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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 14, Issue 9 (September 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Mosquitoes spread devastating human diseases including malaria, dengue and Zika. Mosquito control [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Ambient Air Pollution and Risk for Ischemic Stroke: A Short-Term Exposure Assessment in South China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091091
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Data on the association between air pollution and risk of ischemic stroke in China are still limited. This study aimed to investigate the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of ischemic strokes in Guangzhou, the most densely-populated city in
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Data on the association between air pollution and risk of ischemic stroke in China are still limited. This study aimed to investigate the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of ischemic strokes in Guangzhou, the most densely-populated city in south China, using a large-scale multicenter database of stroke hospital admissions. Daily counts of ischemic stroke admissions over the study years 2013–2015 were obtained from the Guangzhou Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease Event Surveillance System. Daily particulate matter <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and meteorological data were collected. The associations between air pollutants and hospital admissions for stroke were examined using relative risks (RRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on time-series Poisson regression models, adjusting for temperature, public holiday, day of week, and temporal trends in stroke. Ischemic stroke admissions increased from 27,532 to 35,279 through 2013 to 2015, increasing by 28.14%. Parameter estimates for NO2 exposure were robust regardless of the model used. The association between same-day NO2 (RR = 1.0509, 95% CI: 1.0353–1.0668) exposure and stroke risk was significant when accounting for other air pollutants, day of the week, public holidays, temperature, and temporal trends in stroke events. Overall, we observed a borderline significant association between NO2 exposure modeled as an averaged lag effect and ischemic stroke risk. This study provides data on air pollution exposures and stroke risk, and contributes to better planning of clinical services and emergency contingency response for stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle Joint Decisions on Production and Pricing with Strategic Consumers for Green Crowdfunding Products
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091090
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Green crowdfunding is developing as a novel and popular transaction method, which can largely improve the efficiency of raising initial funds and selling innovative green products or services. In this paper, we explore the creator’s joint decisions regarding green crowdfunding products of different
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Green crowdfunding is developing as a novel and popular transaction method, which can largely improve the efficiency of raising initial funds and selling innovative green products or services. In this paper, we explore the creator’s joint decisions regarding green crowdfunding products of different quality levels that can sufficiently satisfy consumer preferences. Firstly, considering the characteristics of a green crowdfunding product, we present four pricing strategies when substitutes exist. Then we propose the optimal pricing strategies to maximize the total profit for the creator under different circumstances, facing strategic and myopic consumers. Finally, for the heterogeneity of consumer valuations, we compare the total profits of the four pricing strategies under different values of the substitution coefficient to obtain the optimal pricing and product strategies under the coexistence of strategic and myopic consumers. According to the result, we find that when the fraction of high-type consumers and the gap between high and low valuations is big, or when they are both small, traditional single pricing shows its benefit. However, when the green crowdfunding products are better than their substitute, a line of green products is more likely to be optimal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Environment, Green Operations and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Socio-Demographic and Lifestyle Factors Predict 5-Year Changes in Adiposity among a Group of Black South African Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091089
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
The rising prevalence of obesity and excessive adiposity are global public health concerns. Understanding determinants of changes in adiposity over time is critical for informing effective evidence-based prevention or treatment. However, limited information is available to achieve this objective. Cultural, demographic, environmental, and
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The rising prevalence of obesity and excessive adiposity are global public health concerns. Understanding determinants of changes in adiposity over time is critical for informing effective evidence-based prevention or treatment. However, limited information is available to achieve this objective. Cultural, demographic, environmental, and behavioral factors including socio-economic status (SES) likely account for obesity development. To this end, we related these variables to anthropometric measures in 1058 black adult Tswana-speaking South Africans who were HIV negative in a prospective study over five years. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference increased in both sexes, whereas triceps skinfold thickness remained the same. Over the five years, women moved to higher BMI categories and more were diagnosed with central obesity. Age correlated negatively, whereas SES, physical activity, energy, and fat intake correlated positively with adiposity markers in women. In men, SES, marital status, physical activity, and being urban predicted increases in adiposity. For women, SES and urbanicity increased, whereas menopause and smoking decreased adiposity. Among men, smokers had less change in BMI than those that never smoked over five years. Our findings suggest that interventions, focusing on the urban living, the married and those with the highest SES—the high-risk groups identified herein—are of primary importance to contain morbidity and premature mortality due to obesity in black South Africans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Open AccessEditorial Environmental Influences on Maternal and Child Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1088; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091088
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
This Special Issue of IJERPH focuses on maternal and child health (MCH), with research that highlights the role of environmental influences on MCH across a range of settings.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Influences on Maternal and Child Health)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091087
