-18 is an important mediator of the organ failure induced by endotoxemia. IL-18 (known as an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) inducing factor), and other inflammatory cytokines have important roles in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). We investigated the effect of inflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression, an event that is accompanied by an influx of monocytes, including CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in IL-18Rα knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice after LPS injection. In the acute advanced phase, the IL-18Rα KO mice showed a higher survival rate and a suppressed increase of blood urea nitrogen, increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ and IL-18, the infiltration of CD4+ T cells and the expression of kidney injury molecule-1 as an AKI marker. In that phase, the renal mRNA expression of the M1 macrophage phenotype and C-C chemokine receptor type 7 as the maturation marker of dendritic cells (DCs) was also significantly decreased in the IL-18Rα KO mice, although there were small numbers of F4/80+ cells and DCs in the kidney. Conversely, there were no significant differences in the expressions of mRNA and protein TLR4 after LPS injection between the WT and IL-18Rα KO groups. Our results demonstrated that the IL-18Rα-mediated signaling pathway plays critical roles in CD4+ T cells and APCs and responded more quickly to IFN-γ and IL-18 than TLR4 stimulation in the pathogenesis of LPS-induced AKI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signaling Pathway of Immune Cells and Immune Disorder)
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Open AccessArticle The Role of PAR2 in TGF-β1-Induced ERK Activation and Cell Motility
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2776; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122776
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Background: Recently, the expression of proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has been shown to be essential for activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5)/SMAD-mediated signaling and cell migration by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. However, it is not known whether activation of non-SMAD TGF-β signaling (e.g., RAS–RAF–MEK–extracellular
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Background: Recently, the expression of proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has been shown to be essential for activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5)/SMAD-mediated signaling and cell migration by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. However, it is not known whether activation of non-SMAD TGF-β signaling (e.g., RAS–RAF–MEK–extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling) is required for cell migration and whether it is also dependent on PAR2. Methods: RNA interference was used to deplete cells of PAR2, followed by xCELLigence technology to measure cell migration, phospho-immunoblotting to assess ERK1/2 activation, and co-immunoprecipitation to detect a PAR2–ALK5 physical interaction. Results: Inhibition of ERK signaling with the MEK inhibitor U0126 blunted the ability of TGF-β1 to induce migration in pancreatic cancer Panc1 cells. ERK activation in response to PAR2 agonistic peptide (PAR2–AP) was strong and rapid, while it was moderate and delayed in response to TGF-β1. Basal and TGF-β1-dependent ERK, but not SMAD activation, was blocked by U0126 in Panc1 and other cell types indicating that ERK activation is downstream or independent of SMAD signaling. Moreover, cellular depletion of PAR2 in HaCaT cells strongly inhibited TGF-β1-induced ERK activation, while the biased PAR2 agonist GB88 at 10 and 100 µM potentiated TGF-β1-dependent ERK activation and cell migration. Finally, we provide evidence for a physical interaction between PAR2 and ALK5. Our data show that both PAR2–AP- and TGF-β1-induced cell migration depend on ERK activation, that PAR2 expression is crucial for TGF-β1-induced ERK activation, and that the functional cooperation of PAR2 and TGF-β1 involves a physical interaction between PAR2 and ALK5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta Family in Fibrosis and Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Expression of Amine Oxidase Proteins in Breast Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2775; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122775
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6165 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We aimed to evaluate the expression of amine oxidase proteins in breast cancer and their clinical implications. We performed immunohistochemical staining of amine oxidase proteins (LOX, lysyl oxidase, AOC3, amine oxidase, MAOA, monoamine oxidase A, MAOB, monoamine oxidase B). Based on their hormone
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We aimed to evaluate the expression of amine oxidase proteins in breast cancer and their clinical implications. We performed immunohistochemical staining of amine oxidase proteins (LOX, lysyl oxidase, AOC3, amine oxidase, MAOA, monoamine oxidase A, MAOB, monoamine oxidase B). Based on their hormone receptors, such as estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), and Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining, breast cancer was divided into four molecular subtypes: luminal A, luminal B, HER-2 type, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Luminal A was observed in 380 cases (49.4%), luminal B in 224 (29.1%), HER-2 type in 68 (8.8%), and TNBC in 98 (12.7%). Stromal AOC3, MAO-A, and MAO-B expression varied according to molecular subtypes. Stromal AOC3 expression was high in luminal B and HER-2 type and MAO-A expression was high in luminal A and luminal B (p < 0.001). MAO-B