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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 2, Issue 2 (August 2005), Pages 194-373

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Research

Open AccessArticle Conceptual Modeling for Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management in the Barycz Valley, Lower Silesia, Poland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 194-203; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020001
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (102 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The complexity of interactions in socio-ecological systems makes it very difficult to plan and implement policies successfully. Traditional environmental management and assessment techniques produce unsatisfactory results because they often ignore facets of system structure that underlie complexity: delays, feedbacks, and non-linearities. Assuming that
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The complexity of interactions in socio-ecological systems makes it very difficult to plan and implement policies successfully. Traditional environmental management and assessment techniques produce unsatisfactory results because they often ignore facets of system structure that underlie complexity: delays, feedbacks, and non-linearities. Assuming that causes are linked in a linear chain, they concentrate on technological developments (“hard path”) as the only solutions to environmental problems. Adaptive Management is recognized as a promising alternative approach directly addressing links between social and ecological systems and involving stakeholders in the analysis and decision process. This “soft path” requires special tools to facilitate collaboration between “experts” and stakeholders in analyzing complex situations and prioritizing policies and actions. We have applied conceptual modeling to increase communication, understanding and commitment in the project of seven NGOs “Sustainable Regional Development in the Odra Catchment”. The main goal was to help our NGO partners to facilitate their efforts related to developing sustainable policies and practices to respond to large-scale challenges (EU accession, global changes in climate and economy) to their natural, economic and socio-cultural heritages. Among the variety of sustainability issues explored by these NGOs, two (extensive agricultural practices and “green” local products) were examined by using Adaptive Management (AM) as a framework that would link analysis, discussion, research, actions and monitoring. Within the AM framework the project coordinators used tools of systems analysis (Mental Model Mapping) to facilitate discussions in which NGO professionals and local stakeholders could graphically diagram and study their understanding of what factors interacted and how they affect the region’s sustainability. These discussions produced larger-scale Regional Sustainability Models as well as more detailed sub-models of particular factors, processes, and feedback loops that appear critical to a sustainable future. The Regional Sustainability Model was used to identify a subset of key interacting factors (variables). For each variable, several sustainability indicators were suggested. The growing understanding and acceptance of the AM framework and systems analysis created a momentum both locally and within the region, which makes continued successful use of these indicators quite likely. In contrast to expert-driven projects that inject outside knowledge into a local context, this project established a broad basis for stakeholder-driven discussion that is articulated into goals, objectives, conceptual models, and indicators. The ability to learn and adapt in the AM framework increases the capacity to innovate and find policies and practices that enhance resilience and sustainability in a world in transition. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater and Health Problems in Bangladesh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 204-213; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020002
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Excessive amounts of arsenic (As) in the groundwater in Bangladesh and neighboring states in India are a major public health problem. About 30% of the private wells in Bangladesh exhibit high concentrations of arsenic. Over half the country, 269 out of 464 administrative
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Excessive amounts of arsenic (As) in the groundwater in Bangladesh and neighboring states in India are a major public health problem. About 30% of the private wells in Bangladesh exhibit high concentrations of arsenic. Over half the country, 269 out of 464 administrative units, is affected. Similar problems exist in many other parts of the world, including the Unites States. This paper presents an assessment of the health hazards caused by arsenic contamination in the drinking water in Bangladesh. Four competing hypotheses, each addressing the sources, reaction mechanisms, pathways, and sinks of arsenic in groundwater, were analyzed in the context of the geologic history and land-use practices in the Bengal Basin. None of the hypotheses alone can explain the observed variability in arsenic concentration in time and space; each appears to have some validity on a local scale. Thus, it is likely that several bio-geochemical processes are active among the region’s various geologic environments, and that each contributes to the mobilization and release of arsenic. Additional research efforts will be needed to understand the relationships between underlying biogeochemical factors and the mechanisms for arsenic release in various geologic settings. Full article
Open AccessArticle Toxic Aluminium and Heavy Metals in Groundwater of Middle Russia: Health Risk Assessment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 214-218; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020003
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two approaches are distinguished in modern ecological monitoring. The first one is physicochemical analysis of environmental objects with respect to maximum allowable concentrations (MACs) of chemical substances, which is performed by standards methods in accordance with state regulations. The second approach (biological monitoring)
