Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Mar. Drugs, Volume 9, Issue 2 (February 2011), Pages 154-293

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Antiproliferative and Antiangiogenic Activities of Smenospongine, a Marine Sponge Sesquiterpene Aminoquinone
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(2), 154-161; doi:10.3390/md9020154
Received: 17 December 2010 / Revised: 11 January 2011 / Accepted: 27 January 2011 / Published: 28 January 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We previously reported that smenospongine, a sesquiterpene aminoquinone isolated from the marine sponge Dactylospongia elegans, showed antiproliferative or cytotoxic activities on leukemia cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of smenospongine on solid tumors. Since angiogenesis is well known to [...] Read more.
We previously reported that smenospongine, a sesquiterpene aminoquinone isolated from the marine sponge Dactylospongia elegans, showed antiproliferative or cytotoxic activities on leukemia cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of smenospongine on solid tumors. Since angiogenesis is well known to be closely involved in growth and metastasis of solid tumors, the antiangiogenic effect of smenospongine was determined. We found that smenospongine inhibited proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Moreover, the inhibitory activity of smenospongine on growth of solid tumor cells was investigated. Smenospongine inhibited the growth of 39 human solid cancer cells in vitro, with a mean Log GI50 value of −5.55. In conclusion, smenospongine exhibits antitumor activity on solid tumors via two mechanisms, an antiangiogenic effect on endothelial cells and direct inhibition of growth of tumor cells. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle New Cytotoxic Oxygenated Sterols from the Marine Bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(2), 162-183; doi:10.3390/md9020162
Received: 18 December 2010 / Revised: 13 January 2011 / Accepted: 24 January 2011 / Published: 28 January 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Six new sterols (16), together with seven known sterols (713), were isolated from the CCl4 extract of the marine bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana, four (36) of which have already [...] Read more.
Six new sterols (16), together with seven known sterols (713), were isolated from the CCl4 extract of the marine bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana, four (36) of which have already been reported as synthetic sterols. This is the first time that these compounds (36) are reported as natural sterols. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of the extensive spectroscopic analysis, including two-dimensional (2D) NMR and HR-ESI-MS data. Compounds 14, 7 and 1013 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HL-60 human myeloid leukemia cell line, and all of the evaluated compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxicity to HL-60 cells with a range of IC50 values from 14.73 to 22.11 µg/mL except for compounds 12 and 13. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Bacterial Diversity and Bioprospecting for Cold-Active Hydrolytic Enzymes from Culturable Bacteria Associated with Sediment from Nella Fjord, Eastern Antarctica
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(2), 184-195; doi:10.3390/md9020184
Received: 17 December 2010 / Revised: 4 January 2011 / Accepted: 14 January 2011 / Published: 31 January 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The diversity and cold-active hydrolytic enzymes of culturable bacteria associated with sandy sediment from Nella Fjord, Eastern Antarctica (69°22′6″ S, 76°21′45″ E) was investigated. A total of 33 aerobic heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated at 4 °C. These bacterial isolates could be [...] Read more.
The diversity and cold-active hydrolytic enzymes of culturable bacteria associated with sandy sediment from Nella Fjord, Eastern Antarctica (69°22′6″ S, 76°21′45″ E) was investigated. A total of 33 aerobic heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated at 4 °C. These bacterial isolates could be sorted into 18 phylotypes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence belonging to four phyla, namely Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Only seven isolates were psychrophilic, 15 isolates were moderately psychrophilic, and 11 isolates were psychrotolerant. More than 72% of the isolates required sodium chloride to grow. Esterase, b-glucosidase and proteases activities at 4 °C were detected in more than 45% of the strains while approximately 21%, 15% and 12% of the strains possessed lipase, amylase and chitinase, respectively. These results indicate that a relatively high culturable bacterial diversity is present within marine sediment of Nella Fjord and it could serve as an ideal candidate region for bioprospecting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
Open AccessArticle Sterilization of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Deep-Sea Bacteria: Impact on Their Stability and Degradation
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(2), 224-241; doi:10.3390/md9020224
Received: 23 December 2010 / Revised: 21 January 2011 / Accepted: 7 February 2011 / Published: 10 February 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polysaccharides are highly heat-sensitive macromolecules, so high temperature treatments are greatly destructive and cause considerable damage, such as a great decrease in both viscosity and molecular weight of the polymer. The technical feasibility of the production of exopolysaccharides by deep-sea bacteria Vibrio diabolicus [...] Read more.
Polysaccharides are highly heat-sensitive macromolecules, so high temperature treatments are greatly destructive and cause considerable damage, such as a great decrease in both viscosity and molecular weight of the polymer. The technical feasibility of the production of exopolysaccharides by deep-sea bacteria Vibrio diabolicus and Alteromonas infernus was previously demonstrated using a bioproduct manufacturing process. The objective of this study was to determine which sterilization method, other than heat sterilization, was the most appropriate for these marine exopolysaccharides and was in accordance with bioprocess engineering requirements. Chemical sterilization using low-temperature ethylene oxide and a mixture of ionized gases (plasmas) was compared to the sterilization methods using gamma and beta radiations. The changes to both the physical and chemical properties of the sterilized exopolysaccharides were analyzed. The use of ethylene oxide can be recommended for the sterilization of polysaccharides as a weak effect on both rheological and structural properties was observed. This low-temperature gas sterilizing process is very efficient, giving a good Sterility Assurance Level (SAL), and is also well suited to large-scale compound manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle The New Carotenoid Pigment Moraxanthin Is Associated with Toxic Microalgae
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(2), 242-255; doi:10.3390/md9020242
Received: 22 December 2010 / Revised: 25 January 2011 / Accepted: 4 February 2011 / Published: 10 February 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (493 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The new pigment “moraxanthin” was found in natural samples from a fish mortality site in the Inland Bays of Delaware, USA. Pure cultures of the species, tentatively named Chattonella cf. verruculosa, and natural samples contained this pigment as a dominant carotenoid. [...] Read more.
The new pigment “moraxanthin” was found in natural samples from a fish mortality site in the Inland Bays of Delaware, USA. Pure cultures of the species, tentatively named Chattonella cf. verruculosa, and natural samples contained this pigment as a dominant carotenoid. The pigment, obtained from a 10 L culture of C. cf. verruculosa, was isolated and harvested by HPLC and its structure determined from MS and 1D- and 2D-NMR. The data identified this pigment as a new acylated form of vaucheriaxanthin called moraxanthin after the berry like algal cell. Its presence in pure cultures and in natural bloom samples indicates that moraxanthin is specific to C. cf. verruculosa and can be used as a marker of its presence when HPLC is used to analyze natural blooms samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids (Special Issue))
Figures

