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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 8, Issue 2 (February 2011), Pages 281-628

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Open AccessArticle Does the Association between Depressive Symptomatology and Physical Activity Depend on Body Image Perception? A Survey of Students from Seven Universities in the UK
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 281-299; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020281
Received: 25 December 2010 / Accepted: 24 January 2011 / Published: 25 January 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This cross-sectional study assessed the association between depression and PA in university students of both genders and the role of body image perception as a potential effect modifier. Undergraduate students (N = 3706) from seven universities in the UK completed a self-administered [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study assessed the association between depression and PA in university students of both genders and the role of body image perception as a potential effect modifier. Undergraduate students (N = 3706) from seven universities in the UK completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed sociodemographic information; a range of health, health behaviour and health awareness related factors; the modified version of Beck’s Depression Inventory (M-BDI); educational achievement, and different levels of physical activity (PA), such as moderate PA (at least 5 days per week moderate exercise of at least 30 minutes), and vigorous PA (at least 3 days per week vigorous exercise of at least 20 minutes). Only 12.4% of the sample achieved the international recommended level for moderate PA, and 33.1% achieved the recommendations for vigorous PA. Both moderate and vigorous PA were inversely related to the M-BDI score. Physically active students, regardless of the type of PA, were significantly more likely to perceive their health as good, to have higher health awareness, to perform strengthening exercises, and to be males. The stratified analyses indicated that the association between depression and PA differed by body image. In students perceiving their body image as ‘just right’, moderate (>4th percentile) and high (>5th percentile) M-BDI scores were inversely related to vigorous PA. However, in students who perceived their body image as ‘overweight’, the inverse association was only significant in those with high M-BDI scores. We conclude that the positive effect of PA on depression could be down modulated by the negative impact of a ‘distorted’ body image on depression. The practical implications of these findings are that PA programmes targeting persons with depressive symptoms should include effective components to enhance body image perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing of Children, Adolescents and Young Adults)
Open AccessCommunication CCS Activities Being Performed by the U.S. DOE
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 300-320; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020300
Received: 7 December 2010 / Accepted: 18 January 2011 / Published: 26 January 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (793 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead federal agency for the development and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. Its mission includes promoting scientific and technological innovations and transfer of knowledge for safe and permanent storage of CO2 in [...] Read more.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead federal agency for the development and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. Its mission includes promoting scientific and technological innovations and transfer of knowledge for safe and permanent storage of CO2 in the subsurface. To accomplish its mission, DOE is characterizing and classifying potential geologic storage reservoirs in basins throughout the U.S. and Canada, and developing best practices for project developers, to help ensure the safety of future geologic storage projects. DOE’s Carbon Sequestration Program, Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Initiative, administered by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is identifying, characterizing, and testing potential injection formations. The RCSP Initiative consists of collaborations among government, industry, universities, and international organizations. Through this collaborative effort, a series of integrated knowledge-based tools have been developed to help potential sequestration project developers. They are the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada, National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographic System (NATCARB), and best practice manuals for CCS including Depositional Reservoir Classification for CO2; Public Outreach and Education for Carbon Storage Projects; Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting of CO2 Stored in Deep Geologic Formation; Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization of CO2 Storage in Deep Geologic Formations. DOE’s future research will help with refinement of these tools and additional best practice manuals (BPM) which focus on other technical aspects of project development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage)
Open AccessArticle The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 321-340; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020321
Received: 30 November 2010 / Revised: 15 January 2011 / Accepted: 20 January 2011 / Published: 26 January 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (135 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and [...] Read more.
Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers’ reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Neighbourhood Environment Correlates of Physical Activity: A Study of Eight Czech Regional Towns
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 341-357; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020341
Received: 12 December 2010 / Revised: 18 January 2011 / Accepted: 19 January 2011 / Published: 28 January 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (356 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An adequate amount of physical activity (PA) is a key factor that is associated with good health. This study assessed socio-environmental factors associated with meeting the health recommendations for PA (achieving 10,000 steps per day). In total, 1,653 respondents randomly selected from [...] Read more.
