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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(3), 74; doi:10.3390/md15030074

Krill Oil-In-Water Emulsion Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Activation of Macrophages In Vitro

1
Department of Medical Cell Biology, Philipps-University Marburg, Robert-Koch-Straße 8, 35032 Marburg, Germany
2
Stable Solutions LLC, Easton Industrial Park, 19 Norfolk Avenue, South Easton, MA 02375, USA
3
Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sylvia Urban
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids 2017)
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Abstract

Background: Parenteral nutrition is often a mandatory therapeutic strategy for cases of septicemia. Likewise, therapeutic application of anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory therapy, and endotoxin lowering, by removal or inactivation, might be beneficial to ameliorate the systemic inflammatory response during the acute phases of critical illness. Concerning anti-inflammatory properties in this setting, omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin have been frequently described. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory and LPS-inactivating properties of krill oil (KO)-in-water emulsion in human macrophages in vitro. Materials and Methods: Differentiated THP-1 macrophages were activated using specific ultrapure-LPS that binds only on the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in order to determine the inhibitory properties of the KO emulsion on the LPS-binding capacity, and the subsequent release of TNF-α. Results: KO emulsion inhibited the macrophage binding of LPS to the TLR4 by 50% (at 12.5 µg/mL) and 75% (at 25 µg/mL), whereas, at 50 µg/mL, completely abolished the LPS binding. Moreover, KO (12.5 µg/mL, 25 µg/mL, or 50 µg/mL) also inhibited (30%, 40%, or 75%, respectively) the TNF-α release after activation with 0.01 µg/mL LPS in comparison with LPS treatment alone. Conclusion: KO emulsion influences the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory activation of macrophages, possibly due to inactivation of the LPS binding capacity. View Full-Text
Keywords: krill oil-in-water emulsion; omega-3 fatty acids; phospholipids; LPS; cytokines; septic shock krill oil-in-water emulsion; omega-3 fatty acids; phospholipids; LPS; cytokines; septic shock
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bonaterra, G.A.; Driscoll, D.; Schwarzbach, H.; Kinscherf, R. Krill Oil-In-Water Emulsion Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Activation of Macrophages In Vitro. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 74.

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