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Mar. Drugs, Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2011), Pages 1440-1681

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Capilloquinol: A Novel Farnesyl Quinol from the Dongsha Atoll Soft Coral Sinularia capillosa
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(9), 1469-1476; doi:10.3390/md9091469
Received: 25 July 2011 / Revised: 19 August 2011 / Accepted: 24 August 2011 / Published: 30 August 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (887 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Capilloquinol (1), possessing an unprecedented farnesyl quinoid skeleton, was isolated from the Dongsha Atoll soft coral Sinularia capillosa. The structure of capilloquinol was elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data. The cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against human cytomegalovirus of 1
[...] Read more.
Capilloquinol (1), possessing an unprecedented farnesyl quinoid skeleton, was isolated from the Dongsha Atoll soft coral Sinularia capillosa. The structure of capilloquinol was elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data. The cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against human cytomegalovirus of 1 was evaluated in vitro. Full article
Open AccessArticle Frajunolides L–O, Four New 8-Hydroxybriarane Diterpenoids from the Gorgonian Junceella fragilis
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(9), 1477-1486; doi:10.3390/md9091477
Received: 8 July 2011 / Revised: 23 August 2011 / Accepted: 25 August 2011 / Published: 2 September 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1085 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Four new 8-hydroxybriarane diterpenoids, frajunolides L–O (14), were isolated from the Taiwanese gorgonian Junceella fragilis. The structures of compounds 14 were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis, especially 2D NMR (1H-1H COSY, HSQC,
[...] Read more.
Four new 8-hydroxybriarane diterpenoids, frajunolides L–O (14), were isolated from the Taiwanese gorgonian Junceella fragilis. The structures of compounds 14 were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis, especially 2D NMR (1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) and HRMS. Compounds 1 and 4 showed weak anti-inflammatory activity as tested by superoxide anion generation and elastase release by human neutrophil in response to fMLP/CB. Compound 3 showed selective inhibition on elastase release in vitro. Full article
Open AccessArticle Characterization of a Novel Serine Protease Inhibitor Gene from a Marine Metagenome
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(9), 1487-1501; doi:10.3390/md9091487
Received: 2 August 2011 / Revised: 22 August 2011 / Accepted: 25 August 2011 / Published: 5 September 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2901 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel serine protease inhibitor (serpin) gene designated as Spi1C was cloned via the sequenced-based screening of a metagenomic library from uncultured marine microorganisms. The gene had an open reading frame of 642 base pairs, and encoded a 214-amino acid polypeptide with a
[...] Read more.
A novel serine protease inhibitor (serpin) gene designated as Spi1C was cloned via the sequenced-based screening of a metagenomic library from uncultured marine microorganisms. The gene had an open reading frame of 642 base pairs, and encoded a 214-amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of about 28.7 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Spi1C and some partial proteinase inhibitor I4 serpins were closely related. Functional characterization demonstrated that the recombinant Spi1C protein could inhibit a series of serine proteases. The Spi1C protein exhibited inhibitory activity against α-chymotrypsin and trypsin with Ki values of around 1.79 × 10−8 and 1.52 × 10−8 M, respectively. No inhibition activity was exhibited against elastase. Using H-D-Phe-Pip-Arg-pNA as the chromogenic substrate, the optimum pH and temperature of the inhibition activity against trypsin were 7.0–8.0 and 25 °C, respectively. The identification of a novel serpin gene underscores the potential of marine metagenome screening for novel biomolecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metagenomics in Biodiscovery from Oceans)
Open AccessArticle A New Anthracene Derivative from Marine Streptomyces sp. W007 Exhibiting Highly and Selectively Cytotoxic Activities
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(9), 1502-1509; doi:10.3390/md9091502
Received: 12 July 2011 / Revised: 17 August 2011 / Accepted: 19 August 2011 / Published: 9 September 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new anthracene derivative, 3-hydroxy-1-keto-3-methyl-8-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-benz[α]anthracene, was isolated from the marine strain Streptomyces sp. W007, and its structure was established by spectroscopic analysis including mass spectra, 1D- and 2D-NMR (1H–1H COSY, HMBC, HSQC and NOESY) experiments. 3-hydroxy-1-keto-3-methyl-8-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-benz[α]anthracene showed cytotoxicity against
[...] Read more.
