E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy"

Quicklinks

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Jennifer Kahende

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 4770 Buford Highway, NE., Mailstop K-50, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
E-Mail
Interests: tobacco research; public health; health disparities; health economics; HIV/AIDS prevention; health promotion and disease prevention

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death, and is estimated to kill more than 5 million people each year worldwide (WHO). Tobacco use is associated with a number of different cancers, including lung cancer, as well as with chronic lung diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Smoking also increases the risk of many other types of cancer, including cancers of the throat, mouth, pancreas, kidney, bladder, and cervix. In addition to the health effects, tobacco use also imposes economic burdens on individuals and countries in direct medical costs and indirect costs from reduced productivity. Involuntary exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand smoke) contributes to morbidity and mortality in nonsmokers. Smoke-free environments not only protect non-smokers, they reduce tobacco consumption among smokers and encourage smokers to quit.

This Special Issue is open to any subject area of public health, science and policy related to tobacco smoking. The listed keywords suggest just a few of the many possibilities.

Dr. Jennifer Kahende
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • tobacco smoking
  • public health
  • health effects
  • lung cancer, emphysema, and cardiovascular disease
  • psychological effects
  • smoking cessation, smoking initiation
  • anti-tobacco policymaking
  • anti-tobacco education programs
  • restrictions on cigarette advertising and promotions
  • tobacco taxation
  • tobacco control interventions
  • secondhand smoke
  • clean-indoor air laws, public smoking bans, smoke-free environments