An adequate amount of physical activity (PA) is a key factor that is associated with good health. This study assessed socio-environmental factors associated with meeting the health recommendations for PA (achieving 10,000 steps per day). In total, 1,653 respondents randomly selected from across eight regional towns (each >90,000 inhabitants) in the Czech Republic participated in the study. The ANEWS questionnaire assessed the environment in neighbourhoods, and participants’ weekly PA was objectively monitored (Yamax Digiwalker SW-700 pedometer). About 24% of participants were sufficiently active, 27% were highly active; 28% participants were overweight and 5% were obese. Although BMI was significantly inversely associated with the daily step counts achieved only in females, for both genders, BMI was generally not significantly associated with the criterion of achieving 10,000 steps per day during the week. Increased BMI in both genders was accompanied with a decline in participation in organized PA and with increasing age. As regards to the demographic/lifestyle factors, for females, more participation in organized PA was significantly positively correlated with the achieved daily step counts. In contrast, older age and higher BMI (for females) and smoking (for males) were significantly negatively correlated with the achieved daily step counts. In terms of the environmental aspects, pleasant environments were significantly positively correlated to daily step counts for both genders. Additionally, for males, better residencies (more family homes rather than apartment blocks) in the neighbourhood were significantly positively correlated with their daily step counts. For females, less accessibility of shops and non-sport facilities (depending on walking distance in minutes) were significantly negatively correlated to the achieved daily step counts. Individuals who lived in pleasant neighbourhoods, with better access to shops and who participated in organized PA (≥2 times a week) tended to meet the recommendations for health-enhancing PA levels. The creation of physical activity-friendly environments could be associated with enhancing people’s achieved daily step counts and meeting the health criteria for PA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing of Children, Adolescents and Young Adults)
Open AccessArticle Field-Scale Spatial Variation of Saline-Sodic Soil and Its Relation with Environmental Factors in Western Songnen Plain of China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 374-387; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020374
Received: 24 November 2010 / Revised: 20 January 2011 / Accepted: 24 January 2011 / Published: 31 January 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to investigate the degree of spatial variability and variance structure of salinization parameters using classical and geostatistical method in Songnen Plain of China, which is one of largest saline-sodic areas in the World, and to analyze [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the degree of spatial variability and variance structure of salinization parameters using classical and geostatistical method in Songnen Plain of China, which is one of largest saline-sodic areas in the World, and to analyze the relationship between salinization parameters, including soil salinity content (SC), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and pH, and seven environmental factors by Pearson and stepwise regression analysis. The environmental factors were ground elevation, surface ponding time, surface ponding depth, and soil moistures at four layers (0–10 cm, 10–30 cm, 30–60 cm, and 60–100 cm). The results indicated that SC, EC, and SAR showed great variations, whereas pH exhibited low variations. Four salinization parameters showed strongly spatial autocorrelation resulting from the compound impact of structural factors. The empirical semivariograms in the four parameters could be simulated by spherical and exponential models. The spatial distributions of SC, EC, SAR and pH showed similar patterns, with the coexistence of high salinity and sodicity in the areas with high ground elevation. By Pearson analysis, the soil salinization parameters showed a significant positive relationship with ground elevation, but a negative correlation with surface ponding time, surface ponding depth, and soil moistures. Both correlation and stepwise regression analysis showed that ground elevation is the most important environmental factor for spatial variation of soil sanilization. The results from this research can provide some useful information for explaining mechanism of salinization process and utilization of saline-sodic soils in the Western Songnen Plain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geostatistics in Environmental Pollution and Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Socioeconomic Variation in the Prevalence, Introduction, Retention, and Removal of Smoke-Free Policies among Smokers: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 411-434; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020411
Received: 15 December 2010 / Revised: 10 January 2011 / Accepted: 25 January 2011 / Published: 31 January 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Introduction: Exposure to secondhand smoke causes premature death and disease in non-smokers and indoor smoke-free policies have become increasingly prevalent worldwide. Although socioeconomic disparities have been documented in tobacco use and cessation, the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoke-free policies [...] Read more.
