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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 18, Issue 9 (September 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) MM cells show basal levels of intercellular communication with lipids involvement. Bodipy503 stains [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Rhein Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Mouse Blastocysts and Has Immunotoxic Effects during Embryonic Development
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 2018; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18092018
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rhein, a glucoside chemical compound found in a traditional Chinese medicine derived from the roots of rhubarb, induces cell apoptosis and is considered to have high potential as an antitumor drug. Several previous studies showed that rhein can inhibit cell proliferation and trigger
[...] Read more.
Rhein, a glucoside chemical compound found in a traditional Chinese medicine derived from the roots of rhubarb, induces cell apoptosis and is considered to have high potential as an antitumor drug. Several previous studies showed that rhein can inhibit cell proliferation and trigger mitochondria-related or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-dependent apoptotic processes. However, the side effects of rhein on pre- and post-implantation embryonic development remain unclear. Here, we show that rhein has cytotoxic effects on blastocyst-stage mouse embryos and induces oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in mouse fetuses. Blastocysts incubated with 5–20 μM rhein showed significant cell apoptosis, as well as decreases in their inner cell mass cell numbers and total cell numbers. An in vitro development assay showed that rhein affected the developmental potentials of both pre- and post-implantation embryos. Incubation of blastocysts with 5–20 μM rhein was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos and decreased fetal weight in an embryo transfer assay. Importantly, in an in vivo model, intravenous injection of dams with rhein (1, 3, and 5 mg/kg body weight/day) for four days resulted in apoptosis of blastocyst-stage embryos, early embryonic developmental injury, and decreased fetal weight. Intravenous injection of dams with 5 mg/kg body weight/day rhein significantly increased the total reactive oxygen species (ROS) content of fetuses and the transcription levels of antioxidant proteins in fetal livers. Additional work showed that rhein induced apoptosis through ROS generation, and that prevention of apoptotic processes effectively rescued the rhein-induced injury effects on embryonic development. Finally, the transcription levels of the innate-immunity related genes, CXCL1, IL-1 β and IL-8, were down-regulated in the fetuses of dams that received intravenous injections of rhein. These results collectively show that rhein has the potential to induce embryonic cytotoxicity and induce oxidative stress and immunotoxicity during the development of mouse embryos. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Comprehensive Evaluation of TFF3 Promoter Hypomethylation and Molecular Biomarker Potential for Prostate Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 2017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18092017
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
PDF Full-text (970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Overdiagnosis and overtreatment of clinically insignificant tumors remains a major problem in prostate cancer (PC) due to suboptimal diagnostic and prognostic tools. Thus, novel biomarkers are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the biomarker potential of Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3)
[...] Read more.
Overdiagnosis and overtreatment of clinically insignificant tumors remains a major problem in prostate cancer (PC) due to suboptimal diagnostic and prognostic tools. Thus, novel biomarkers are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the biomarker potential of Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) promoter methylation and RNA expression levels for PC. Initially, by quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) analysis of a large radical prostatectomy (RP) cohort (n = 292), we found that the TFF3 promoter was significantly hypomethylated in PC compared to non-malignant (NM) prostate tissue samples (p < 0.001) with an AUC (area under the curve) of 0.908 by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. Moreover, significant TFF3 promoter hypomethylation (p ≤ 0.010) as well as overexpression (p < 0.001) was found in PC samples from another large independent patient sample set (498 PC vs. 67 NM) analyzed by Illumina 450K DNA methylation arrays and/or RNA sequencing. TFF3 promoter methylation and transcriptional expression levels were inversely correlated, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the regulation of gene activity. Furthermore, low TFF3 expression was significantly associated with high ERG, ETS transcription factor (ERG) expression (p < 0.001), as well as with high Gleason score (p < 0.001), advanced pathological T-stage (p < 0.001), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence after RP (p = 0.013; univariate Cox regression analysis). There were no significant associations between TFF3 promoter methylation levels, ERG status, or PSA recurrence in these RP cohorts. In conclusion, our results demonstrated diagnostic biomarker potential of TFF3 promoter hypomethylation for PC as well as prognostic biomarker potential of TFF3 RNA expression. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive study of TFF3 promoter methylation and transcriptional expression in PC to date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Epigenetics)
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Open AccessReview Autophagy and Inflammatory Response in the Tumor Microenvironment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 2016; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18092016
Received: 18 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cell death is the last fate of the life cycle of cells. Different pathways involved in cell death are known to date, and are mostly represented by apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. Autophagy is one of the most preserved cell death pathways, characterized by
[...] Read more.