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed
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The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD) method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS). Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln) ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2–3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evidence-Based Nature Therapy: Advances in Physiological Evaluation)
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Open AccessArticle Timeliness of Childhood Primary Immunization and Risk Factors Related with Delays: Evidence from the 2014 Zhejiang Provincial Vaccination Coverage Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091086
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Background: this study aimed to assess both immunization coverage and timeliness, as well as reasons for non-vaccination, and identity the risk factors of delayed immunization, for the vaccines scheduled during the first year of life, in Zhejiang province, east China. Methods: A cluster
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Background: this study aimed to assess both immunization coverage and timeliness, as well as reasons for non-vaccination, and identity the risk factors of delayed immunization, for the vaccines scheduled during the first year of life, in Zhejiang province, east China. Methods: A cluster survey among children aged 24–35 months was conducted. Demographic information and socio-economic characteristics of the selected child, the mother, and the household were collected. Immunization data were transcribed from immunization cards. Timeliness was assessed with Kaplan–Meier analysis for each vaccine given before 12 months of age, based on the time frame stipulated by the expanded program on immunization of China. Cox proportional hazard regression was applied to identify risk factors of delayed immunization. Results: A total of 2772 eligible children were surveyed. The age-appropriate coverage ranged from 25.4% (95% CI: 23.7–27.0%) for Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) to 91.3% (95% CI: 90.2–92.3%) for the first dose of oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV1). The most frequent reason for non-vaccination was parent’s fear of adverse events of immunization. Delayed immunizations were associated with mother having a lower education level, mother having a job, delivery at home, increasing number of children per household, and having a lower household income. Conclusions: Although the timeliness of immunization has improved since 2011, necessary steps are still needed to achieve further improvement. Timeliness of immunization should be considered as another important indicator of expanded program on immunization (EPI) performance. Future interventions on vaccination coverage should take into consideration demographic and socio-economic risk factors identified in this study. The importance of adhering to the recommended schedule should be explained to parents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Emotional Symptoms and Job Demands in an Asian Electronics Factory
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091085
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
Various work-related issues including mental health have been described for the electronic industry. Although East Asian countries play important roles in the electronics industry, the association between job demands and emotional symptoms has been rarely examined. The present study recruited 603 workers from
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Various work-related issues including mental health have been described for the electronic industry. Although East Asian countries play important roles in the electronics industry, the association between job demands and emotional symptoms has been rarely examined. The present study recruited 603 workers from either office or clean room environments in an electronics factory in Taiwan. Their personal factors, work-related factors, and emotional symptoms were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. The symptoms of depression and hostility were reported in 24.88% and 24.38% of the subjects, respectively, while 14.93% reported both. A multivariate analysis showed that, overall, women workers were more likely to have emotional symptoms than male workers (odds ration (OR) = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.02–2.18). Among clean room workers, working under high pressure (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.05–3.21), conflicting demands (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.30–3.57), and social isolation at work (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.23–7.30) were associated with emotional symptoms. The findings suggest that in the Asian electronics industry, for women, working under high pressure, conflicting demands, and social isolation at work are risk factors for emotional symptoms, especially for clean room workers. Further large-scale, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm and prevent the mental health problems in this fast-evolving, highly competitive industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Occupational Safety and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Dental Environmental Noise Evaluation and Health Risk Model Construction to Dental Professionals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091084
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4138 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Occupational noise is unavoidably produced from dental equipment, building facilities, and human voices in the dental environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of occupational noise exposure on the dental professionals’ health condition. The psychoacoustics approach noise exposure assessment
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Occupational noise is unavoidably produced from dental equipment, building facilities, and human voices in the dental environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of occupational noise exposure on the dental professionals’ health condition. The psychoacoustics approach noise exposure assessment followed by the health risk assessment was carried on at the paediatric dentistry clinic and the dental laboratory in the Prince Philip Dental Hospital of Hong Kong. The A-weighted equivalent sound level, total loudness, and sharpness values were statistically significantly higher for the noise at the laboratory than that at the clinic. The degree of perceived influences and sharpness of noise were found to have the impacts on the dental professionals’ working performance and health. Moreover, the risk of having a bad hearing state would a have 26% and 31% higher chance for a unit increment of the short-term and long-term impact scores, respectively. The dental professionals with the service length more than 10 years and the daily working hours of more than eight showed the highest risk to their hearing state. The worse the hearing state was, the worse the health state was found for the dental professionals. Also, the risk of dissatisfaction would be increased by 4.41 and 1.22 times for those who worked at the laboratory and a unit increment of the long-term impact score. The constructed health risk mode with the scientific and statistical evidence is hence important for the future noise management of environmental improvement. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Green Space and Depression during Pregnancy: Results from the Growing Up in New Zealand Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091083