Introduction: Exposure to secondhand smoke causes premature death and disease in non-smokers and indoor smoke-free policies have become increasingly prevalent worldwide. Although socioeconomic disparities have been documented in tobacco use and cessation, the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoke-free policies is less well studied. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2006 and 2007 Waves of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), a prospective study of nationally representative samples of smokers in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Telephone interviews were administered to 8,245 current and former adult smokers from October 2006 to February 2007. Between September 2007 and February 2008, 5,866 respondents were re-interviewed. Self-reported education and annual household income were used to create SES tertiles. Outcomes included the presence, introduction, and removal of smoke-free policies in homes, worksites, bars, and restaurants. Results: Smokers with high SES had increased odds of both having [OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.27–2.87] and introducing [OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.04–2.13] a total ban on smoking in the home compared to low SES smokers. Continuing smokers with high SES also had decreased odds of removing a total ban [OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.26–0.73]. No consistent association was observed between SES and the presence or introduction of bans in worksites, bars, or restaurants. Conclusions: The presence, introduction, and retention of smoke-free homes increases with increasing SES, but no consistent socioeconomic variation exists in the presence or introduction of total smoking bans in worksites, bars, or restaurants. Opportunities exist to reduce SES disparities in smoke-free homes, while the lack of socioeconomic differences in public workplace, bar, and restaurant smoke-free policies suggest these measures are now equitably distributed in these four countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle A Model-Based Prioritisation Exercise for the European Water Framework Directive
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 435-455; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020435
Received: 1 December 2010 / Revised: 22 December 2010 / Accepted: 24 January 2011 / Published: 1 February 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A model-based prioritisation exercise has been carried out for the Water Framework Directive (WFD) implementation. The approach considers two aspects: the hazard of a certain chemical and its exposure levels, and focuses on aquatic ecosystems, but also takes into account hazards due [...] Read more.
A model-based prioritisation exercise has been carried out for the Water Framework Directive (WFD) implementation. The approach considers two aspects: the hazard of a certain chemical and its exposure levels, and focuses on aquatic ecosystems, but also takes into account hazards due to secondary poisoning, bioaccumulation through the food chain and potential human health effects. A list provided by EU Member States, Stakeholders and Non-Governmental Organizations comprising 2,034 substances was evaluated according to hazard and exposure criteria. Then 78 substances classified as “of high concern” where analysed and ranked in terms of risk ratio (Predicted Environmental Concentration/Predicted No-Effect Concentration). This exercise has been complemented by a monitoring-based prioritization exercise using data provided by Member States. The proposed approach constitutes the first step in setting the basis for an open modular screening tool that could be used for the next prioritization exercises foreseen by the WFD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Legislation and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology—An Update
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 470-479; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020470
Received: 5 January 2011 / Revised: 24 January 2011 / Accepted: 1 February 2011 / Published: 10 February 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Some engineers and scientists are either directly or indirectly involved with nanotechnology issues. Nanotechnology concerns dealing with environmental implications and regulatory compliance encompass practicing areas for these technical individuals. Areas of particular concern include current/proposed environmental regulations and procedures for quantifying both [...] Read more.