A new anthracene derivative, 3-hydroxy-1-keto-3-methyl-8-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-benz[α]anthracene, was isolated from the marine strain Streptomyces sp. W007, and its structure was established by spectroscopic analysis including mass spectra, 1D- and 2D-NMR (1H–1H COSY, HMBC, HSQC and NOESY) experiments. 3-hydroxy-1-keto-3-methyl-8-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-benz[α]anthracene showed cytotoxicity against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nardosinane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Formosan Soft Coral Paralemnalia thyrsoides
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(9), 1543-1553; doi:10.3390/md9091543
Received: 11 August 2011 / Revised: 6 September 2011 / Accepted: 6 September 2011 / Published: 16 September 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1432 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Five new nardosinane-type sesquiterpenoids, paralemnolins Q–U (15), along with three known compounds (68), were isolated from the Formosan soft coral Paralemnalia thyrsoides. The structures of new metabolites were elucidated on the basis of extensive
[...] Read more.
Five new nardosinane-type sesquiterpenoids, paralemnolins Q–U (15), along with three known compounds (68), were isolated from the Formosan soft coral Paralemnalia thyrsoides. The structures of new metabolites were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods, and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the application of Mosher’s method on 1. Among these metabolites, 1 and 3 are rarely found nardosinane-type sesquiterpenoids, possessing novel polycyclic structures. Compounds 1, 3, 6 and 7 were found to possess neuroprotective activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Mechanisms of Bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl) Ether, a Potential Marine Bromophenol α-Glucosidase Inhibitor
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(9), 1554-1565; doi:10.3390/md9091554
Received: 1 July 2011 / Revised: 26 July 2011 / Accepted: 8 August 2011 / Published: 19 September 2011
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (2509 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl) ether (BDDE), derived from the marine algae, is a potential α-glucosidase inhibitor for type 2 diabetes treatment. In the present study, a synthetic route was established as a valid approach to obtain BDDE. Fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra and molecular docking methods
[...] Read more.
Bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl) ether (BDDE), derived from the marine algae, is a potential α-glucosidase inhibitor for type 2 diabetes treatment. In the present study, a synthetic route was established as a valid approach to obtain BDDE. Fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra and molecular docking methods were employed to elucidate the inhibitory mechanisms of BDDE against α-glucosidase. The results showed that BDDE could be prepared effectively and efficiently with the established synthetic methods. Synthetic BDDE bound with α-glucosidase and induced minor conformational changes of the enzyme. The docking results indicated the interaction between BDDE and α-glucosidase was driven by both hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds. The docked BDDE molecule was completely buried in the α-glucosidase binding pocket with part of the molecule reaching the catalytic center and overlapping with the position of glucose, and the rest of the molecule extending towards protein surface. This study provides useful information for the understanding of the BDDE-α-glucosidase interaction and for the development of novel α-glucosidase inhibitors. Full article
Open AccessArticle NMR-Based Metabolomic Investigations on the Differential Responses in Adductor Muscles from Two Pedigrees of Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum to Cadmium and Zinc
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(9), 1566-1579; doi:10.3390/md9091566
Received: 9 August 2011 / Revised: 7 September 2011 / Accepted: 8 September 2011 / Published: 19 September 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1985 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important economic species in shellfishery in China due to its wide geographic distribution and high tolerance to environmental changes (e.g., salinity, temperature). In addition, Manila clam is a good biomonitor/bioindicator in “Mussel Watch Programs”
[...] Read more.
Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important economic species in shellfishery in China due to its wide geographic distribution and high tolerance to environmental changes (e.g., salinity, temperature). In addition, Manila clam is a good biomonitor/bioindicator in “Mussel Watch Programs” and marine environmental toxicology. However, there are several pedigrees of R. philippinarum distributed in the marine environment in China. No attention has been paid to the biological differences between various pedigrees of Manila clams, which may introduce undesirable biological variation in toxicology studies. In this study, we applied NMR-based metabolomics to detect the biological differences in two main pedigrees (White and Zebra) of R. philippinarum and their differential responses to heavy metal exposures (Cadmium and Zinc) using adductor muscle as a target tissue to define one sensitive pedigree of R. philippinarum as biomonitor for heavy metals. Our results indicated that there were significant metabolic differences in adductor muscle tissues between White and Zebra clams, including higher levels of alanine, glutamine, hypotaurine, phosphocholine and homarine in White clam muscles and higher levels of branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine), succinate and 4-aminobutyrate in Zebra clam muscles, respectively. Differential metabolic responses to heavy metals between White and Zebra clams were also found. Overall, we concluded that White pedigree of clam could be a preferable bioindicator/biomonitor in marine toxicology studies and for marine heavy metals based on the relatively high sensitivity to heavy metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Approaches to Marine Organisms)
Open AccessArticle Enhancement of Lutein Production in Chlorella sorokiniana (Chorophyta) by Improvement of Culture Conditions and Random Mutagenesis
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(9), 1607-1624; doi:10.3390/md9091607
Received: 9 August 2011 / Revised: 26 August 2011 / Accepted: 9 September 2011 / Published: 20 September 2011
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (1004 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chlorella sorokiniana has been selected for lutein production, after a screening of thirteen species of microalgae, since it showed both a high content in this carotenoid and a high growth rate. The effects of several nutritional and environmental factors on cell growth and
[...] Read more.