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Two approaches are distinguished in modern ecological monitoring. The first one is physicochemical analysis of environmental objects with respect to maximum allowable concentrations (MACs) of chemical substances, which is performed by standards methods in accordance with state regulations. The second approach (biological monitoring) is based on the methodology of biotesting and bio indication. The task of this work is to create biotests for estimation of Al and other metals toxicity in ground water and to compare these results with physicochemical analysis dates. Risk assessment for heavy metals contaminated groundwater was also performed. Risk assessment was performed accordingly EPA US recommendation and gave results about 90 per 100000 citizens for Al and 402 per 100000 for mixture of different heavy metals. For comparison: risk for earth background radiation for Middle Russia is (Individual dose 1 millisivert per year) consist 5 per 100000 people. It was shown that groundwater consist HCO3- ions (360 mg/l), sometimes Al compounds 0.21-0.65 mg/l (MAC for Al is 0.5 mg/l for Russia). Other groundwater contain Hg – 0.004 mg/l (MAC – 0.0005 mg/l); Cr – 0.072 mg/l (MAC – 0.05 mg/l); As – less than 0.03 mg/l (MAC – 0.05 mg/l). We developed plant biotest for estimation of groundwater quality with barley roots, tradescatia and others. Some biotests parameters correlate with HCO3-, Cl-, SO42- and metal ions content positively, for another biotest this correlation is strongly negative. The quality of groundwater near Obninsk and in Kaluga Region is very different but hasn’t been changed since the year 1998. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evidence for Alteration in Chemical and Physical Properties of Water and Modulation of its Biological Functions by Sunlight Transmitted through Color Ranges of the Visible Spectrum-A Novel Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 219-227; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020004
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (610 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the changes in the properties of water when exposed to sunlight for 40 days. We hypothesize and prove that solar irradiation to water entraps electromagnetic radiation as potential energy, which becomes kinetic energy in various systems. It is postulated that photochemically-induced
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We investigated the changes in the properties of water when exposed to sunlight for 40 days. We hypothesize and prove that solar irradiation to water entraps electromagnetic radiation as potential energy, which becomes kinetic energy in various systems. It is postulated that photochemically-induced energy transfers, associated with individual spectral emission of visible spectrum of solar light, exert diverse influences on biological systems. Bottles of distilled water, individually wrapped in spectral-colored cellophane were exposed to sunlight and compared to an unwrapped bottle to determine chemical and physical changes as well as modifications of biological properties. Each bottle of water was named according to the color of cellophane paper with letter E (stands for exposed) as a prefix with (E-violet, E-indigo, E-blue, E-green, E-yellow, E-orange, and Ered). E-control (without wrap) was exposed to polychromatic sunlight. This study addresses two main issues viz., the chemical and physical changes in E-water and its effect on biological activities. Chemical and physical composition analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry; physical conductance by a Wheatstone Bridge type conductivity meter; osmolarity by a vapor pressure osmometer; and, salt solubility profile of 10% sodium bicarbonate were determined. Furthermore, testing the effect of E-waters on human lymphocyte proliferation, mosquito larvae hatching and seed germination determined the functional role of solar radiation through specific spectrum/s of visible light on various biological processes. We found that water exposed to visible spectral emissions of sunlight had an altered elemental composition, electrical conductance, osmolarity and salt-solubility, as well as differences in bio-modulatory effects. A gradual increase in leaching of Boron from Eviolet to E-red was noted. E-indigo showed maximal increase in electrical conductance and maximal salt solubility of sodium bicarbonate. E-blue inhibited phyto-hemagglutinin-induced immune cell proliferation and mosquito larvae hatching. E-orange stimulated root elongation in seed germination. We conclude that 40-day exposure of water to specific solar spectrum changes chemical and physical properties and influences on biological activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Lead Accumulation by Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) Grown on a Lead-Contaminated Soil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 228-233; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020005
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (137 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phytoextraction is gaining acceptance as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly phytoremediation strategy for reducing toxic metal levels from contaminated soils. Cognizant of the potential of this phytoremediation technique as an alternative to expensive engineering-based remediation technologies, experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability
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Phytoextraction is gaining acceptance as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly phytoremediation strategy for reducing toxic metal levels from contaminated soils. Cognizant of the potential of this phytoremediation technique as an alternative to expensive engineering-based remediation technologies, experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of some plants as phytoextraction species. From one of our preliminary studies, we found that tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. Spirit) can tolerate and accumulate significant amounts of lead (Pb) in its shoots when grown in Pb-amended sand. To further evaluate the suitability of tall fescue as one of the potential crop rotation species for phytoextraction, a study was conducted to determine whether the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) alone or in combination with acetic acid can further enhance the shoot uptake of Pb. Seeds were planted in 3.8 L plastic pots containing top soil, peat, and sand (4:2:1, v:v:v) spiked with various levels (0,1000, 2000 mg Pb/kg dry soil) of lead. At six weeks after planting, aqueous solutions (0, 5 mmol/kg dry soil) of EDTA and acetic acid (5 mmol/kg dry soil) were applied to the root zone, and all plants were harvested a week later. Results revealed that tall fescue was relatively tolerant to moderate levels of Pb as shown by non-significant differences in root and shoot biomass among treatments. An exception to this trend however, was the slight reduction in root and shoot biomass of plants exposed to the highest Pb level in combination with the two chelates. Root Pb concentration increased with increasing level of soil-applied Pb. Further increases in root Pb concentrations were attributed to chelate amendments. Translocation index, which is a measure of the partitioning of the metal to the shoots, was significantly enhanced with chelate addition especially when both EDTA and acetic acid were used. Chelate-induced increases in translocation indices correspondingly led to higher shoot Pb concentrations. Full article
Open AccessArticle GIS Applications in Land Management: The Loss of High Quality Land to Development in Central Mississippi from 1987-2002
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 234-244; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020006
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The socio-economic trends and history of Central Mississippi reveal a major rural influence based upon a dependence on agricultural activities as part of the economic engine driving the state’s economy. Yet, in the last several years, the amount of agricultural land in the