Cell death is the last fate of the life cycle of cells. Different pathways involved in cell death are known to date, and are mostly represented by apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. Autophagy is one of the most preserved cell death pathways, characterized by the elimination of large parts of cytoplasmic components after being consumed by a double-membraned vesicle called an autophagosome. The formed autophagosome then fuses with a lysosome containing degrading enzymes and leads to the digestion of the autophagosome content. Autophagy is triggered by stress-related inducers, and is partially dependent on apoptotic proteins. It plays a major role in cancer, particularly in the tumor microenvironment where it has a paradoxical function in acting as a tumor suppressor and also as a tumor promoter. In the tumor microenvironment, autophagy regulates the differentiation of macrophages into tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and fibroblasts into cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). TAMs and CAFs are abundantly present in the tumor microenvironment, and participate actively in tumor growth, tumor invasiveness, and tumor resistance to chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy at the Intersection of the Immune System and Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Reduced Fluorescent Protein Switching Fatigue by Binding-Induced Emissive State Stabilization
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 2015; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18092015
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs) enable advanced fluorescence imaging, though the performance of this imaging crucially depends on the properties of the labels. We report on the use of an existing small binding peptide, named Enhancer, to modulate the spectroscopic properties of the
[...] Read more.
Reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs) enable advanced fluorescence imaging, though the performance of this imaging crucially depends on the properties of the labels. We report on the use of an existing small binding peptide, named Enhancer, to modulate the spectroscopic properties of the recently developed rsGreen series of RSFPs. Fusion constructs of Enhancer with rsGreen1 and rsGreenF revealed an increased molecular brightness and pH stability, although expression in living E. coli or HeLa cells resulted in a decrease of the overall emission. Surprisingly, Enhancer binding also increased off-switching speed and resistance to switching fatigue. Further investigation suggested that the RSFPs can interconvert between fast- and slow-switching emissive states, with the overall protein population gradually converting to the slow-switching state through irradiation. The Enhancer modulates the spectroscopic properties of both states, but also preferentially stabilizes the fast-switching state, supporting the increased fatigue resistance. This work demonstrates how the photo-physical properties of RSFPs can be influenced by their binding to other small proteins, which opens up new horizons for applications that may require such modulation. Furthermore, we provide new insights into the photoswitching kinetics that should be of general consideration when developing new RSFPs with improved or different photochromic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Proteins)
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Open AccessReview Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin as a Possible Mediator of Leiomyoma Growth during Pregnancy: Molecular Mechanisms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 2014; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18092014
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Uterine fibroids are the most common gynecologic benign tumors. Studies supporting a strong pregnancy-related growth of leiomyomas generally claimed a crucial role of sex steroid hormones. However, sex steroids are unlikely the unique actors involved as estrogen and progesterone achieve a pick serum
[...] Read more.
Uterine fibroids are the most common gynecologic benign tumors. Studies supporting a strong pregnancy-related growth of leiomyomas generally claimed a crucial role of sex steroid hormones. However, sex steroids are unlikely the unique actors involved as estrogen and progesterone achieve a pick serum concentration in the last trimester while leiomyomas show a typical increase during the first trimester. Given the rapid exponential raise in serum human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) at the beginning of gestation, we conducted a review to assess the potential role of hCG in the striking growth of leiomyomas during initial pregnancy. Fibroid growth during initial pregnancy seems to correlate to the similar increase of serum hCG levels until 12 weeks of gestation. The presence of functional Luteinizing Hormone/human Chorionic Gonadotropin (LH/hCG) receptors was demonstrated on leiomyomas. In vitro treatment of leiomyoma cells with hCG determines an up to 500% increase in cell number after three days. Expression of cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 was significantly increased in leiomyoma cells by hCG treatment. Moreover, upon binding to the receptor, hCG stimulates prolactin secretion in leiomyoma cells, promoting cell proliferation via the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Fibroid enlargement during initial pregnancy may be regulated by serum hCG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue hCG—An Endocrine, Regulator of Gestation and Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Elongation of Axon Extension for Human iPSC-Derived Retinal Ganglion Cells by a Nano-Imprinted Scaffold
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 2013; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18092013
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Optic neuropathies, such as glaucoma and Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) lead to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and therefore motivate the application of transplantation technique into disease therapy. However, it is a challenge to direct the transplanted optic nerve axons to the
[...] Read more.