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
Background: Antenatal depression is an important contributor to poor maternal health experienced by some women. This study aimed to determine whether exposure to green space during pregnancy is associated with less depression, and whether this association is moderated by relevant factors, such
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Background: Antenatal depression is an important contributor to poor maternal health experienced by some women. This study aimed to determine whether exposure to green space during pregnancy is associated with less depression, and whether this association is moderated by relevant factors, such as age, education, self-identified ethnicity, physical activity, residential rurality, and socioeconomic status. Methods: Health data were sourced from the cohort study “Growing Up in New Zealand” comprised of 6772 participants. Green space was estimated based on the proportion of green space within the Census Area Unit. Adjusted logistic mixed effect models were used to investigate the association between green space and antenatal depression after controlling for confounding variables. Results: Maternal exposure to green space were not associated with lower odds of antenatal depression. Indications of effect modifications due to relevant factors were not observed. Conclusions: This study did not determine an association between access to green space (measured based on the distance to the nearest green space) and antenatal depression. Therefore, a link between green space and antenatal depression was not established. For that reason, ensuring residential areas contain adequate green space may or may not be helpful in preventing antenatal depression and adverse health outcomes associated with this depression. More studies focusing on pregnant women in a range of social contexts, and considering both exposure and access to green space, are warranted to determine the relationships between green space and antenatal depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Environmental Exposures)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Mothers’ Perceived Neighbourhood Environment and Outdoor Play of 2- to 3.5-Year-Old Children: Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091082
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
Background: This study aims to investigate whether mothers’ perceived neighbourhood environment is associated with outdoor playtime of 2- to 3.5-year-old children. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial (HBT). Data on children’s outdoor playtime and mothers’ perceived neighbourhood
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Background: This study aims to investigate whether mothers’ perceived neighbourhood environment is associated with outdoor playtime of 2- to 3.5-year-old children. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial (HBT). Data on children’s outdoor playtime and mothers’ perceived neighbourhood environment were collected through face-to-face interviews with mothers when their children were 2 and 3.5 years old. Walk score was obtained from a publicly available website and population density data were obtained from Australian Census data. Multiple logistic regression models were built to investigate these associations. Results: A total of 497 and 415 mother-child dyads were retained at 2 years and 3.5 years. After adjusting for intervention group allocation and other confounding factors, at 2 years, mothers’ perceptions that ‘the neighbourhood is a good place to bring up children’, ‘it is safe to play outside during the day’, and ‘there are good parks or playgrounds in neighbourhood’ were positively associated with children’s outdoor playtime. At 3.5 years, living in a free-standing house was associated with more children’s outdoor playtime. Conclusions: Children may benefit from living in a neighbourhood that supports active lifestyle. Improving social and physical environments in neighbourhoods could be an important strategy for improving young children’s physical activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle China’s Air Quality and Respiratory Disease Mortality Based on the Spatial Panel Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091081
Received: 6 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1960 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Air pollution has become an important factor restricting China’s economic development and has subsequently brought a series of social problems, including the impact of air pollution on the health of residents, which is a topical issue in China. Methods: Taking
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Background: Air pollution has become an important factor restricting China’s economic development and has subsequently brought a series of social problems, including the impact of air pollution on the health of residents, which is a topical issue in China. Methods: Taking into account this spatial imbalance, the paper is based on the spatial panel data model PM2.5. Respiratory disease mortality in 31 Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2008 is taken as the main variable to study the spatial effect and impact of air quality and respiratory disease mortality on a large scale. Results: It was found that there is a spatial correlation between the mortality of respiratory diseases in Chinese provinces. The spatial correlation can be explained by the spatial effect of PM2.5 pollutions in the control of other variables. Conclusions: Compared with the traditional non-spatial model, the spatial model is better for describing the spatial relationship between variables, ensuring the conclusions are scientific and can measure the spatial effect between variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle Depression and Risk of Unintentional Injury in Rural Communities—A Longitudinal Analysis of the Australian Rural Mental Health Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1080; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091080
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
PDF Full-text (336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Limited longitudinal research has examined relationships between depression and injury, particularly in rural contexts. This paper reports cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses from the Australian Rural Mental Health Study (ARMHS) exploring relationships between “probable depression” episodes and unintentional injury. Participants completed four surveys over
[...] Read more.
