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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1063; doi:10.3390/ijms18051063

Ginsenoside Rb2 Alleviates Hepatic Lipid Accumulation by Restoring Autophagy via Induction of Sirt1 and Activation of AMPK

1,2,†
,
1,†
,
1,2
and
1,*
1
State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chang Won Choi
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4870 KB, uploaded 19 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Although Panax ginseng is a famous traditional Chinese medicine and has been widely used to treat a variety of metabolic diseases including hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hepatosteatosis, the effective mediators and molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study we found that ginsenoside Rb2, one of the major ginsenosides in Panax ginseng, was able to prevent hepatic lipid accumulation through autophagy induction both in vivo and in vitro. Treatment of male db/db mice with Rb2 significantly improved glucose tolerance, decreased hepatic lipid accumulation, and restored hepatic autophagy. In vitro, Rb2 (50 µmol/L) obviously increased autophagic flux in HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes, and consequently reduced the lipid accumulation induced by oleic acid in combination with high glucose. Western blotting analysis showed that Rb2 partly reversed the high fatty acid in combination with high glucose (OA)-induced repression of autophagic pathways including AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and silent information regulator 1 (sirt1). Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of the sirt1 or AMPK pathways attenuated these beneficial effects of Rb2 on hepatic autophagy and lipid accumulation. Taken together, these results suggested that Rb2 alleviated hepatic lipid accumulation by restoring autophagy via the induction of sirt1 and activation of AMPK, and resulted in improved nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and glucose tolerance. View Full-Text
Keywords: ginsenoside Rb2; NAFLD; type 2 diabetes; hepatosteatosis; autophagy; AMPK; sirt1 ginsenoside Rb2; NAFLD; type 2 diabetes; hepatosteatosis; autophagy; AMPK; sirt1
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Huang, Q.; Wang, T.; Yang, L.; Wang, H.-Y. Ginsenoside Rb2 Alleviates Hepatic Lipid Accumulation by Restoring Autophagy via Induction of Sirt1 and Activation of AMPK. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1063.

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