Optic neuropathies, such as glaucoma and Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) lead to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and therefore motivate the application of transplantation technique into disease therapy. However, it is a challenge to direct the transplanted optic nerve axons to the correct location of the retina. The use of appropriate scaffold can promote the proper axon growth. Recently, biocompatible materials have been integrated into the medical field, such as tissue engineering and reconstruction of damaged tissues or organs. We, herein, utilized nano-imprinting to create a scaffold mimicking the in vitro tissue microarchitecture, and guiding the axonal growth and orientation of the RGCs. We observed that the robust, long, and organized axons of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived RGCs projected axially along the scaffold grooves. The RGCs grown on the scaffold expressed the specific neuronal biomarkers indicating their proper functionality. Thus, based on our in vitro culture system, this device can be useful for the neurophysiological analysis and transplantation for ophthalmic neuropathy treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disease Modeling Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle Selective HDL-Raising Human Apo A-I Gene Therapy Counteracts Cardiac Hypertrophy, Reduces Myocardial Fibrosis, and Improves Cardiac Function in Mice with Chronic Pressure Overload
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 2012; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18092012
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Epidemiological studies support an independent inverse association between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and heart failure incidence. The effect of selective HDL-raising adeno-associated viral serotype 8-human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (AAV8-A-I) gene transfer on cardiac remodeling induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was evaluated
[...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies support an independent inverse association between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and heart failure incidence. The effect of selective HDL-raising adeno-associated viral serotype 8-human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (AAV8-A-I) gene transfer on cardiac remodeling induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was evaluated in C57BL/6 low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. Septal wall thickness and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area were reduced by 16.5% (p < 0.001) and by 13.8% (p < 0.01), respectively, eight weeks after TAC in AAV8-A-I mice (n = 24) compared to control mice (n = 39). Myocardial capillary density was 1.11-fold (p < 0.05) higher and interstitial cardiac fibrosis was 45.3% (p < 0.001) lower in AAV8-A-I TAC mice than in control TAC mice. Lung weight and atrial weight were significantly increased in control TAC mice compared to control sham mice, but were not increased in AAV8-A-I TAC mice. The peak rate of isovolumetric contraction was 1.19-fold (p < 0.01) higher in AAV8-A-I TAC mice (n = 17) than in control TAC mice (n = 29). Diastolic function was also significantly enhanced in AAV8-A-I TAC mice compared to control TAC mice. Nitro-oxidative stress and apoptosis were significantly reduced in the myocardium of AAV8-A-I TAC mice compared to control TAC mice. In conclusion, selective HDL-raising human apo A-I gene transfer potently counteracts the development of pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Bacterial Pathogens from Broncho-Alveolar Lavage by Next-Generation Sequencing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 2011; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18092011
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 10 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The applications of whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing (WMGS) in routine clinical analysis are still limited. A combination of a DNA extraction procedure, sequencing, and bioinformatics tools is essential for the removal of human DNA and for improving bacterial species identification in a timely manner.
[...] Read more.