expression was higher in TNBC than in other subtypes (p = 0.020). LOX positivity was associated with high histological grade (p < 0.001) and high Ki-67 labeling index (LI) (p = 0.009), and stromal AOC3 positivity was associated with high histological grade (p = 0.001), high Ki-67 LI (p < 0.001), and HER-2 positivity (p = 0.002). MAO-A positivity was related to low histological grade (p < 0.001), ER positivity, PR positivity (p < 0.001), and low Ki-67 LI (p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, MAO-A positivity was related to short disease-free survival in HER-2 type (p = 0.013), AOC3 negativity was related to short disease-free survival and overall survival in ER-positive breast cancer, PR-positive breast cancer, HER-2-negative breast cancer, and lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, the expression of amine oxidase proteins varies depending on the molecular subtype of breast cancer. Stromal AOC3 expression was high in luminal B and HER-2 type, and MAO-A expression was high in luminal A and luminal B. Full article
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Open AccessReview Molecular Determinants of Malignant Brain Cancers: From Intracellular Alterations to Invasion Mediated by Extracellular Vesicles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2774; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122774
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Malignant glioma cells invade the surrounding brain parenchyma, by migrating along the blood vessels, thus promoting cancer growth. The biological bases of these activities are grounded in profound alterations of the metabolism and the structural organization of the cells, which consequently acquire the
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Malignant glioma cells invade the surrounding brain parenchyma, by migrating along the blood vessels, thus promoting cancer growth. The biological bases of these activities are grounded in profound alterations of the metabolism and the structural organization of the cells, which consequently acquire the ability to modify the surrounding microenvironment, by altering the extracellular matrix and affecting the properties of the other cells present in the brain, such as normal glial-, endothelial- and immune-cells. Most of the effects on the surrounding environment are probably exerted through the release of a variety of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which contain many different classes of molecules, from genetic material to defined species of lipids and enzymes. EV-associated molecules can be either released into the extracellular matrix (ECM) and/or transferred to neighboring cells: as a consequence, both deep modifications of the recipient cell phenotype and digestion of ECM components are obtained, thus causing cancer propagation, as well as a general brain dysfunction. In this review, we first analyze the main intracellular and extracellular transformations required for glioma cell invasion into the brain parenchyma; then we discuss how these events may be attributed, at least in part, to EVs that, like the pawns of a dramatic chess game with cancer, open the way to the tumor cells themselves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glioma Cell Invasion)
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Open AccessArticle Lym-1 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Exhibit Potent Anti-Tumor Effects against B-Cell Lymphoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2773; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122773
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) recognizing CD19 epitopes have produced remarkable anti-tumor effects in patients with B-cell malignancies. However, cancer cells lacking recognized epitopes can emerge, leading to relapse and death. Thus, CAR T cells targeting different epitopes on different antigens
[...] Read more.
T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) recognizing CD19 epitopes have produced remarkable anti-tumor effects in patients with B-cell malignancies. However, cancer cells lacking recognized epitopes can emerge, leading to relapse and death. Thus, CAR T cells targeting different epitopes on different antigens could improve immunotherapy. The Lym-1 antibody targets a conformational epitope of Human Leukocyte Antigen-antigen D Related (HLA-DR) on the surface of human B-cell lymphomas. Lym-1 CAR T cells were thus generated for evaluation of cytotoxic activity towards lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Human T cells from healthy donors were transduced to express a Lym-1 CAR, and assessed for epitope-driven function in culture and towards Raji xenografts in NOD-scidIL2Rgammanull (NSG) mice. Lym-1 CAR T cells exhibited epitope-driven activation and lytic function against human B-cell lymphoma cell lines in culture and mediated complete regression of Raji/Luciferase-Green fluorescent protein (Raji/Luc-GFP) in NSG mice with similar or better reactivity than CD19 CAR T cells. Lym-1 CAR transduction of T cells is a promising immunotherapy for patients with Lym-1 epitope positive B-cell malignancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cell Therapy)
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Open AccessReview Nrf2, the Master Regulator of Anti-Oxidative Responses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2772; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122772
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Tight regulation of inflammation is very important to guarantee a balanced immune response without developing chronic inflammation. One of the major mediators of the resolution of inflammation is the transcription factor: the nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2). Stabilized following oxidative stress, Nrf2
[...] Read more.
