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Diversity 2013, 5(2), 293-319; doi:10.3390/d5020293

Evolutionary Hotspots in the Mojave Desert

1,* , 2, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,†, 5, 5,‡ and 1
1 Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center, San Diego Field Station, 4165 Spruance Road, Suite 200, San Diego, CA 92101, USA 2 Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center, Las Vegas Field Station, 160 N. Stephanie, Henderson, NV 89074, USA 3 Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida. Gainesville, FL 32611, USA 4 Department of Biology, Utah Valley University, 800 W. University Pkwy, Orem, UT 84058, USA 5 Department of Biological Sciences, Humboldt State University, 1 Harpst Street, Arcata, CA 95521, USA Present Address: Department of Biology, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Dr, San Diego, CA 92182, USA. Present Address: Museu Nacional, Departamento de Vertebrados, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20940-040, Brazil.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2013 / Revised: 7 March 2013 / Accepted: 1 April 2013 / Published: 15 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogeography and Biodiversity Conservation)
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Genetic diversity within species provides the raw material for adaptation and evolution. Just as regions of high species diversity are conservation targets, identifying regions containing high genetic diversity and divergence within and among populations may be important to protect future evolutionary potential. When multiple co-distributed species show spatial overlap in high genetic diversity and divergence, these regions can be considered evolutionary hotspots. We mapped spatial population genetic structure for 17 animal species across the Mojave Desert, USA. We analyzed these in concurrence and located 10 regions of high genetic diversity, divergence or both among species. These were mainly concentrated along the western and southern boundaries where ecotones between mountain, grassland and desert habitat are prevalent, and along the Colorado River. We evaluated the extent to which these hotspots overlapped protected lands and utility-scale renewable energy development projects of the Bureau of Land Management. While 30–40% of the total hotspot area was categorized as protected, between 3–7% overlapped with proposed renewable energy project footprints, and up to 17% overlapped with project footprints combined with transmission corridors. Overlap of evolutionary hotspots with renewable energy development mainly occurred in 6 of the 10 identified hotspots. Resulting GIS-based maps can be incorporated into ongoing landscape planning efforts and highlight specific regions where further investigation of impacts to population persistence and genetic connectivity may be warranted.
Keywords: genetic diversity and divergence; wildlife conservation; renewable energy development genetic diversity and divergence; wildlife conservation; renewable energy development
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Vandergast, A.G.; Inman, R.D.; Barr, K.R.; Nussear, K.E.; Esque, T.C.; Hathaway, S.A.; Wood, D.A.; Medica, P.A.; Breinholt, J.W.; Stephen, C.L.; Gottscho, A.D.; Marks, S.B.; Jennings, W.B.; Fisher, R.N. Evolutionary Hotspots in the Mojave Desert. Diversity 2013, 5, 293-319.

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