The applications of whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing (WMGS) in routine clinical analysis are still limited. A combination of a DNA extraction procedure, sequencing, and bioinformatics tools is essential for the removal of human DNA and for improving bacterial species identification in a timely manner. We tackled these issues with a broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) sample from an immunocompromised patient who had developed severe chronic pneumonia. We extracted DNA from the BAL sample with protocols based either on sequential lysis of human and bacterial cells or on the mechanical disruption of all cells. Metagenomic libraries were sequenced on Illumina HiSeq platforms. Microbial community composition was determined by k-mer analysis or by mapping to taxonomic markers. Results were compared to those obtained by conventional clinical culture and molecular methods. Compared to mechanical cell disruption, a sequential lysis protocol resulted in a significantly increased proportion of bacterial DNA over human DNA and higher sequence coverage of Mycobacterium abscessus, Corynebacterium jeikeium and Rothia dentocariosa, the bacteria reported by clinical microbiology tests. In addition, we identified anaerobic bacteria not searched for by the clinical laboratory. Our results further support the implementation of WMGS in clinical routine diagnosis for bacterial identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deciphering the Human Microbiota: Methods and Impact on Human Health)
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Open AccessReview To Wnt or Lose: The Missing Non-Coding Linc in Colorectal Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 2003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18092003
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (857 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer and one of the leading causes for cancer-related mortality. Aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling is an essential initiating factor in colon carcinogenesis, and a driving force of CRC progression. Recently, long non-coding RNAs
[...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer and one of the leading causes for cancer-related mortality. Aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling is an essential initiating factor in colon carcinogenesis, and a driving force of CRC progression. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as significant players in CRC pathogenesis through diversified mechanisms. Although both Wnt signaling and lncRNAs represent interesting research areas for CRC, an effort of directly connecting these two areas is lacking. To fill in the knowledge gap, we focus on the reported findings of lncRNAs that regulate Wnt signaling or essential Wnt signaling targets. These include several newly discovered lncRNAs originated from the amplified cancer-associated chromosome 8q24 region that surrounds the essential Wnt target MYC gene, lncRNAs reported to be involved in CRC stem cells, and several individual lncRNAs connected to Wnt signaling through other mechanisms. This review will provide essential information that assists in understanding the missing link of lncRNAs to the classical Wnt signaling in CRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Regulation by Non-Coding RNAs)
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Mariko Nishizaki, et al. Bioactivity of NANOZR Induced by Alkali Treatment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 780
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 2009; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18092009
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
We would like to submit the following correction to the published paper [1].[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Osmolyte-Like Stabilizing Effects of Low GdnHCl Concentrations on d-Glucose/d-Galactose-Binding Protein
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 2008; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18092008
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
PDF Full-text (4306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability of d-glucose/d-galactose-binding protein (GGBP) to reversibly interact with its ligands, glucose and galactose, makes this protein an attractive candidate for sensing elements of glucose biosensors. This potential is largely responsible for attracting researchers to study the conformational properties
[...] Read more.
The ability of d-glucose/d-galactose-binding protein (GGBP) to reversibly interact with its ligands, glucose and galactose, makes this protein an attractive candidate for sensing elements of glucose biosensors. This potential is largely responsible for attracting researchers to study the conformational properties of this protein. Previously, we showed that an increase in the fluorescence intensity of the fluorescent dye 6-bromoacetyl-2-dimetylaminonaphtalene (BADAN) is linked to the holo-form of the GGBP/H152C mutant in solutions containing sub-denaturing concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl). It was hypothesized that low GdnHCl concentrations might lead to compaction of the protein, thereby facilitating ligand binding. In this work, we utilize BADAN fluorescence spectroscopy, intrinsic protein UV fluorescence spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to show that the sub-denaturing GdnHCl concentrations possess osmolyte-like stabilizing effects on the structural dynamics, conformational stability, and functional activity of GGBP/H152C and the wild type of this protein (wtGGBP). Our data are consistent with the model where low GdnHCl concentrations promote a shift in the dynamic distribution of the protein molecules toward a conformational ensemble enriched in molecules with a tighter structure and a more closed conformation. This promotes the increase in the configurational complementarity between the protein and glucose molecules that leads to the increase in glucose affinity in both GGBP/H152C and wtGGBP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biophysics)
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Open AccessArticle Interference of Paraben Compounds with Estrogen Metabolism by Inhibition of 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 2007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18092007
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parabens are effective preservatives widely used in cosmetic products and processed food, with high human exposure. Recent evidence suggests that parabens exert estrogenic effects. This work investigated the potential interference of parabens with the estrogen-activating enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) 1 and the estrogen-inactivating
[...] Read more.
Parabens are effective preservatives widely used in cosmetic products and processed food, with high human exposure. Recent evidence suggests that parabens exert estrogenic effects. This work investigated the potential interference of parabens with the estrogen-activating enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) 1 and the estrogen-inactivating 17β-HSD2. A ligand-based 17β-HSD2 pharmacophore model was applied to screen a cosmetic chemicals database, followed by in vitro testing of selected paraben compounds for inhibition of 17β-HSD1 and 17β-HSD2 activities. All tested parabens and paraben-like compounds, except their common metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid, inhibited 17β-HSD2. Ethylparaben and ethyl vanillate inhibited 17β-HSD2 with IC50 values of 4.6 ± 0.8 and 1.3 ± 0.3 µM, respectively. Additionally, parabens size-dependently inhibited 17β-HSD1, whereby hexyl- and heptylparaben were most active with IC50 values of 2.6 ± 0.6 and 1.8 ± 0.3 µM. Low micromolar concentrations of hexyl- and heptylparaben decreased 17β-HSD1 activity, and ethylparaben and ethyl vanillate decreased 17β-HSD2 activity. However, regarding the very rapid metabolism of these compounds to the inactive p-hydroxybenzoic acid by esterases, it needs to be determined under which conditions low micromolar concentrations of these parabens or their mixtures can occur in target cells to effectively disturb estrogen effects in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Research of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals)
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Open AccessArticle Behind Resveratrol Stabilization by Carboxymethylated (1,3/1,6)-β-d-Glucan: Does the Polyphenol Play a Role in Polymer Structural Organization?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 2006; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18092006
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
Resveratrol stability in solution can be improved by combining the polyphenol with carboxymethylated (1,3/1,6)-β-d-glucan (CM-glucan), a carbohydrate polymer widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The present work was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism behind this stabilizing effect. The supramolecular
[...] Read more.