Tight regulation of inflammation is very important to guarantee a balanced immune response without developing chronic inflammation. One of the major mediators of the resolution of inflammation is the transcription factor: the nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2). Stabilized following oxidative stress, Nrf2 induces the expression of antioxidants as well as cytoprotective genes, which provoke an anti-inflammatory expression profile, and is crucial for the initiation of healing. In view of this fundamental modulatory role, it is clear that both hyper- or hypoactivation of Nrf2 contribute to the onset of chronic diseases. Understanding the tight regulation of Nrf2 expression/activation and its interaction with signaling pathways, known to affect inflammatory processes, will facilitate development of therapeutic approaches to prevent Nrf2 dysregulation and ameliorate chronic inflammatory diseases. We discuss in this review the principle mechanisms of Nrf2 regulation with a focus on inflammation and autophagy, extending the role of dysregulated Nrf2 to chronic diseases and tumor development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nrf2 in Redox Signaling: A Double Edged Sword)
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Open AccessAddendum Addendum: Cechová, M. et al. Towards Better Understanding of Pea Seed Dormancy Using Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2196
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2771; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122771
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 17 December 2017 / Accepted: 17 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
It has been brought to our attention that one funding project of Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (LO1417) was missing in the Acknowledgement section of our published paper [1], and therefore we would like to add it and
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It has been brought to our attention that one funding project of Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (LO1417) was missing in the Acknowledgement section of our published paper [1], and therefore we would like to add it and report the Acknowledgements as follows [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in the Plant Sciences 2017)
Open AccessReview ω-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids as Sensitizing Agents and Multidrug Resistance Revertants in Cancer Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2770; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122770
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chemotherapy efficacy is strictly limited by the resistance of cancer cells. The ω-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LCPUFAs) are considered chemosensitizing agents and revertants of multidrug resistance by pleiotropic, but not still well elucidated, mechanisms. Nowadays, it is accepted that alteration
[...] Read more.
Chemotherapy efficacy is strictly limited by the resistance of cancer cells. The ω-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LCPUFAs) are considered chemosensitizing agents and revertants of multidrug resistance by pleiotropic, but not still well elucidated, mechanisms. Nowadays, it is accepted that alteration in gene expression, modulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation, induction of apoptosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation are involved in ω-3 LCPUFA chemosensitizing effects. A crucial mechanism in the control of cell drug uptake and efflux is related to ω-3 LCPUFA influence on membrane lipid composition. The incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid in the lipid rafts produces significant changes in their physical-chemical properties affecting content and functions of transmembrane proteins, such as growth factors, receptors and ATP-binding cassette transporters. Of note, ω-3 LCPUFAs often alter the lipid compositions more in chemoresistant cells than in chemosensitive cells, suggesting a potential adjuvant role in the treatment of drug resistant cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease: New Knowledge)
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Open AccessArticle Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of the GALACTINOL SYNTHASE Gene Family in Rapeseed and Tobacco
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2768; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122768
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5597 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Galactinol synthase (GolS) is a key enzyme in raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) biosynthesis. The finding that GolS accumulates in plants exposed to abiotic stresses indicates RFOs function in environmental adaptation. However, the evolutionary relationships and biological functions of GolS family in rapeseed (
[...] Read more.