Limited longitudinal research has examined relationships between depression and injury, particularly in rural contexts. This paper reports cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses from the Australian Rural Mental Health Study (ARMHS) exploring relationships between “probable depression” episodes and unintentional injury. Participants completed four surveys over five years. Multivariate logistic regressions were employed to assess the causal effect of prior depression episodes on subsequent injury risk. Of 2621 baseline participants, 23.3% experienced a probable depression episode recently and 15.9% reported a serious injury during the previous 12 months. Factors associated with a 12-month injury at baseline included male gender, being unemployed or unable to work, being involved in a serious incident, hazardous alcohol use, and having experienced a recent depression episode. Longitudinal analyses revealed that probable depression was significantly associated with subsequent unintentional injury (OR 1.68, 99%CI 1.20–2.35), as was male gender (OR 1.39, 99%CI 1.06–1.82), while alcohol consumption did not mediate these relationships. Campaigns to reduce the impact of mental illness should consider unintentional injuries as a contributor, while injury prevention initiatives may benefit from addressing mental health issues. Such strategies are particularly important in rural and remote areas where injuries are more common and mental health services are less readily available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Open AccessReview Mini-Review: The Contribution of Intermediate Phenotypes to GxE Effects on Disorders of Body Composition in the New OMICS Era
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091079
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 17 September 2017
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Abstract
Studies of gene-environment (GxE) interactions describe how genetic and environmental factors influence the risk of developing disease. Intermediate (molecular or clinical) phenotypes (IPs) are traits or metabolic biomarkers that mediate the effects of gene-environment influences on risk behaviors. Functional systems genomics discovery offers
[...] Read more.
Studies of gene-environment (GxE) interactions describe how genetic and environmental factors influence the risk of developing disease. Intermediate (molecular or clinical) phenotypes (IPs) are traits or metabolic biomarkers that mediate the effects of gene-environment influences on risk behaviors. Functional systems genomics discovery offers mechanistic insights into how DNA variations affect IPs in order to detect genetic causality for a given disease. Disorders of body composition include obesity (OB), Type 2 diabetes (T2D), and osteoporosis (OSTP). These pathologies are examples of how a GxE interaction contributes to their development. IPs as surrogates for inherited genotypes play a key role in models of genetic and environmental interactions in health outcomes. Such predictive models may unravel relevant genomic and molecular pathways for preventive and therapeutic interventions for OB, T2D, and OSTP. Annotation strategies for genomes, in contrast to phenomes, are well advanced. They generally do not measure specific aspects of the environment. Therefore, the concepts of deep phenotyping and the exposome generate new avenues to exploit with high-resolution technologies for analyzing this sophisticated phenome. With the successful characterization of phenomes, exposomes, and genomes, environmental and genetic determinants of chronic diseases can be united with multi-OMICS studies that better examine GxE interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle Linguistic Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making with Risk Preferences and Its Use in Low-Carbon Tourism Destination Selection
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091078
Received: 20 August 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 17 September 2017
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Low-carbon tourism plays an important role in carbon emission reduction and environmental protection. Low-carbon tourism destination selection often involves multiple conflicting and incommensurate attributes or criteria and can be modelled as a multi-attribute decision-making problem. This paper develops a framework to solve multi-attribute
[...] Read more.
Low-carbon tourism plays an important role in carbon emission reduction and environmental protection. Low-carbon tourism destination selection often involves multiple conflicting and incommensurate attributes or criteria and can be modelled as a multi-attribute decision-making problem. This paper develops a framework to solve multi-attribute group decision-making problems, where attribute evaluation values are provided as linguistic terms and the attribute weight information is incomplete. In order to obtain a group risk preference captured by a linguistic term set with triangular fuzzy semantic information, a nonlinear programming model is established on the basis of individual risk preferences. We first convert individual linguistic-term-based decision matrices to their respective triangular fuzzy decision matrices, which are then aggregated into a group triangular fuzzy decision matrix. Based on this group decision matrix and the incomplete attribute weight information, a linear program is developed to find an optimal attribute weight vector. A detailed procedure is devised for tackling linguistic multi-attribute group decision making problems. A low-carbon tourism destination selection case study is offered to illustrate how to use the developed group decision-making model in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision Models in Green Growth and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle Mother’s IPV, Child Maltreatment Type and the Presence of PTSD in Children and Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091077
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 17 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (335 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This correlational cross-sectional study was designed to investigate whether the intimate partner violence (IPV) suffered by mothers (physical and psychological maltreatment), child eyewitness of psychological and physical maltreatment suffered by the mother, the neglect suffered by children, and the maltreatment (physical and psychological)
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This correlational cross-sectional study was designed to investigate whether the intimate partner violence (IPV) suffered by mothers (physical and psychological maltreatment), child eyewitness of psychological and physical maltreatment suffered by the mother, the neglect suffered by children, and the maltreatment (physical and psychological) directly suffered by children are statistically associated to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms exhibited by the child. In addition, the prevalence of child PTSD was estimated, as well as the concordance between the PTSD symptoms assessed by the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for child PTSD. The sample consisted of 152 Spanish children aged 8 to 17 and their mothers, who were recruited from Centers of Specialized Assistance for Women Victims of IPV. PTSD prevalence was 20.4%. The results of a canonical correlation analysis showed that the two types of maltreatment with the largest contribution to the canonical variable were physical maltreatment directly suffered by the child, and child eyewitness of physical maltreatment suffered by the mother. The potential developmental pathway of PTSD when both children and mothers suffer severe maltreatment needs to be examined, and this will contribute to the choice of the most effective type of specialized intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Violence as a Public Health Issue)
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