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The socio-economic trends and history of Central Mississippi reveal a major rural influence based upon a dependence on agricultural activities as part of the economic engine driving the state’s economy. Yet, in the last several years, the amount of agricultural land in the counties continues to decline. Similar changes in other variables associated with agricultural land use and the continuity of farming in the state have also been changing. Indeed, under the pressure of urban growth, some farmers are forced to use less productive soils or have abandoned the agricultural business. Considering the gravity of the problem and the implications for sustainable development, public concern has increased in the state of Mississippi that urbanization and other factors may be eroding potential farmland. Given the effects of the current trends on the future capacity to produce food items, there are concerns that the growing incidence of farmland loss may also erode the basis for sustainable use of agricultural land, biodiversity and protection of the state’s ecological treasures. Notwithstanding the gravity of these trends, no major effort in the literature has aimed at documenting the incidence of agricultural land loss and the linkages to urbanization in the region of Central Mississippi. What changes have taken place in the size of agricultural land within the counties and what factors are responsible for it? This paper examines the issue of farmland loss in Central Mississippi with a focus at the county level between 1987 and 2002 from a temporal-spatial perspective. In terms of methodology, the paper uses a mixed scale approach based upon the existing literature. Data were drawn from the United States Census databases of Population and Agriculture. This information is analyzed with basic descriptive statistics and GIS with particular attention to the spatial trends at the county level. Results indicate that the counties under consideration have experienced considerable change in the amount of agricultural land and other variables associated with the use of farmland, due to urbanization. With the types of changes occurring, instituting effective policies anchored in sustainability, community participation, and growth management will go a long way in addressing the situation. Other strategies for farmland protection based upon land information inventory and mapping in the region, are also recommended. The paper stands as an update of the existing literature and offers a valuable tool for decision makers within the domain of natural resources management. Full article
Open AccessArticle Contribution of Man – Made Activities to the Pollution of the Tigris within Mosul Area/IRAQ
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 245-250; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020007
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an overall view of major sources that may lead to the pollution of the Tigris within Mosul city. A stretch exceeding 20kms in length is selected that represents the ‘‘sick’’ path of the river. Many sites along the studied stretch
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This paper presents an overall view of major sources that may lead to the pollution of the Tigris within Mosul city. A stretch exceeding 20kms in length is selected that represents the ‘‘sick’’ path of the river. Many sites along the studied stretch are likely to affect the river quality in some way or another. Samples from 40 sources sites are taken for quality analyses These sources – as huge as 400000 m3 a day – are characterized as (medium – strong) in composition. Such wastewaters with the pollutants they carry alter the river water quality rendering it unsuitable for beneficial uses. Such alterations – do leave –many negative consequences concerning human beings and aquatic life. It is found that domestic discharges are among the most important sources of pollution. Sanitary wastes are often discharged – untreated -into the Tigris. Other illegal practices such as in- house slaughtering add to the pollution as well. Industrial, tourist and institutional wastes put an additional burden on pollution of the river water quality. These wastes contain lead, chrome, and other heavy metals that may pose health risks. Wastewater treatment plants that exist in some sectors do not perform as they are expected. They need proper evaluation and rehabilitation. Eutrophication - a characteristic problem in lakes - finds an access to occur into the Tigris. This problem results from intensive use of detergents rich in nutrients (P&N compounds). In general, pollutants of different sources heavily affect the river water. Recovery and self purification of the river is estimated to occur at 40 km far from reference point. The paper concludes with the necessity of construction of a central treatment plant(s) or tackling the pollutants at their origin. The paper also stresses on importance of environmental education and awareness in order to combat pollution problems. Full article
Open AccessArticle Bioremediation of Contaminated Lake Sediments and Evaluation of Maturity Indicies as Indicators of Compost Stability
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 251-262; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020008
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land contamination is one of the widely addressed problems, which is gaining importance in many developed and developing countries. International efforts are actively envisaged to remediate contaminated sites as a response to adverse health effects. Popular conventional methodologies only transfer the phase of
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Land contamination is one of the widely addressed problems, which is gaining importance in many developed and developing countries. International efforts are actively envisaged to remediate contaminated sites as a response to adverse health effects. Popular conventional methodologies only transfer the phase of the contaminant involving cost intensive liabilities besides handling risk of the hazardous waste. Physico-chemical methods are effective for specific wastes, but are technically complex and lack public acceptance for land remediation. “Bioremediation”, is one of the emerging low-cost technologies that offer the possibility to destroy various contaminants using natural biological activities. Resultant non -toxic end products due to the microbial activity and insitu applicability of this technology is gaining huge public acceptance. In the present study, composting is demonstrated as a bioremediation methodology for the stabilization of contaminated lake sediments of Hyderabad, A.P, India. Lake sediment contaminated with organics is collected from two stratums – upper (0.25 m) and lower (0.5m) to set up as Pile I (Upper) and Pile II (Lower) in the laboratory. Lime as a pretreatment to the lake sediments is carried out to ensure metal precipitation. The pretreated sediment is then mixed with organic and inorganic fertilizers like cow dung, poultry manure, urea and super phosphate as initial seeding amendments. Bulking agents like sawdust and other micronutrients are provided. Continuous monitoring of process control parameters like pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity, total volatile solids and various forms of nitrogen were carried out during the entire course of the study. The stability of the compost was evaluated by assessing maturity indices like C/N, Cw (water soluble carbon), CNw (Cw/Nw), nitrification index (NH4/NO-3), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), germination index, humification ratio, compost mineralization index (ash content/oxidizable carbon), sorption capacity index (CEC/oxidizable carbon). Enzyme activities of agricultural interest like urease, phosphatase, β-glucosidase, dehydrogenase and BAA-hydrolyzing protease, which are involved in the nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon cycles, were also assessed. Total content of macro and micronutrients in the final compost was also determined to assess the fertilizer value. The studies revealed that composting could be applied as a remediation technology after removing the top sediment. The maturity indices that are evaluated from the present study can be used to validate the success of the remediation technology. Full article