Galactinol synthase (GolS) is a key enzyme in raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) biosynthesis. The finding that GolS accumulates in plants exposed to abiotic stresses indicates RFOs function in environmental adaptation. However, the evolutionary relationships and biological functions of GolS family in rapeseed (Brassica napus) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) remain unclear. In this study, we identified 20 BnGolS and 9 NtGolS genes. Subcellular localization predictions showed that most of the proteins are localized to the cytoplasm. Phylogenetic analysis identified a lost event of an ancient GolS copy in the Solanaceae and an ancient duplication event leading to evolution of GolS4/7 in the Brassicaceae. The three-dimensional structures of two GolS proteins were conserved, with an important DxD motif for binding to UDP-galactose (uridine diphosphate-galactose) and inositol. Expression profile analysis indicated that BnGolS and NtGolS genes were expressed in most tissues and highly expressed in one or two specific tissues. Hormone treatments strongly induced the expression of most BnGolS genes and homologous genes in the same subfamilies exhibited divergent-induced expression. Our study provides a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of GolS genes among the Brassicaceae and Solanaceae as well as an insight into the biological function of GolS genes in hormone response in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle High-Throughput RNA-Seq Data Analysis of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and Zygomorphic Flower Development in Pea (Pisum sativum L.)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2710; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122710
Received: 24 November 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a model plant that has been used in classical genetics and organ development studies. However, its large and complex genome has hindered research investigations in pea. Here, we generated transcriptomes from different tissues or organs of three
[...] Read more.
Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a model plant that has been used in classical genetics and organ development studies. However, its large and complex genome has hindered research investigations in pea. Here, we generated transcriptomes from different tissues or organs of three pea accessions using next-generation sequencing to assess single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and further investigated petal differentially expressed genes to elucidate the mechanisms regulating floral zygomorphy. Eighteen samples were sequenced, which yielded a total of 617 million clean reads, and de novo assembly resulted in 87,137 unigenes. A total of 9044 high-quality SNPs were obtained among the three accessions, and a consensus map was constructed. We further discovered several dorsoventral asymmetrically expressed genes that were confirmed by qRT-PCR among different petals, including previously reported three CYC-like proliferating cell factor (TCP) genes. One MADS-box gene was highly expressed in dorsal petals, and several MYB factors were predominantly expressed among dorsal, lateral, and/or ventral petals, together with a ventrally expressed TCP gene. In sum, our comprehensive database complements the existing resources for comparative genetic mapping and facilitates future investigations in legume zygomorphic flower development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle Differential Expression of VvLOXA Diversifies C6 Volatile Profiles in Some Vitis vinifera Table Grape Cultivars
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122705
Received: 21 October 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
C6 volatiles are synthesized through lipoxygenase-hydroperoxide lyase (LOX-HPL) pathway and these volatiles play important roles in the aromatic quality of grape berries. This study investigated the evolution of both C6 volatiles and the key genes in the LOX-HPL pathway in different table grape
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C6 volatiles are synthesized through lipoxygenase-hydroperoxide lyase (LOX-HPL) pathway and these volatiles play important roles in the aromatic quality of grape berries. This study investigated the evolution of both C6 volatiles and the key genes in the LOX-HPL pathway in different table grape cultivars during the berry development period, and further assessed the correlation between the accumulation of C6 volatiles and the expression of these genes in these cultivars. Results showed that hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol were found to be the dominant C6 volatiles in these ripened grape cultivars under two consecutive vintages, and their flavor notes were incorporated in the overall aroma of these cultivars. The cultivar “Xiangfei” showed the most abundant level of C6 aldehydes and C6 acid, whereas the cultivar “Tamina” and “Moldova” possessed the highest C6 alcohol content. The “Muscat of Alexandria” cultivar was found to contain the highest level of C6 esters. C6 volatiles were grouped into three evolutionary patterns in these cultivars during berry development, and their evolution was consistent with the evolution of the LOX-HPL pathway genes’ expression. Pearson’s correlation analysis indicated that the LOX-HPL-pathway-related genes were correlated to the accumulation of C6 volatiles in these cultivars, and VvLOXA appeared to be an important gene that regulated the synthesis of all C6 volatiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
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