Published Papers (31 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-31
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Self-Reported Exposure to Policy and Environmental Influences on Smoking Cessation and Relapse: A 2-Year Longitudinal Population-based Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(9), 3591-3608; doi:10.3390/ijerph8093591
Received: 27 July 2011 / Accepted: 25 August 2011 / Published: 5 September 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although most smokers want to quit, the long-term success rate of quit attempts remains low; research is needed to understand the policy and environmental influences that can increase the success of cessation efforts. This paper uses regression methods to investigate self-reported exposure to
[...] Read more.
Although most smokers want to quit, the long-term success rate of quit attempts remains low; research is needed to understand the policy and environmental influences that can increase the success of cessation efforts. This paper uses regression methods to investigate self-reported exposure to policy and environmental influences on quit attempts, maintenance of a quit attempt for at least 6 months, and relapse in a longitudinal population-based sample, the New York Adult Cohort Survey, followed for 12 months (N = 3,261) and 24 months (N = 1,142). When policy or environmental influence variables were assessed independently of other policy or environmental influence variables, many were significant for at least some of the cessation outcomes. In the full models that included a full set of policy or environmental influence variables, many significant associations became nonsignificant. A number of policies may have an influence on multiple cessation outcomes. However, the effect varies by cessation outcome, and statistical significance is influenced by model specification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Socioeconomic Differences in the Effectiveness of the Removal of the “Light” Descriptor on Cigarette Packs: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Thailand Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(6), 2170-2180; doi:10.3390/ijerph8062170
Received: 13 April 2011 / Accepted: 8 June 2011 / Published: 14 June 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many smokers incorrectly believe that “light” cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. To address this problem, many countries have banned “light” or “mild” brand descriptors on cigarette packs. Our objective was to assess whether beliefs about “light” cigarettes changed following the 2007
[...] Read more.
Many smokers incorrectly believe that “light” cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. To address this problem, many countries have banned “light” or “mild” brand descriptors on cigarette packs. Our objective was to assess whether beliefs about “light” cigarettes changed following the 2007 removal of these brand descriptors in Thailand and, if a change occurred, the extent to which it differed by socioeconomic status. Data were from waves 2 (2006), 3 (2008), and 4 (2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Thailand Survey of adult smokers in Thailand. The results showed that, following the introduction of the ban, there was an overall decline in the two beliefs that “light” cigarettes are less harmful and smoother than regular cigarettes. The decline in the “less harmful” belief was considerably steeper in lower income and education groups. However, there was no evidence that the rate of decline in the “smoother” belief varied by income or education. Removing the “light” brand descriptor from cigarette packs should thus be viewed not only as a means to address the problem of smokers’ incorrect beliefs about “light” cigarettes, but also as a factor that can potentially reduce socioeconomic disparities in smoking-related misconceptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Outcomes and Cost-Effectiveness of Two Nicotine Replacement Treatment Delivery Models for a Tobacco Quitline
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(5), 1547-1559; doi:10.3390/ijerph8051547
Received: 26 March 2011 / Accepted: 29 April 2011 / Published: 13 May 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many tobacco cessation quitlines provide nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in the U.S. but consensus is lacking regarding the best shipping protocol or NRT amounts. We evaluated the impact of the Minnesota QUITPLAN® Helpline’s shift from distributing NRT using a single eight-week shipment
[...] Read more.
Many tobacco cessation quitlines provide nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in the U.S. but consensus is lacking regarding the best shipping protocol or NRT amounts. We evaluated the impact of the Minnesota QUITPLAN® Helpline’s shift from distributing NRT using a single eight-week shipment to a two-shipment protocol. For this observational study, the eight week single-shipment cohort (n = 247) received eight weeks of NRT (patches or gum) at once, while the split-shipment cohort (n = 160) received five weeks of NRT (n = 94), followed by an additional three weeks of NRT if callers continued with counseling (n = 66). Patient satisfaction, retention, quit rates, and cost associated with the three groups were compared. A higher proportion of those receiving eight weeks of NRT, whether in one or two shipments, reported that the helpline was “very helpful” (77.2% of the single-shipment group; 81.1% of the two-shipment group) than those receiving five weeks of NRT (57.8% of the one-shipment group) (p = 0.004). Callers in the eight week two-shipment group completed significantly more calls (3.0) than callers in the five week one-shipment group (2.4) or eight week single-shipment group (1.7) (p < 0.001). Using both responder and intent-to-treat calculations, there were no significant differences in 30-day point prevalence abstinence at seven months among the three protocol groups even when controlling for demographic and tobacco use characteristics, and treatment group protocol. The mean cost per caller was greater for the single-shipment phase than the split-shipment phase ($350 vs. $326) due to the savings associated with not sending a second shipment to some participants. Assuming no difference in abstinence rates resulting from the protocol change, cost-per-quit was lowest for the five week one-shipment group ($1,155), and lower for the combined split-shipment cohort ($1,242) than for the single-shipment cohort ($1,350). Results of this evaluation indicate that while satisfaction rates increase among those receiving more counseling and NRT, quit rates do not, even when controlling for demographic and tobacco use characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of India’s 2008 Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places in Gujarat
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(5), 1271-1286; doi:10.3390/ijerph8051271
Received: 25 March 2011 / Revised: 4 April 2011 / Accepted: 20 April 2011 / Published: 26 April 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tobacco smoking and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke are associated with disability and premature mortality in low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of implementing India’s Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places Rules in the state
[...] Read more.