Open AccessArticle Trace Elements Analysis in Forage Samples from a US Navy Bombing Range (Vieques, Puerto Rico)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 263-266; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020009
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plants are good environmental sensors of the soil conditions in which they are growing. They also respond directly to the state of air. The tops of plants are collectors of air pollutants, and their chemical composition may be a good indicator for contaminated-areas
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Plants are good environmental sensors of the soil conditions in which they are growing. They also respond directly to the state of air. The tops of plants are collectors of air pollutants, and their chemical composition may be a good indicator for contaminated-areas when it is assessed against background values obtained for unpolluted vegetation. Both, aquatic and terrestrial plants are known to bioaccumulate heavy metals and therefore represent a potential source of these contaminants to the human food chain. An evaluation of heavy metals was conducted from vegetation samples collected at the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Training Facilities (AFWTF) in Vieques, Puerto Rico. In order to understand the potential risks associated to heavy metal mobilization through biological systems, it is first necessary to establish background values obtained from reference locations. This information allows a better interpretation of the significance of anthropogenic factors in changing trace elements status in soil and plants. Since Guánica State Forest is located at a similar geoclimatic zone as the AFWTF, samples at this site were used as a standard reference material and as experimental controls. Both sampling and analysis were conducted as previously described in standardized protocols using acid digestion of dry ashes. Then, levels of heavy metals were obtained by air-acetylene flame detection in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results from the samples taken at the AFWTF indicate mobilization of undesirable trace elements through the marine and terrestrial food web. Since plants naturally remove heavy metals from soils, they could be employed for the restoration of this and similarly contaminated sites. Full article
Open AccessArticle Bacillus subtilis is a Potential Degrader of Pyrene and Benzo[a]pyrene
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 267-271; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020010
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of compounds that pose many health threats to human and animal life. They occur in nature as a result of incomplete combustion of organic matter, as well as from many anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke and
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Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of compounds that pose many health threats to human and animal life. They occur in nature as a result of incomplete combustion of organic matter, as well as from many anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust. PAHs have been reported to cause liver damage, red blood cell damage and a variety of cancers. Because of this, methods to reduce the amount of PAHs in the environment are continuously being sought. The purpose of this study was to find soil bacteria capable of degrading high molecular weight PAHs, such as pyrene (Pyr) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), which contain more than three benzene rings and so persist in the environment. Bacillus subtilis, identified by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, was isolated from PAH contaminated soil. Because it grew in the presence of 33μg/ml each of pyrene, 1-AP and 1-HP, its biodegradation capabilities were assessed. It was found that after a four-day incubation period at 30oC in 20μg/ml pyrene or benzo[a]pyrene, B. subtilis was able to transform approximately 40% and 50% pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. This is the first report implicating B. subtilis in PAH degradation. Whether or not the intermediates resulting from the transformation are more toxic than their parent compounds, and whether B. subtilis is capable of mineralizing pyrene or benzo[a]pyrene to carbon dioxide and water, remains to be evaluated. Full article
Open AccessArticle Degradation of Metalaxyl and Mefenoxam and Effects on the Microbiological Properties of Tropical and Temperate Soils
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 272-285; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020011
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The degradation of various formulations of the racemic mixture and the enantiomers (including mefenoxam) of metalaxyl in typical soils from Germany and Cameroon in controlled incubation experiments was studied. The kinetics of the degradation or transformation was determined by means of reversed phase
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The degradation of various formulations of the racemic mixture and the enantiomers (including mefenoxam) of metalaxyl in typical soils from Germany and Cameroon in controlled incubation experiments was studied. The kinetics of the degradation or transformation was determined by means of reversed phase HPLC, while the enantiomeric ratios were measured by HPLC with a chiral Whelk O1 column. The dynamics of the quantitative changes in microbiological properties induced by the addition of these fungicides at their recommended field rates were determined in the soils during a 120-day incubation experiment. The degradation followed first-order kinetics (R²≥0.96). Higher metalaxyl acid metabolite concentrations were found in German than in Cameroonian soils. The enantiomers of the fungicide had different degradation rates in both soils, with half-lives ranging from 17 to 38 days. All forms of metalaxyl had lower degradation rates in the Cameroonian soil than in the German soil. The degradation of the R-enantiomer was much faster than the S-enantiomer in the German soil and slower than the S-enantiomer in the Cameroonian soil, suggesting that different microbial populations, which may be using different enzymes, have different degradation preferences. The type of soil significantly influenced the effect of these fungicides on the soil parameters studied. Incorporation of these fungicides resulted in a change in the ecophysiological status of the soil microbial community as expressed by microbial activities. The activity of phosphatases and ß-glucosidase, the mineralization and availability of N and most plant nutrients in soils were stimulated, whereas the activity of dehydrogenase and the availability of NO3-, were generally adversely affected. The soil NH4+, NO3-, and enzymes activities values in general did not correlate with the degradation of metalaxyl in both soils. However, the degradation of formulated and unformulated metalaxyl was positively correlated to the activity of acid phosphatase in the German soil (R², 0.84 and 0.94 respectively) and in the Cameroonian soil (R², 0.97 and 0.96 respectively). Full article
Open AccessArticle Dietary Exposure of Fathead Minnows to the Explosives TNT and RDX and to the Pesticide DDT using Contaminated Invertebrates
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 286-292; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020012
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (96 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Explosive compounds have been released into the environment during manufacturing, handling, and usage procedures. These compounds have been found to persist in the environment and potentially promote detrimental biological effects. The lack of research on bioaccumulation and bioconcentration and especially dietary transfer on
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Explosive compounds have been released into the environment during manufacturing, handling, and usage procedures. These compounds have been found to persist in the environment and potentially promote detrimental biological effects. The lack of research on bioaccumulation and bioconcentration and especially dietary transfer on aquatic life has resulted in challenges in assessing ecological risks. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential trophic transfer of the explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) using a realistic freshwater prey/predator model and using dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), a highly bioaccumulative compound, to establish relative dietary uptake potential. The oligochaete worm Lumbriculus variegatus was exposed to 14C-labeled TNT, RDX or DDT for 5 hours in water, frozen in meal-size packages and subsequently fed to individual juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Fish were sampled for body residue determination on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 following an 8-hour gut purging period. Extensive metabolism of the parent compound in worms occurred for TNT but not for RDX and DDT. Fish body residue remained relatively unchanged over time for TNT and RDX, but did not approach steady-state concentration for DDT during the exposure period. The bioaccumulation factor (concentration in fish relative to concentration in worms) was 0.018, 0.010, and 0.422 g/g for TNT, RDX and DDT, respectively, confirming the expected relatively low bioaccumulative potential for TNT and RDX through the dietary route. The experimental design was deemed successful in determining the potential for trophic transfer of organic contaminants via a realistic predator/prey exposure scenario. Full article
Open AccessArticle Heavy Metal Uptake, Translocation, and Bioaccumulation Studies of Triticum aestivum Cultivated in Contaminated Dredged Materials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 293-298; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020013
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (108 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat
[...] Read more.
Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs) originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn) and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn tissue concentrations were observed, differences in Cd tissue concentrations were noted. A maximum concentration of 26 mg Cd kg-1 DW was detected in T. aestivum shoots. Although Cd tissue concentrations of T. aestivum plants in this study were below the Cd plant hyperaccumulation criterion of >100 mg kg-1 Cd found in other studies, this plant species however may still have beneficial uses for phytoremediation studies. T. aestivum plants may serve as an indicator plant for environmental assessment and management, in which the concentration of heavy metals (e.g. Cd) mirrors the concentration in the substrate without dying due to phytotoxicity at low metal concentrations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Morphological and Physiological Responses of Morning Glory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.) Grown in a Lead- and Chelate-Amended Soil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 299-303; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020014
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (83 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lead (Pb) is one of the most toxic metals in the environment and may cause drastic morphological and physiological deformities in Ipomoea lacunosa. The goal of this research was to evaluate some morphological and physiological responses of morning glory grown on a
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Lead (Pb) is one of the most toxic metals in the environment and may cause drastic morphological and physiological deformities in Ipomoea lacunosa. The goal of this research was to evaluate some morphological and physiological responses of morning glory grown on a Pb- and chelate-amended soil. Soil samples were analyzed, at Mississippi State University Soil Laboratory, for physico-chemical parameters, such as soil texture (73% sand, 23% silt, 4.4% clay), organic matter (6.24 ± 0.60%), and pH (7.95 ± 0.03), to establish soil conditions at the beginning of the experiments. Five EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5mM) and four lead (0, 500, 1000, 2000mg/L) treatments were arranged in factorial in a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with five replications. Duncan’s multiple comparison range test showed that the mean difference values of stomatal density were significant between 500 and 1000mg/L Pb and between 1000 and 2000mg/L Pb. Two way ANOVA (at 1% level) indicated that interaction between Pb and EDTA had a significant effect on the stomatal density and photosynthetic rates, and at 5% level Pb had a significant effect on chlorophyll concentrations. Lowest concentrations of chlorophyll were recorded at 2000mg/L Pb and 5mM EDTA and exhibited a decreasing trend specifically in the ranges of 1000 and 2000mg/L Pb and 1.0 and 5.0mM EDTA. Duncan’s multiple comparison range test confirmed that mean differences between the control treatment vs. 2000mg/L Pb, and 500mg/L vs. 2000mg/L Pb were significantly different at p>0.05. There was a decrease in leaf net photosynthetic rate with increasing concentrations of Pb from 0 to 2000mg/L. In conclusion, I. lacunosa L. plants were grown to maturity in all treatments with no significant and/or apparent morphological disorders, which indicated that this species might be highly tolerant even at 2000mg/L Pb concentrations in the soil. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity of Dinitrotoluenes (2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT ) to MCF-7 and MRC-5 Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 304-307; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020015
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
DNTs are considered possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) because there is inadequate evidence in humans for carcinogenicity though there is sufficient evidence in experimental animals. In this study, MCF-7 (breast) and MRC-5 (lung) cells were exposed to a serial dilution of 2,4
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DNTs are considered possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) because there is inadequate evidence in humans for carcinogenicity though there is sufficient evidence in experimental animals. In this study, MCF-7 (breast) and MRC-5 (lung) cells were exposed to a serial dilution of 2,4 and 2,6 DNTs (control, 1-500 ppm) in 96 well tissue culture plates. After various time intervals (24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs) the plates were washed, and 100μl fluorescein diacetate solution (10 μg/ml in PBS) was added column wise to each well, and incubated at 37°C for 30 - 60 min before reading the fluorescence with a spectrofluorometer at excitation and emission wavelengths of 485 and 538 nm respectively. Spectrofluorometeric readings were converted to percentages of cell survival. Regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between cell survival and exposed concentration. Linear equations derived from the regression analysis were used to calculate the LC50 values. Results indicated that 2,6 DNT was more toxic to breast cells; LC50 values were 445 and 292 ppm at 24 and 48 hours respectively compared to 2,4 DNT showing LC50 values of 570 and 407 ppm at 24 and 48 hours, respectively. No significant differences in toxicity existed between the two chemicals with regard to lung cells. Contrary to the above observation, 2,4 DNT was more toxic to breast cells; LC50 values were 407 and 238 ppm at 24 and 48 hours respectively compared to lung cells showing LC50 values of 527 and 402 ppm at 24 and 48 hours respectively. No significant difference existed for 2,6 DNT between the two cell lines. Lungs cells were more resistant to the two chemicals. Full article
Open AccessArticle Changes of Multiple Metal Accumulation (MMA) in New Orleans Soil: Preliminary Evaluation of Differences between Survey I (1992) and Survey II (2000)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 308-313; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020016
Received: 30 March 2005 / Accepted: 30 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (84 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soil metal surveys were conducted in Baltimore, MD (1976-1979), Minnesota (1981-1988) and most recently, New Orleans, LA (1989-present). The unique characteristic of New Orleans is that it has two surveys; Survey I was completed in 1992 and Survey II was completed in 2000.
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Soil metal surveys were conducted in Baltimore, MD (1976-1979), Minnesota (1981-1988) and most recently, New Orleans, LA (1989-present). The unique characteristic of New Orleans is that it has two surveys; Survey I was completed in 1992 and Survey II was completed in 2000. This paper seeks to determine if there is a perceptible change in the amount of metals during less than a decade that separated these surveys. The Survey I collection was 4,026 samples stratified by 283 census tracts. All samples were collected in residential neighborhoods at least one block from a busy street. The Survey II collection was 5,467 samples stratified by 286 census tracts (plus City Park). The Survey II collection included busy streets as a category of samples. For comparison, the busy street category of 1,078 samples was excluded from Survey II for a total of 4,388 samples. The extraction methods of the two surveys used the same protocol for strength of acid (1 M HNO3), shaker-time (2 hours), and room temperature (~22ºC). However, Survey II differed in amount of sample used in extraction. For Surveys I and II, 4.0g and 0.4g were used respectively. The same ICP-AES was used to measure 8 metals in both surveys. To evaluate the analytical results of the two methods, reference soil samples (n=36) from the Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories, International Soil-analytical Exchange (WEPAL; ISE) were used. The relationship between the 4.0 and 0.4 g results were linear and the Survey I results were adjusted for sample:acid ratio. Further evaluation was done by creating interpolated Multiple Metal Accumulation (MMA) maps based on the median MMA for each census tract. A new map was created by dividing Survey II MMA by Survey I MMA. The ratio indicates increases of soil metals in the inner city and decreases of soil metals in the outlying areas of Metropolitan New Orleans. Comparing fresh parent alluvium from the Mississippi River with urban soil metal quantities demonstrates that the soils of New Orleans have undergone a massive accumulation of metals. The preliminary results provide ideas about methods needed to further evaluate the changes between these surveys. Full article
Open AccessArticle Impact of Animal Waste Application on Runoff Water Quality in Field Experimental Plots
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 314-321; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020017
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (103 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste
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Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli) and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate) characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium. Bacteria numbers present after the simulated rainfall events were above 200/100 ml of sample water. It can be concluded that: 1) non-point source pollution has a significant effect on bacterial and nutrients levels in runoff water and in water resources; 2) land application of animal waste for soil fertilization makes a significant contribution to water pollution; 3) the use of tilling can significantly reduce the amount of nutrients available in runoff water. Full article
Open AccessArticle Design and Development of Low Cost, Simple, Rapid and Safe, Modified Field Kits for the Visual Detection and Determination of Arsenic in Drinking Water Samples
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 322-327; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020018
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arsenic is naturally found in surface and ground waters and the inorganic forms of arsenic are the most toxic forms. The adverse health effects of arsenic may involve the respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous, and haematopoietic systems. Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a
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Arsenic is naturally found in surface and ground waters and the inorganic forms of arsenic are the most toxic forms. The adverse health effects of arsenic may involve the respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous, and haematopoietic systems. Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a global problem widely seen in Bangladesh and West Bengal of the Indian sub continent. As there is a great demand for field test kits due to the anticipated reduction of the US EPA arsenic standard from 50ppb to 10ppb a field kit which offers rapid, simple and safe method for precise estimation of arsenic at 10ppb in drinking water samples is developed. Field methods, based on the mercuric-bromide-stain, consist of three different major parts, which are carried out stepwise. The first part of the procedure is to remove serious interference caused by hydrogen sulphide. In commercially available kits either the sulphide is oxidized to sulphate and the excess oxidizing reagent removed prior to the hydride generation step or, the hydrogen sulphide is filtered out by passing the gas stream through a filter impregnated with lead acetate during the hydride generation step. The present method employs cupric chloride in combination with ferric chloride or Fenton’s reagent for the removal of hydrogen sulphide, which is rapid, simple and more efficient. Other interferences at this step of the analyses are normally not expected for drinking water analysis. In the second step, the generation of the arsine gas involves the classical way of using zinc metal and hydrochloric acid, which produce the ‘nascent’ hydrogen, which is the actual reducing agent. Hydrochloric acid can be replaced by sulfamic acid, which is solid and avoids a major disadvantage of having to handle a corrosive liquid in the field. The arsine gas produces a yellowish spot on the reagent paper. Depending on the arsenic content, either, Yellow – H (HgBr) 2 As (10-50ppb), Brown – (HgBr) 3 As (50-100ppb) or Black – Hg3 As2 (>100ppb) are formed which can be precisely estimated by visual comparison with standard color chart. The results obtained by field kits agree well with the data obtained through I.C.P.AES methods. The most important characteristic for field measurement is that analytical results can be obtained on the site where the sample is taken with high precision and can be conveniently utilized for monitoring arsenic rapidly in a highly contaminated large geographical area. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessing Interactions of Multiple Agrichemicals by Using Bacterial Assemblages in a Wetland Mesocosm System
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 328-334; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020019
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (98 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Agrichemicals may enter wetlands located adjacent to or downstream from agricultural fields. We investigated the individual and interactive effects of three agrichemicals [atrazine, chlorpyrifos, and monosodium acid methanearsonate (MSMA)] and methyl mercury on abundance and heterotrophic potential of wetland heterotrophic bacteria assemblages. We
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Agrichemicals may enter wetlands located adjacent to or downstream from agricultural fields. We investigated the individual and interactive effects of three agrichemicals [atrazine, chlorpyrifos, and monosodium acid methanearsonate (MSMA)] and methyl mercury on abundance and heterotrophic potential of wetland heterotrophic bacteria assemblages. We used a factorial experimental design, in which chemicals were introduced in all possible combinations to 66 500-liter mesocosms at the Biological Field Station of the University of Mississippi. Methyl mercury was added to bring the total mercury (HG) concentration to 0.4 mg/Kg wet weight at the sediment surface. Atrazine, chlorpyrifos, and MSMA were added at concentrations of 192, 51, and 219μg/L, respectively. Over 32 days of exposure, microbial heterotrophic activity was sensitive to only the interactive effect of HG*ATR*CPF in the sediments and only CPF in the water. Total bacterial numbers did not exhibit any significant treatment effects. Therefore, the effects of agrichemicals were reflected on cell-specific bacterial heterotrophic activity rather than bacterial population size. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparison Assessment of Water Use and Damage between Modern and Traditional Rice Irrigation Schemes: Case of Usangu Basin, Tanzania
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 335-342; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020020
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water management and competition between users in water scarce river basins is a major challenge facing the human race. The inter dependence of users in such basins, necessitates a clear understanding of each user in relation to the location, the water demand, and
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Water management and competition between users in water scarce river basins is a major challenge facing the human race. The inter dependence of users in such basins, necessitates a clear understanding of each user in relation to the location, the water demand, and the duration of water need. The understanding of these factors, together, is very important for the management of water resources in such basins without which, it is argued that, water is overused and wasted. As an example of this, the large modern and improved rice irrigation systems in Tanzania are believed to use water more efficient than the traditional irrigation systems. Yet, well-founded scientific analyses are a necessary part to quantify such beliefs as they can inform us whether the natural resource, in such systems, is properly utilized and managed or not. Likewise, such studies can allow us to quantify how much water is over used and thus the natural resource is unnecessarily degraded. This paper explores a study conducted in the Usangu basin, Tanzania, to investigate the gross and net needs for modern and traditional rice irrigation schemes, and the implications with regards to water resource management and damage. Problems relating to modernization of traditional smallholder irrigation systems and upstream - downstream water users are further discussed. The paper concludes from the study that modern irrigation schemes are inefficient compared to traditional irrigation schemes. Also modernization of traditional schemes in the study area have resulted into over abstraction and reduced productivity of water. Looking to the future, this study tells us that improvement or modernization of irrigation infrastructure should be balanced between negative impacts to available water resources albeit it's significant economic contribution to the community. Full article
Open AccessArticle Use of Multi-Objective Air Pollution Monitoring Sites and Online Air Pollution Monitoring System for Total Health Risk Assessment in Hyderabad, India
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 343-354; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020021
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and