Some engineers and scientists are either directly or indirectly involved with nanotechnology issues. Nanotechnology concerns dealing with environmental implications and regulatory compliance encompass practicing areas for these technical individuals. Areas of particular concern include current/proposed environmental regulations and procedures for quantifying both health risks and hazard risks. This article addresses both of these issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle A Simple Model of Tetracycline Antibiotic Resistance in the Aquatic Environment (with Application to the Poudre River)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 480-497; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020480
Received: 1 January 2011 / Revised: 20 January 2011 / Accepted: 10 February 2011 / Published: 15 February 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (376 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is a major concern, yet it is unclear what causes the relatively high densities of resistant bacteria in the anthropogenically impacted environment. There are various possible scenarios (hypotheses): (A) Input of resistant bacteria from wastewater and agricultural sources is significant, [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance is a major concern, yet it is unclear what causes the relatively high densities of resistant bacteria in the anthropogenically impacted environment. There are various possible scenarios (hypotheses): (A) Input of resistant bacteria from wastewater and agricultural sources is significant, but they do not grow in the environment; (B) Input of resistant bacteria is negligible, but the resistant bacteria (exogenous or endogenous) grow due to the selection pressure of the antibiotic; (C) Exogenous bacteria transfer the resistance to the endogenous bacteria and those grow. This paper presents a simple mechanistic model of tetracycline resistance in the aquatic environment. It includes state variables for tetracyclines, susceptible and resistant bacteria, and particulate and dissolved organic matter in the water column and sediment bed. The antibiotic partitions between freely dissolved, dissolved organic matter (DOM)-bound and solids-bound phases, and decays. Bacteria growth is limited by DOM, inhibited by the antibiotic (susceptible bacteria only) and lower due to the metabolic cost of carrying the resistance (resistant bacteria only). Resistant bacteria can transfer resistance to the susceptible bacteria (conjugation) and lose the resistance (segregation). The model is applied to the Poudre River and can reproduce the major observed (literature data) patterns of antibiotic concentration and resistance. The model suggests observed densities of resistant bacteria in the sediment bed cannot be explained by input (scenario A), but require growth (scenarios B or C). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle Experiences of Working with the Tobacco Issue in the Context of Health Promoting Hospitals and Health Services: A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 498-513; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020498
Received: 10 January 2011 / Revised: 11 February 2011 / Accepted: 12 February 2011 / Published: 15 February 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The worldwide Health Promoting Hospital and Health Services (HPH) network was initiated by the World Health Organizations in the late 1980s. The goal of the network is to change the focus of health services from curing patients to also embrace disease prevention [...] Read more.
The worldwide Health Promoting Hospital and Health Services (HPH) network was initiated by the World Health Organizations in the late 1980s. The goal of the network is to change the focus of health services from curing patients to also embrace disease prevention and health promotion. In Sweden the network started in 1996, and involves mainly hospitals and primary care. The network members collaborate in task forces, one of which is working on the tobacco issue. There is limited evidence on the value of working within an HPH organization. The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences of members of the Swedish HPH network tobacco task force. Focus group interviews with task force members were analyzed using implementation theory. Three themes, overall experiences of working with tobacco issues, experiences of working with “free from tobacco in connection with surgery”, and experiences of work in the HPH tobacco task force, emerged from the interviews. The results show that working with the tobacco issue in the context of health-promoting hospitals and health services met with difficulties involving the following important factors: evidence, context, facilitation and adopter characteristics. Leadership, one contextual factor, at national and local level, seems to be crucial if the work is going to succeed. The tobacco task force of the HPH network is an important facilitator supporting the task. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Smoking and Socio-Demographic Determinant of Cardiovascular Diseases among Males 45+ Years in Indonesia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 528-539; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020528