Chlorella sorokiniana has been selected for lutein production, after a screening of thirteen species of microalgae, since it showed both a high content in this carotenoid and a high growth rate. The effects of several nutritional and environmental factors on cell growth and lutein accumulation have been studied. Maximal specific growth rate and lutein content were attained at 690 µmol photons m−2 s−1, 28 °C, 2 mM NaCl, 40 mM nitrate and under mixotrophic conditions. In general, optimal conditions for the growth of this strain also lead to maximal lutein productivity. High lutein yielding mutants of C. sorokiniana have been obtained by random mutagenesis, using N-methyl-N′-nitro-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) as a mutagen and selecting mutants by their resistance to the inhibitors of the carotenogenic pathway nicotine and norflurazon. Among the mutants resistant to the herbicides, those exhibiting both high content in lutein and high growth rate were chosen. Several mutants exhibited higher contents in this carotenoid than the wild type, showing, in addition, either a similar or higher growth rate than the latter strain. The mutant MR-16 exhibited a 2.0-fold higher volumetric lutein content than that of the wild type, attaining values of 42.0 mg L−1 and mutants DMR-5 and DMR-8 attained a lutein cellular content of 7.0 mg g−1 dry weight. The high lutein yield exhibited by C. sorokiniana makes this microalga an excellent candidate for the production of this commercially interesting pigment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Controlled Release of Diclofenac from Matrix Polymer of Chitosan and Oxidized Konjac Glucomannan
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(9), 1649-1663; doi:10.3390/md9091649
Received: 2 August 2011 / Revised: 6 September 2011 / Accepted: 9 September 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (623 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The controlled release of diclofenac sodium (DFNa) from a chitosan-oxidized konjac glucomannan (CTS-OKG) polymer film was studied. Konjac glucomannan (KGM) was initially oxidized by sodium periodate and then cross-linked to CTS via imine bonds (–C=N–) to form the new CTS-OKG copolymer. The DFNa
[...] Read more.
The controlled release of diclofenac sodium (DFNa) from a chitosan-oxidized konjac glucomannan (CTS-OKG) polymer film was studied. Konjac glucomannan (KGM) was initially oxidized by sodium periodate and then cross-linked to CTS via imine bonds (–C=N–) to form the new CTS-OKG copolymer. The DFNa loaded CTS-OKG polymers were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Finally, the release profiles of DFNa from the CTS-OKG polymer matrices were evaluated in a simulated gastrointestinal fluid system comprised of two hours in simulated gastric fluid (SGF; pH 1.2) followed by 24 h in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF; pH 7.4). A 1:2:1 (w/w/w) ratio of CTS:OKG:DFNa prepared at room temperature for 3 hours gave the highest % encapsulation efficiency (EE) of 95.6 ± 0.6 and resulted in a minimal release of DFNa ( < 1% over 2 h) in SGF (pH 1.2) and a significantly improved sustained release in SIF (pH 7.4) with ~6% and 19% release over 8 and 24 h, respectively), some 15- and five-fold lower than that of the two commercial DFNa preparations, Diclosian and Voltaren. This formulation may be used for further study as a long term intestine controlled release drug model (at least 3 days). Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Production of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites by Marine Vibrionaceae
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(9), 1440-1468; doi:10.3390/md9091440
Received: 28 July 2011 / Revised: 11 August 2011 / Accepted: 15 August 2011 / Published: 25 August 2011
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (1137 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacteria belonging to the Vibrionaceae family are widespread in the marine environment. Today, 128 species of vibrios are known. Several of them are infamous for their pathogenicity or symbiotic relationships. Despite their ability to interact with eukaryotes, the vibrios are greatly underexplored for
[...] Read more.
Bacteria belonging to the Vibrionaceae family are widespread in the marine environment. Today, 128 species of vibrios are known. Several of them are infamous for their pathogenicity or symbiotic relationships. Despite their ability to interact with eukaryotes, the vibrios are greatly underexplored for their ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites and studies have been limited to only a few species. Most of the compounds isolated from vibrios so far are non-ribosomal peptides or hybrids thereof, with examples of N-containing compounds produced independent of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). Though covering a limited chemical space, vibrios produce compounds with attractive biological activities, including antibacterial, anticancer, and antivirulence activities. This review highlights some of the most interesting structures from this group of bacteria. Many compounds found in vibrios have also been isolated from other distantly related bacteria. This cosmopolitan occurrence of metabolites indicates a high incidence of horizontal gene transfer, which raises interesting questions concerning the ecological function of some of these molecules. This account underlines the pending potential for exploring new bacterial sources of bioactive compounds and the challenges related to their investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Microbes)
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Open AccessReview Biomedical Exploitation of Chitin and Chitosan via Mechano-Chemical Disassembly, Electrospinning, Dissolution in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids, and Supercritical Drying
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(9), 1510-1533; doi:10.3390/md9091510
Received: 26 July 2011 / Revised: 28 August 2011 / Accepted: 31 August 2011 / Published: 9 September 2011
Cited by 73 | PDF Full-text (644 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently developed technology permits to optimize simultaneously surface area, porosity, density, rigidity and surface morphology of chitin-derived materials of biomedical interest. Safe and ecofriendly disassembly of chitin has superseded the dangerous acid hydrolysis and provides higher yields and scaling-up possibilities: the chitosan nanofibrils
[...] Read more.
Recently developed technology permits to optimize simultaneously surface area, porosity, density, rigidity and surface morphology of chitin-derived materials of biomedical interest. Safe and ecofriendly disassembly of chitin has superseded the dangerous acid hydrolysis and provides higher yields and scaling-up possibilities: the chitosan nanofibrils are finding applications in reinforced bone scaffolds and composite dressings for dermal wounds. Electrospun chitosan nanofibers, in the form of biocompatible thin mats and non-wovens, are being actively studied: composites of gelatin + chitosan + polyurethane have been proposed for cardiac valves and for nerve conduits; fibers are also manufactured from electrospun particles that self-assemble during subsequent freeze-drying. Ionic liquids (salts of alkylated imidazolium) are suitable as non-aqueous solvents that permit desirable reactions to occur for drug delivery purposes. Gel drying with supercritical CO2 leads to structures most similar to the extracellular matrix, even when the chitosan is crosslinked, or in combination with metal oxides of interest in orthopedics. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Polysaccharides)
Open AccessReview Recently Confirmed Apoptosis-Inducing Lead Compounds Isolated from Marine Sponge of Potential Relevance in Cancer Treatment
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(9), 1580-1606; doi:10.3390/md9091580
Received: 6 August 2011 / Revised: 31 August 2011 / Accepted: 7 September 2011 / Published: 20 September 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (713 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite intense efforts to develop non-cytotoxic anticancer treatments, effective agents are still not available. Therefore, novel apoptosis-inducing drug leads that may be developed into effective targeted cancer therapies are of interest to the cancer research community. Targeted cancer therapies affect specific aberrant apoptotic
[...] Read more.
Despite intense efforts to develop non-cytotoxic anticancer treatments, effective agents are still not available. Therefore, novel apoptosis-inducing drug leads that may be developed into effective targeted cancer therapies are of interest to the cancer research community. Targeted cancer therapies affect specific aberrant apoptotic pathways that characterize different cancer types and, for this reason, it is a more desirable type of therapy than chemotherapy or radiotherapy, as it is less harmful to normal cells. In this regard, marine sponge derived metabolites that induce apoptosis continue to be a promising source of new drug leads for cancer treatments. A PubMed query from 01/01/2005 to 31/01/2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 39 recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing anticancer lead compounds isolated from the marine sponge that are selectively discussed in this review. Full article
Open AccessReview Marine Polysaccharides: A Source of Bioactive Molecules for Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(9), 1664-1681; doi:10.3390/md9091664
Received: 22 July 2011 / Revised: 2 September 2011 / Accepted: 5 September 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
Cited by 74 | PDF Full-text (6037 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The therapeutic potential of natural bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, especially glycosaminoglycans, is now well documented, and this activity combined with natural biodiversity will allow the development of a new generation of therapeutics. Advances in our understanding of the biosynthesis, structure and function
[...] Read more.
The therapeutic potential of natural bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, especially glycosaminoglycans, is now well documented, and this activity combined with natural biodiversity will allow the development of a new generation of therapeutics. Advances in our understanding of the biosynthesis, structure and function of complex glycans from mammalian origin have shown the crucial role of this class of molecules to modulate disease processes and the importance of a deeper knowledge of structure-activity relationships. Marine environment offers a tremendous biodiversity and original polysaccharides have been discovered presenting a great chemical diversity that is largely species specific. The study of the biological properties of the polysaccharides from marine eukaryotes and marine prokaryotes revealed that the polysaccharides from the marine environment could provide a valid alternative to traditional polysaccharides such as glycosaminoglycans. Marine polysaccharides present a real potential for natural product drug discovery and for the delivery of new marine derived products for therapeutic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Polysaccharides)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessShort Note Menelloides C and D, New Sesquiterpenoids from the Gorgonian Coral Menella sp.
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(9), 1534-1542; doi:10.3390/md9091534
Received: 20 July 2011 / Revised: 22 August 2011 / Accepted: 5 September 2011 / Published: 14 September 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two new metabolites, including a lindenane-type sesquiterpenoid, menelloide C (1), and a germacrane-type sesquiterpenoid, menelloide D (2), were isolated from a Formosan gorgonian coral identified as Menella sp. The structures of 1 and 2 were established by spectroscopic methods
[...] Read more.
Two new metabolites, including a lindenane-type sesquiterpenoid, menelloide C (1), and a germacrane-type sesquiterpenoid, menelloide D (2), were isolated from a Formosan gorgonian coral identified as Menella sp. The structures of 1 and 2 were established by spectroscopic methods and 2 displayed a weak inhibitory effect on the release of elastase by human neutrophils. Full article
Open AccessEssay The Relevance of Marine Chemical Ecology to Plankton and Ecosystem Function: An Emerging Field
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(9), 1625-1648; doi:10.3390/md9091625
Received: 27 July 2011 / Revised: 5 September 2011 / Accepted: 9 September 2011 / Published: 22 September 2011
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (1207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine chemical ecology comprises the study of the production and interaction of bioactive molecules affecting organism behavior and function. Here we focus on bioactive compounds and interactions associated with phytoplankton, particularly bloom-forming diatoms, prymnesiophytes and dinoflagellates. Planktonic bioactive metabolites are structurally and functionally
[...] Read more.
Marine chemical ecology comprises the study of the production and interaction of bioactive molecules affecting organism behavior and function. Here we focus on bioactive compounds and interactions associated with phytoplankton, particularly bloom-forming diatoms, prymnesiophytes and dinoflagellates. Planktonic bioactive metabolites are structurally and functionally diverse and some may have multiple simultaneous functions including roles in chemical defense (antipredator, allelopathic and antibacterial compounds), and/or cell-to-cell signaling (e.g., polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) of diatoms). Among inducible chemical defenses in response to grazing, there is high species-specific variability in the effects on grazers, ranging from severe physical incapacitation and/or death to no apparent physiological response, depending on predator susceptibility and detoxification capability. Most bioactive compounds are present in very low concentrations, in both the producing organism and the surrounding aqueous medium. Furthermore, bioactivity may be subject to synergistic interactions with other natural and anthropogenic environmental toxicants. Most, if not all phycotoxins are classic secondary metabolites, but many other bioactive metabolites are simple molecules derived from primary metabolism (e.g., PUAs in diatoms, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in prymnesiophytes). Producing cells do not seem to suffer physiological impact due to their synthesis. Functional genome sequence data and gene expression analysis will provide insights into regulatory and metabolic pathways in producer organisms, as well as identification of mechanisms of action in target organisms. Understanding chemical ecological responses to environmental triggers and chemically-mediated species interactions will help define crucial chemical and molecular processes that help maintain biodiversity and ecosystem functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Toxins)

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