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A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.). On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad “it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM”. These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000–15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS) environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real-time monitoring system was designed using advanced electrochemical sensor systems (sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, ozone, mercaptans and hydrogen sulphide) and a particulate matter analyzer (total suspended particulate matter TSPM), PM2.5 and PM10). The sensor and data acquisition systems are programmed to monitor pollution levels at ½ hour durations during peak hours and at 1-hour intervals at other times. Presently, extensive statistical and numerical simulations are being carried out at our center to correlate the individuals living in the monitored areas with respiratory infections with air pollution. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity and Expression of c-fos, HSP70, and GADD45/153 Proteins in Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells Exposed to Dinitrotoluenes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 355-361; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020022
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dinitrotoluenes (DNTs) are byproducts of the explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT), and exist as a mixture of 2 to 6 isomers, with 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT being the most significant. The main route of human exposure at ammunition facilities is inhalation. The primary targets of DNTs
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Dinitrotoluenes (DNTs) are byproducts of the explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT), and exist as a mixture of 2 to 6 isomers, with 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT being the most significant. The main route of human exposure at ammunition facilities is inhalation. The primary targets of DNTs toxicity are the hematopoietic system, cardiovascular system, nervous system and reproductive system. In factory workers, exposure to DNTs has been linked to many adverse health effects, including: cyanosis, vertigo, headache, metallic taste, dyspnea, weakness and lassitude, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. Other symptoms including pain or parasthesia in extremities, abdominal discomfort, tremors, paralysis, chest pain, and unconsciousness have been documented. An association between DNTs exposure and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinomas and subcutaneous tumors in rats, as well as renal tumors in mice, has been established. This research was therefore designed targeting the liver to assess the cellular and molecular responses of human liver carcinoma cells following exposure to 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay. Upon 48 hrs of exposure, LC50 values of 245 + 14.72μg/mL, and 300 + 5.92μg/mL were recorded for 2,6-DNT and 2,4-DNT respectively, indicating that both DNTs are moderately toxic, and 2,6-DNT is slightly more toxic to HepG2 cells than 2,4-DNT. A dose response relationship was recorded with respect to the cytotoxicity of both DNTs. Western blot analysis resulted in a significant expression (p<0.05) of the 70-kDa heat shock protein in 2,6-DNT-treated cells compared to the control cells and at the 200 μg/mL dose for 2,4-DNT. A statistically significant expression in c-fos was also observed at the 200 and 250 μg/mL treatment level for 2,4- and 2,6-DNT, respectively. However, no statistically significant expression of this protooncogene-related protein was observed at the doses of 0, 100, or 300 μg/mL or within the dose range of 0-200 μg/mL for 2,6-DNT. The 45-kDa growth arrest and damage protein was significantly expressed at the dose range of 200 – 250μg/mL for 2,6-DNT and at the dose range of 200 - 400μg/mL for 2,4-DNT. Expression of 153-kDa growth arrest and DNA damage protein was significant at the 100, 200, and 250μg/mL doses for 2,6-DNT and at the 200 μg/mL dose for 2,4-DNT. Overall, these results indicate the potential of DNTs to induce cytotoxic, proteotoxic (HSP70), and genotoxic (GADD45/153) effects, as well as oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory reactions (c-fos). Full article
Open AccessArticle The Seasonality of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Pollution and its Influence on Closures of Shellfish Harvesting Areas in Mississippi Sound
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 362-373; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020023
Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño -Southern Oscillation
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Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño -Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events may affect the extent and patterns of seasonality in FC levels in coastal waters. Water quality monitoring data for shellfish management collected during El Niño (1990, 1992, 1997), and La Niña (1999, 2000) years were analyzed to evaluate the extent to which these events influenced Pearl River stage, and bacterial levels, water temperature, and salinity in the western part of Mississippi Sound. Models to predict FC levels in relation to various environmental factors were also developed. In 1990, 1992 and 1997, FC geometric mean counts peaked in late winter (January/February) reaching 120 MPN (February 1990), 165 MPN (January 1992), and 86 MPN (January 1997), and then decreased considerably during spring and summer (1.2 – 19 MPN). Thereafter, FC abundance increased slightly in fall and early winter (1.9 – 24 MPN). Fecal coliform abundance during the 2000 La Niña year was much lower (1.0 – 10.3 MPN) than in 1992 (1.2 – 165 MPN), and showed no seasonal pattern from January to August, perhaps due to the relative scarcity of rainfall in 2000. In 1995 (ENSO neutral year), peak geometric mean FC count (46 MPN) was lower than during El Niño years and occurred in early spring (March). The seasonal and between year variations in FC levels determined the number of days during which the conditionally approved shellfish growing area was opened for harvesting shellfish. For example, from January to April 1997, the area was not opened for shellfish harvesting, whereas in 2000, the number of days during which the area was opened ranged from 6 - 27 (January to April) to 24 - 26 (October to December). ENSO events thus influenced the extent and timing of the peak levels of fecal coliforms in Mississippi Sound. Models consisting of one or more of the variables: Pearl River stage, water temperature, and salinity were developed to predict FC concentrations in the Sound. The model parameter(s) explained 56 to 91% of the variations in FC counts. Management of shellfish in Mississippi Sound can be improved by utilizing information on the forecasted three to seven years occurrence of ENSO events. In addition, since Pearl River stage was the most important variable predicting FC concentration in the Sound, a study of the levels and sources of FC bacteria in the river, especially the middle and lower sections, is needed for developing a management plan for reducing FC bacteria pollution in the Sound. Full article

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