Received: 15 January 2011 / Accepted: 15 February 2011 / Published: 16 February 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main objective of this study is to present the prevalence of Cardio Vascular Diseases (CVDs) defined as been diagnosed or having symptoms of Coronary Heart Disease, Arrhytmia, or Heart Failure. The main risk factor analyzed is smoking behavior. The data used [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study is to present the prevalence of Cardio Vascular Diseases (CVDs) defined as been diagnosed or having symptoms of Coronary Heart Disease, Arrhytmia, or Heart Failure. The main risk factor analyzed is smoking behavior. The data used for this study was from Basic Health Survey of 2007, a National baseline data collected every three years which consist of more than one million samples representing 33 provinces in Indonesia. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, history of CVDs and smoking behavior were collected by highly-trained interviewers using a questionnaire which had been tested. A sub-sample of the survey consisting of 100,009 males aged 45 years and over was analyzed. Crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR) were analyzed using logistic regressions to estimate the prevalence of CVDs by smoking behavior and socio-demographic characteristics. Overall, 86.8% respondents reported that they had never been diagnosed as having CVDs or having any symptom of CVDs.; while 2.1% respondents reported that they had been diagnosed by a health professional (a doctor or a nurse) of having CVDs. The interviewers also identified three signs and symptoms of CVDs for all respondents if they reported of never been diagnosed CVDs. Among all respondents 2.3% had symptoms of coronary heart disease, 4.9% had symptoms of arrhytmia, and 3.9% had symptoms of heart failure. The prevalence of CVDs was significantly higher in former smokers (OR = 2.03), and duration of smoking for more than 20 years. The prevalence of CVDs was significantly higher among older groups. Old males who lived in Sulawesi island had higher probability of having CVDs (OR = 1.67). The lower prevalence of CVDs seemed to have associated with higher among Senior High School Graduate compared to those who Never Schooling (OR = 0.8). Since population of Indonesia is relatively young, the future of health care costs of Indonesia would be high due to high prevalence of smoking among males population. This finding suggests that Indonesia should ratify Framework Convention on Tobacco Control ans start impelementing measures to control tobacco uses in order to reduce public health and economic consequences of smoking in the future. Full article
Open AccessArticle Genotoxic Effect of Chronic Exposure to DDT on Lymphocytes, Oral Mucosa and Breast Cells of Female Rats
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 540-553; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020540
Received: 27 December 2010 / Revised: 27 January 2011 / Accepted: 28 January 2011 / Published: 18 February 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The genotoxicity of some environmental contaminants may affect human health directly by damaging genetic material and thus plays an important role in cancer development. Xenoestrogens are one kind of environmental pollutants that may alter hormonal routes or directly affect DNA. The number [...] Read more.
The genotoxicity of some environmental contaminants may affect human health directly by damaging genetic material and thus plays an important role in cancer development. Xenoestrogens are one kind of environmental pollutants that may alter hormonal routes or directly affect DNA. The number of available biomarkers used to assess genetic risk and cancer is very extensive. The present study evaluated genotoxicity produced by the pesticide DDT on systemic and mammary gland cells obtained from adult female Wistar rats. Oral mucosa cells micronuclei were assessed; the comet assay in peripheral blood-isolated lymphocytes and mammary epithelial cells was also carried out. Additionally, oxidative stress was studied in mammary tissue through a lipid peroxidation assay. Our data showed an increase in lipid peroxidation, product of an increase in free oxygen radical levels, which leads to an oxidative stress status. Our results suggest that DDT is genotoxic, not only for lymphocytes but also to mammary epithelial cells. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Prevalence and Antimicrobial-Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Swimming Pools and Hot Tubs
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 554-564; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020554
Received: 5 January 2011 / Accepted: 16 February 2011 / Published: 18 February 2011
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen in recreational waters and the primary cause of hot tub folliculitis and otitis externa. The aim of this surveillance study was to determine the background prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of P. aeruginosa in swimming [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen in recreational waters and the primary cause of hot tub folliculitis and otitis externa. The aim of this surveillance study was to determine the background prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of P. aeruginosa in swimming pools and hot tubs. A convenience sample of 108 samples was obtained from three hot tubs and eight indoor swimming pools. Water and swab samples were processed using membrane filtration, followed by confirmation with polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-three samples (21%) were positive for P. aeruginosa, and 23 isolates underwent susceptibility testing using the microdilution method. Resistance was noted to several antibiotic agents, including amikacin (intermediate), aztreonam, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem (intermediate), ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, tobramycin (intermediate), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The results of this surveillance study indicate that 96% of P. aeruginosa isolates tested from swimming pools and hot tubs were multidrug resistant. These results may have important implications for cystic fibrosis patients and other immune-suppressed individuals, for whom infection with multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa would have greater impact. Our results underlie the importance of rigorous facility maintenance, and provide prevalence data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant strains of this important recreational water-associated and nosocomial pathogen. Full article
Open AccessArticle Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 565-578; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020565
Received: 1 January 2011 / Revised: 27 January 2011 / Accepted: 15 February 2011 / Published: 21 February 2011
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and [...] Read more.
Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report bottled water as their primary drinking water source when they perceive that drinking water is not safe. Furthermore, those who give lower ratings to the quality of their ground water are more likely to regularly purchase bottle water for drinking and use bottle water as their primary drinking water source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water and Health)
Open AccessArticle The Relationships between Weather-Related Factors and Daily Outdoor Physical Activity Counts on an Urban Greenway
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 579-589; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020579
Received: 1 January 2011 / Revised: 11 February 2011 / Accepted: 16 February 2011 / Published: 23 February 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between weather and outdoor physical activity (PA). An online weather source was used to obtain daily max temperature [DMT], precipitation, and wind speed. An infra-red trail counter provided data on daily trail use along a greenway, over a 2-year period. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine associations between PA and weather, while controlling for day of the week and month of the year. The overall regression model explained 77.0% of the variance in daily PA (p < 0.001). DMT (b = 10.5), max temp-squared (b = −4.0), precipitation (b = −70.0), and max wind speed (b = 1.9) contributed significantly. Conclusion: Aggregated daily data can detect relationships between weather and outdoor PA. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 613-628; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020613
Received: 28 December 2010 / Revised: 2 February 2011 / Accepted: 7 February 2011 / Published: 23 February 2011
Cited by 90 | PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic [...] Read more.
Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic database of smoke components containing more than 2,200 entries was generated. Emission levels in mainstream smoke have been found for 542 of the components and a human inhalation risk value for 98 components. As components with potential carcinogenic, cardiovascular and respiratory effects have been included, the three major smoke-related causes of death are all covered by the list. Given that the currently used Hoffmann list of hazardous smoke components is based on data from the 1990s and only includes carcinogens, it is recommended that the current list of 98 hazardous components is used for regulatory purposes instead. To enable risk assessment of components not covered by this list, thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC) have been established from the inhalation risk values found: 0.0018 µg day−1 for all risks, and 1.2 µg day−1 for all risks excluding carcinogenicity, the latter being similar to previously reported inhalation TTCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)

Review

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Open AccessReview The Role of Food and Nutrition System Approaches in Tackling Hidden Hunger
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 358-373; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020358
Received: 15 December 2010 / Revised: 21 January 2011 / Accepted: 25 January 2011 / Published: 31 January 2011
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the World’s greatest challenges is to secure sufficient and healthy food for all, and to do so in an environmentally sustainable manner. This review explores the interrelationships of food, health, and environment, and their role in addressing chronic micronutrient deficiencies, [...] Read more.
One of the World’s greatest challenges is to secure sufficient and healthy food for all, and to do so in an environmentally sustainable manner. This review explores the interrelationships of food, health, and environment, and their role in addressing chronic micronutrient deficiencies, also known as “hidden hunger”, affecting over two billion people worldwide. While the complexity and underlying determinants of undernutrition have been well-understood for decades, the scaling of food and nutrition system approaches that combine sustainable agriculture aimed at improved diet diversity and livelihoods have been limited in their development and implementation. However, an integrated system approach to reduce hidden hunger could potentially serve as a sustainable opportunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malnutrition and Public Health)
Open AccessReview Smoking Cessation in Indigenous Populations of Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States: Elements of Effective Interventions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 388-410; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020388
Received: 30 November 2010 / Revised: 27 January 2011 / Accepted: 28 January 2011 / Published: 31 January 2011
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (406 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Indigenous people throughout the world suffer a higher burden of disease than their non-indigenous counterparts contributing to disproportionate rates of disability. A significant proportion of this disability can be attributed to the adverse effects of smoking. In this paper, we aimed to [...] Read more.
