Next Article in Journal
Extinction Resilience of Island Species: An Amphibian Case and a Predictive Model
Next Article in Special Issue
Genetic Segregation and Genomic Hybridization Patterns Support an Allotetraploid Structure and Disomic Inheritance for Salix Species
Previous Article in Journal
Seasonal Changes in Microbial Community Structure in Freshwater Stream Sediment in a North Carolina River Basin
Previous Article in Special Issue
Patterns of Evolutionary Speed: In Search of a Causal Mechanism
Diversity 2014, 6(1), 33-42; doi:10.3390/d6010033

Novel Microsatellite Loci Variation and Population Genetics within Leafy Seadragons, Phycodurus eques

1,* , 1,†
1 Seattle Aquarium, 1483 Alaskan Way, Pier 59, Seattle, WA 98101, USA 2 Department of Clinical Investigation, Madigan Army Medical Center, 9040 Fitzsimmons Dr., Tacoma, WA 98431, USA 3 Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 1201 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101, USA These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 October 2013 / Revised: 20 December 2013 / Accepted: 27 December 2013 / Published: 3 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Diversity and Molecular Evolution)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [285 KB, 6 January 2014; original version 3 January 2014]   |   Browse Figure


Novel leafy seadragon (Phycodurus eques) microsatellite loci were developed via standard cloning techniques and tested for use in population genetics studies. Six out of a total of twelve microsatellites tested were usable for population analysis. Seadragon samples from Western Australia (N = 6), Southern Australia (N = 11), and a captive group (N = 11) were analyzed. Here, we present leafy seadragon microsatellite primer sequences for all 12 loci and population genetics statistics for the six loci that amplified consistently and displayed adequate variability to estimate population parameters, such as diversity, population differences, and relatedness. Observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.225 to 0.926 and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.278 to 0.650. Pairwise differences among populations (FST estimates) from samples collected off the southern coast of Western and South Australia, and captive animals ranged from a low of 0.188 between Southern Australia and captive animals, to a high of 0.212 between Western Australia and captive animals. Statistical assignment analyses suggested between one and three populations. Percent first order relatives among individuals was high and ranged from 40 within Western Australia to 55 within captive animals. These loci were tested on other species including weedy seadragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus), as well as assorted seahorses (Hippocampus reidi, H. erectus) and pipefish (Doryrhamphus dactyliophorus, D. pessuliferus, Corythoichthys intestinalis, Syngnathus leptorhynchus) with no success.
Keywords: seadragons; microsatellites; diversity; seahorses seadragons; microsatellites; diversity; seahorses
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Larson, S.; Ramsey, C.; Tinnemore, D.; Amemiya, C. Novel Microsatellite Loci Variation and Population Genetics within Leafy Seadragons, Phycodurus eques. Diversity 2014, 6, 33-42.

View more citation formats

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Diversity EISSN 1424-2818 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert