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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1059; doi:10.3390/ijerph14091059

Distribution of Non-Persistent Endocrine Disruptors in Two Different Regions of the Human Brain

1
Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
2
Univ. Granada, Radiology and Physical Medicine Dept./ibs.GRANADA, 18016 Granada, Spain
3
Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, an Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1105 BA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
4
Section of Molecular Metabolism and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
5
Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol 3041, Cyprus
6
Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Micro-Pollutants and Human Exposure)
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Abstract

Non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals (npEDCs) can affect multiple organs and systems in the body. Whether npEDCs can accumulate in the human brain is largely unknown. The major aim of this pilot study was to examine the presence of environmental phenols and parabens in two distinct brain regions: the hypothalamus and white-matter tissue. In addition, a potential association between these npEDCs concentrations and obesity was investigated. Post-mortem brain material was obtained from 24 individuals, made up of 12 obese and 12 normal-weight subjects (defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 and BMI < 25 kg/m2, respectively). Nine phenols and seven parabens were measured by isotope dilution TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS. In the hypothalamus, seven suspect npEDCs (bisphenol A, triclosan, triclocarban and methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, and benzyl paraben) were detected, while five npEDCs (bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, triclocarban, methyl-, and n-propyl paraben) were found in the white-matter brain tissue. We observed higher levels of methylparaben (MeP) in the hypothalamic tissue of obese subjects as compared to controls (p = 0.008). Our findings indicate that some suspected npEDCs are able to cross the blood–brain barrier. Whether the presence of npEDCs can adversely affect brain function and to which extent the detected concentrations are physiologically relevant needs to be further investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: bisphenol-A; methylparaben; phenols; parabens; brain; hypothalamus; obesity bisphenol-A; methylparaben; phenols; parabens; brain; hypothalamus; obesity
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van der Meer, T.P.; Artacho-Cordón, F.; Swaab, D.F.; Struik, D.; Makris, K.C.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Frederiksen, H.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J.V. Distribution of Non-Persistent Endocrine Disruptors in Two Different Regions of the Human Brain. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1059.

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