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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(3), 62; doi:10.3390/md15030062

Valorization of Lipids from Gracilaria sp. through Lipidomics and Decoding of Antiproliferative and Anti-Inflammatory Activity

1
Centro de Espectrometria de Massa, Departamento de Química & QOPNA, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2
Instituto de Biomedicina (IBIMED), Departamento de Ciências Médicas, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
3
Centro de Neurociências e Biologia Celular (CNC), Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra & Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade de Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
4
ALGAplus-Produção e Comercialização de Algas e seus Derivados, Lda., 3830-196 Ílhavo, Portugal
5
Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peer B. Jacobson
Received: 11 November 2016 / Revised: 11 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids 2017)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2100 KB, uploaded 2 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

The lipidome of the red seaweed Gracilaria sp., cultivated on land-based integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) system, was assessed for the first time using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC–MS and MS/MS). One hundred and forty-seven molecular species were identified in the lipidome of the Gracilaria genus and distributed between the glycolipids classes monogalactosyl diacylglyceride (MGDG), digalactosyl diacylglyceride (DGDG), sulfoquinovosyl monoacylglyceride (SQMG), sulfoquinovosyl diacylglyceride (SQDG), the phospholipids phosphatidylcholine (PC), lyso-PC, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), lyso-PG, phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatic acid (PA), inositolphosphoceramide (IPC), and betaine lipids monoacylglyceryl- and diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethyl homoserine (MGTS and DGTS). Antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects promoted by lipid extract of Gracilaria sp. were evaluated by monitoring cell viability in human cancer lines and by using murine macrophages, respectively. The lipid extract decreased cell viability of human T-47D breast cancer cells and of 5637 human bladder cancer cells (estimated half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 12.2 μg/mL and 12.9 μg/mL, respectively) and inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) evoked by the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 (35% inhibition at a concentration of 100 μg/mL). These findings contribute to increase the ranking in the value-chain of Gracilaria sp. biomass cultivated under controlled conditions on IMTA systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: glycolipids; phospholipids; betaine lipids; seaweeds; bioactivity; mass spectrometry; hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry HILIC–ESI–MS glycolipids; phospholipids; betaine lipids; seaweeds; bioactivity; mass spectrometry; hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry HILIC–ESI–MS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

da Costa, E.; Melo, T.; Moreira, A.S.P.; Bernardo, C.; Helguero, L.; Ferreira, I.; Cruz, M.T.; Rego, A.M.; Domingues, P.; Calado, R.; Abreu, M.H.; Domingues, M.R. Valorization of Lipids from Gracilaria sp. through Lipidomics and Decoding of Antiproliferative and Anti-Inflammatory Activity. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 62.

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