Tobacco smoking and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke are associated with disability and premature mortality in low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of implementing India’s Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places Rules in the state of Gujarat, compared to implementation of a complete smoking ban. Using standard cost-effectiveness analysis methods, the cost of implementing the alternatives was evaluated against the years of life saved and cases of acute myocardial infarction averted by reductions in smoking prevalence and secondhand smoke exposure. After one year, it is estimated that a complete smoking ban in Gujarat would avert 17,000 additional heart attacks and gain 438,000 life years (LY). A complete ban is highly cost-effective when key variables including legislation effectiveness were varied in the sensitivity analyses. Without including medical treatment costs averted, the cost-effectiveness ratio ranges from $2 to $112 per LY gained and $37 to $386 per acute myocardial infarction averted. Implementing a complete smoking ban would be a cost saving alternative to the current partial legislation in terms of reducing tobacco-attributable disease in Gujarat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Intensity and Inhalation of Smoking in the Aetiology of Laryngeal Cancer
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 976-984; doi:10.3390/ijerph8040976
Received: 17 December 2010 / Revised: 28 February 2011 / Accepted: 29 March 2011 / Published: 1 April 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The carcinogenic effect of smoking on laryngeal cancer is well established; however, the risk pattern for detailed smoking characteristics is less clear. Thus, the aim of this analysis was to quantify the impact of different inhalation behaviours on the risk of laryngeal cancer.
[...] Read more.
The carcinogenic effect of smoking on laryngeal cancer is well established; however, the risk pattern for detailed smoking characteristics is less clear. Thus, the aim of this analysis was to quantify the impact of different inhalation behaviours on the risk of laryngeal cancer. We conducted a population-based case control study in Germany, frequency-matched for sex and age, using a standardized questionnaire covering lifelong smoking details, including age at start, time since quitting, types of smoking products, duration, intensity and inhalation behaviour. We found higher risks for increasing duration and intensity of smoking. A clear dose-response relationship was found in all inhalation subgroups, i.e., not only for deep inhalers, but also for those puffing on a cigarette. Clearly reduced risks could be observed for quitting smoking. Changing inhalation habits might be considered as a first step to reducing the risk of developing laryngeal cancer. However, the best way to effectively reduce laryngeal cancer risk is to quit smoking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 944-954; doi:10.3390/ijerph8040944
Received: 27 January 2011 / Revised: 22 March 2011 / Accepted: 25 March 2011 / Published: 30 March 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457). Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation,
[...] Read more.
Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457). Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the environment (smoking at home and at work). Statistical tests included Chi Square and Fisher’s Exact test, as well as multiple logistic regression analysis among never, former, and current smokers. Results: Findings confirm high smoking prevalence among male and female participants (44% and 37% respectively). American Indians begin smoking in early adolescence (age 14.7). Also, 65% of current smokers are less than 50% Indian blood and 76% of current smokers have no intention to quit smoking. Current and former smokers are statistically more likely to report having suicidal ideation than those who never smoked. Current smokers also report being neglected and physically abused in childhood and adolescence, are statistically more likely to smoke ½ pack or less (39% vs. 10% who smoke 1+ pack), smoke during pregnancy, and have others who smoke in the house compared with former and never smokers. Conclusion: Understanding the factors associated with smoking will help to bring about policy changes and more effective programs to address the problem of high smoking rates among American Indians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Life-long Programming Implications of Exposure to Tobacco Smoking and Nicotine Before and Soon After Birth: Evidence for Altered Lung Development
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(3), 875-898; doi:10.3390/ijerph8030875
Received: 1 February 2011 / Revised: 28 February 2011 / Accepted: 4 March 2011 / Published: 16 March 2011
Cited by 44 | PDF Full-text (509 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tobacco smoking during pregnancy remains common, especially in indigenous communities, and likely contributes to respiratory illness in exposed offspring. It is now well established that components of tobacco smoke, notably nicotine, can affect multiple organs in the fetus and newborn, potentially with life-long
[...] Read more.
Tobacco smoking during pregnancy remains common, especially in indigenous communities, and likely contributes to respiratory illness in exposed offspring. It is now well established that components of tobacco smoke, notably nicotine, can affect multiple organs in the fetus and newborn, potentially with life-long consequences. Recent studies have shown that nicotine can permanently affect the developing lung such that its final structure and function are adversely affected; these changes can increase the risk of respiratory illness and accelerate the decline in lung function with age. In this review we discuss the impact of maternal smoking on the lungs and consider the evidence that smoking can have life-long, programming consequences for exposed offspring. Exposure to maternal tobacco smoking and nicotine intake during pregnancy and lactation changes the genetic program that controls the development and aging of the lungs of the offspring. Changes in the conducting airways and alveoli reduce lung function in exposed offspring, rendering the lungs more susceptible to obstructive lung disease and accelerating lung aging. Although it is generally accepted that prevention of maternal smoking during pregnancy and lactation is essential, current knowledge of the effects of nicotine on lung development does not support the use of nicotine replacement therapy in this group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Socioeconomic Differences in Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Pollution (TSP) in Bangladeshi Households with Children: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(3), 842-860; doi:10.3390/ijerph8030842
Received: 6 February 2011 / Revised: 6 March 2011 / Accepted: 6 March 2011 / Published: 15 March 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (375 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study assessed the pattern of exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP; also known as, secondhand smoke) in Bangladeshi households with children and examined the variations in household smoking restrictions and perception of risk for children’s exposure to TSP by socioeconomic status. We
[...] Read more.