Indigenous people throughout the world suffer a higher burden of disease than their non-indigenous counterparts contributing to disproportionate rates of disability. A significant proportion of this disability can be attributed to the adverse effects of smoking. In this paper, we aimed to identify and discuss the key elements of individual-level smoking cessation interventions in indigenous people worldwide. An integrative review of published peer-reviewed literature was conducted. Literature on smoking cessation interventions in indigenous people was identified via search of electronic databases. Documents were selected for review if they were published in a peer-reviewed journal, written in English, published from 1990–2010, and documented an individual-level intervention to assist indigenous people to quit smoking. Studies that met inclusion criteria were limited to Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the USA, despite seeking representation from other indigenous populations. Few interventions tailored for indigenous populations were identified and the level of detail included in evaluation reports was variable. Features associated with successful interventions were integrated, flexible, community-based approaches that addressed known barriers and facilitators to quitting smoking. More tailored and targeted approaches to smoking cessation interventions for indigenous populations are required. The complexity of achieving smoking cessation is underscored as is the need to collaboratively develop interventions that are acceptable and appropriate to local populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessReview Filamentous Fungi in Drinking Water, Particularly in Relation to Biofilm Formation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 456-469; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020456
Received: 30 December 2010 / Revised: 25 January 2011 / Accepted: 25 January 2011 / Published: 9 February 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (995 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The presence of filamentous fungi in drinking water has become an area worthy of investigation with various studies now being published. The problems associated with fungi include blockage of water pipes, organoleptic deterioration, pathogenic fungi and mycotoxins. Fungal biofilm formation is a [...] Read more.
The presence of filamentous fungi in drinking water has become an area worthy of investigation with various studies now being published. The problems associated with fungi include blockage of water pipes, organoleptic deterioration, pathogenic fungi and mycotoxins. Fungal biofilm formation is a less developed field of study. This paper updates the topic and introduces novel methods on fungal biofilm analysis, particularly from work based in Brazil. Further recommendations for standard methodology are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water and Health)
Open AccessReview Hospital Malnutrition: Prevalence, Identification and Impact on Patients and the Healthcare System
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 514-527; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020514
Received: 20 December 2010 / Revised: 10 January 2011 / Accepted: 4 February 2011 / Published: 16 February 2011
Cited by 89 | PDF Full-text (166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Malnutrition is a debilitating and highly prevalent condition in the acute hospital setting, with Australian and international studies reporting rates of approximately 40%. Malnutrition is associated with many adverse outcomes including depression of the immune system, impaired wound healing, muscle wasting, longer [...] Read more.
Malnutrition is a debilitating and highly prevalent condition in the acute hospital setting, with Australian and international studies reporting rates of approximately 40%. Malnutrition is associated with many adverse outcomes including depression of the immune system, impaired wound healing, muscle wasting, longer lengths of hospital stay, higher treatment costs and increased mortality. Referral rates for dietetic assessment and treatment of malnourished patients have proven to be suboptimal, thereby increasing the likelihood of developing such aforementioned complications. Nutrition risk screening using a validated tool is a simple technique to rapidly identify patients at risk of malnutrition, and provides a basis for prompt dietetic referrals. In Australia, nutrition screening upon hospital admission is not mandatory, which is of concern knowing that malnutrition remains under-reported and often poorly documented. Unidentified malnutrition not only heightens the risk of adverse complications for patients, but can potentially result in foregone reimbursements to the hospital through casemix-based funding schemes. It is strongly recommended that mandatory nutrition screening be widely adopted in line with published best-practice guidelines to effectively target and reduce the incidence of hospital malnutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malnutrition and Public Health)
Open AccessReview Early Postnatal Protein-Calorie Malnutrition and Cognition: A Review of Human and Animal Studies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 590-612; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020590
Received: 1 January 2011 / Revised: 26 January 2011 / Accepted: 10 February 2011 / Published: 23 February 2011
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Malnutrition continues to be recognized as the most common and serious form of children’s dietary disease in the developing countries and is one of the principal factors affecting brain development. The purpose of this paper is to review human and animal studies [...] Read more.
Malnutrition continues to be recognized as the most common and serious form of children’s dietary disease in the developing countries and is one of the principal factors affecting brain development. The purpose of this paper is to review human and animal studies relating malnutrition to cognitive development, focusing in correlational and interventional data, and to provide a discussion of possible mechanisms by which malnutrition affects cognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malnutrition and Public Health)

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