Open AccessArticle Synthesis of 1-Substituted Carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and Carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-β-carboline Analogs as Potential Antitumor Agents
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(2), 256-277; doi:10.3390/md9020256
Received: 30 December 2010 / Revised: 31 January 2011 / Accepted: 7 February 2011 / Published: 10 February 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of 1-substituted carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-b-carboline analogs have been synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activity against human tumor cells including KB, DLD, NCI-H661, Hepa, and HepG2/A2 cell lines. Among these, compounds 2, 6, 7, and 9 exhibited the [...] Read more.
A series of 1-substituted carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-b-carboline analogs have been synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activity against human tumor cells including KB, DLD, NCI-H661, Hepa, and HepG2/A2 cell lines. Among these, compounds 2, 6, 7, and 9 exhibited the most potent and selective activity against the tested tumor cells. As for inhibition of topoisomerase II, compounds 114 and 18 showed better activity than etoposide. Among them, compounds 3, 4, 7, 9, and 10 exhibited potent activity. The structure and activity relationship (SAR) study revealed correlation between carbon numbers of the side chain and biological activities. The molecular complex with DNA for compound 2 was proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Alkaloids)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Chemical Structures and Bioactivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Algae
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(2), 196-223; doi:10.3390/md9020196
Received: 22 December 2010 / Revised: 15 January 2011 / Accepted: 26 January 2011 / Published: 8 February 2011
Cited by 197 | PDF Full-text (220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine [...] Read more.
Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans), ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biomaterials)
Figures

Open AccessReview Carotenoids in Marine Animals
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(2), 278-293; doi:10.3390/md9020278
Received: 14 January 2011 / Revised: 16 February 2011 / Accepted: 21 February 2011 / Published: 22 February 2011
Cited by 51 | PDF Full-text (271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, [...] Read more.
Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids (Special Issue))

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Marine Drugs Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
marinedrugs@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Marine Drugs
Back to Top