Resveratrol stability in solution can be improved by combining the polyphenol with carboxymethylated (1,3/1,6)-β-d-glucan (CM-glucan), a carbohydrate polymer widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The present work was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism behind this stabilizing effect. The supramolecular structural, physico-chemical and morphological features of the CM-glucan/resveratrol complex have been studied under different physical and chemical stimuli by means of spectroscopic techniques, microscopy and physical methods such as UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), spectrofluorimetry, Circular Dichroism (CD), Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Our experimental data indicate that CM-glucan conformational organized architecture in aqueous solution is enhanced in the presence of resveratrol, suggesting that the polyphenol is able to confer a high degree of order to the polymer by a probable cooperative structural organization that results in a long term stabilization for the polyphenol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glucan: New Perspectives on Biochemistry and Application)
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Open AccessArticle Genome-Wide Identification of the PHD-Finger Family Genes and Their Responses to Environmental Stresses in Oryza sativa L.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 2005; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18092005
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
PDF Full-text (8397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The PHD-finger family has been demonstrated to be involved in regulating plant growth and development. However, little information is given for its role in environmental stress responses. Here, we identified a total of 59 PHD family genes in the rice genome. These OsPHDs
[...] Read more.
The PHD-finger family has been demonstrated to be involved in regulating plant growth and development. However, little information is given for its role in environmental stress responses. Here, we identified a total of 59 PHD family genes in the rice genome. These OsPHDs genes were located on eleven chromosomes and synteny analysis only revealed nine duplicated pairs within the rice PHD family. Phylogenetic analysis of all OsPHDs and PHDs from other species revealed that they could be grouped into two major clusters. Furthermore, OsPHDs were clustered into eight groups and members from different groups displayed a great divergence in terms of gene structure, functional domains and conserved motifs. We also found that with the exception of OsPHD6, all OsPHDs were expressed in at least one of the ten tested tissues and OsPHDs from certain groups were expressed in specific tissues. Moreover, our results also uncovered differential responses of OsPHDs expression to environmental stresses, including ABA (abscisic acid), water deficit, cold and high Cd. By using quantitative real-time PCR, we further confirmed the differential expression of OsPHDs under these stresses. OsPHD1/7/8/13/33 were differentially expressed under water deficit and Cd stresses, while OsPHD5/17 showed altered expression under water deficit and cold stresses. Moreover, OsPHD3/44/28 displayed differential expression under ABA and Cd stresses. In conclusion, our results provide valuable information on the rice PHD family in plant responses to environmental stress, which will be helpful for further characterizing their biological roles in responding to environmental stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessReview Cold Atmospheric Plasma in the Treatment of Osteosarcoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 2004; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18092004
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
Human osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor occurring most commonly in adolescents and young adults. Major improvements in disease-free survival have been achieved by implementing a combination therapy consisting of radical surgical resection of the tumor and systemic multi-agent
[...] Read more.
Human osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor occurring most commonly in adolescents and young adults. Major improvements in disease-free survival have been achieved by implementing a combination therapy consisting of radical surgical resection of the tumor and systemic multi-agent chemotherapy. However, long-term survival remains poor, so novel targeted therapies to improve outcomes for patients with osteosarcoma remains an area of active research. This includes immunotherapy, photodynamic therapy, or treatment with nanoparticles. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), a highly reactive (partially) ionized physical state, has been shown to inherit a significant anticancer capacity, leading to a new field in medicine called “plasma oncology.” The current article summarizes the potential of CAP in the treatment of human OS and reviews the underlying molecular mode of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Advances in Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma)
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