This study assessed the pattern of exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP; also known as, secondhand smoke) in Bangladeshi households with children and examined the variations in household smoking restrictions and perception of risk for children’s exposure to TSP by socioeconomic status. We interviewed 1,947 respondents from Bangladeshi households with children from the first wave (2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey. 43.5% of the respondents had complete smoking restrictions at home and 39.7% were very or extremely concerned about TSP risk to children’s health. Participants with lower level of education were significantly less likely to be concerned about the risk of TSP exposure to children’s health and less likely to adopt complete smoking restrictions at home. Logistic regression revealed that the predictors of concern for TSP exposure risk were educational attainment of 1 to 8 years (OR = 1.94) or 9 years or more (OR = 4.07) and being a smoker (OR = 0.24). The predictors of having complete household smoking restrictions were: urban residence (OR = 1.64), attaining education of 9 years or more (OR = 1.94), being a smoker (OR = 0.40) and being concerned about TSP exposure risk to children (OR = 3.25). The findings show that a high proportion of adults with children at home smoke tobacco at home and their perceptions of risk about TSP exposure to children’s health were low. These behaviours were more prevalent among rural smokers who were illiterate. There is a need for targeted intervention, customized for low educated public, on TSP risk to children’s health and tobacco control policy with specific focus on smoke-free home. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 613-628; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020613
Received: 28 December 2010 / Revised: 2 February 2011 / Accepted: 7 February 2011 / Published: 23 February 2011
Cited by 113 | PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic database
[...] Read more.
Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic database of smoke components containing more than 2,200 entries was generated. Emission levels in mainstream smoke have been found for 542 of the components and a human inhalation risk value for 98 components. As components with potential carcinogenic, cardiovascular and respiratory effects have been included, the three major smoke-related causes of death are all covered by the list. Given that the currently used Hoffmann list of hazardous smoke components is based on data from the 1990s and only includes carcinogens, it is recommended that the current list of 98 hazardous components is used for regulatory purposes instead. To enable risk assessment of components not covered by this list, thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC) have been established from the inhalation risk values found: 0.0018 µg day−1 for all risks, and 1.2 µg day−1 for all risks excluding carcinogenicity, the latter being similar to previously reported inhalation TTCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Experiences of Working with the Tobacco Issue in the Context of Health Promoting Hospitals and Health Services: A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 498-513; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020498
Received: 10 January 2011 / Revised: 11 February 2011 / Accepted: 12 February 2011 / Published: 15 February 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The worldwide Health Promoting Hospital and Health Services (HPH) network was initiated by the World Health Organizations in the late 1980s. The goal of the network is to change the focus of health services from curing patients to also embrace disease prevention and
[...] Read more.
The worldwide Health Promoting Hospital and Health Services (HPH) network was initiated by the World Health Organizations in the late 1980s. The goal of the network is to change the focus of health services from curing patients to also embrace disease prevention and health promotion. In Sweden the network started in 1996, and involves mainly hospitals and primary care. The network members collaborate in task forces, one of which is working on the tobacco issue. There is limited evidence on the value of working within an HPH organization. The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences of members of the Swedish HPH network tobacco task force. Focus group interviews with task force members were analyzed using implementation theory. Three themes, overall experiences of working with tobacco issues, experiences of working with “free from tobacco in connection with surgery”, and experiences of work in the HPH tobacco task force, emerged from the interviews. The results show that working with the tobacco issue in the context of health-promoting hospitals and health services met with difficulties involving the following important factors: evidence, context, facilitation and adopter characteristics. Leadership, one contextual factor, at national and local level, seems to be crucial if the work is going to succeed. The tobacco task force of the HPH network is an important facilitator supporting the task. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Socioeconomic Variation in the Prevalence, Introduction, Retention, and Removal of Smoke-Free Policies among Smokers: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 411-434; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020411
Received: 15 December 2010 / Revised: 10 January 2011 / Accepted: 25 January 2011 / Published: 31 January 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Introduction: Exposure to secondhand smoke causes premature death and disease in non-smokers and indoor smoke-free policies have become increasingly prevalent worldwide. Although socioeconomic disparities have been documented in tobacco use and cessation, the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoke-free policies is
[...] Read more.
Introduction: Exposure to secondhand smoke causes premature death and disease in non-smokers and indoor smoke-free policies have become increasingly prevalent worldwide. Although socioeconomic disparities have been documented in tobacco use and cessation, the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoke-free policies is less well studied. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2006 and 2007 Waves of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), a prospective study of nationally representative samples of smokers in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Telephone interviews were administered to 8,245 current and former adult smokers from October 2006 to February 2007. Between September 2007 and February 2008, 5,866 respondents were re-interviewed. Self-reported education and annual household income were used to create SES tertiles. Outcomes included the presence, introduction, and removal of smoke-free policies in homes, worksites, bars, and restaurants. Results: Smokers with high SES had increased odds of both having [OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.27–2.87] and introducing [OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.04–2.13] a total ban on smoking in the home compared to low SES smokers. Continuing smokers with high SES also had decreased odds of removing a total ban [OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.26–0.73]. No consistent association was observed between SES and the presence or introduction of bans in worksites, bars, or restaurants. Conclusions: The presence, introduction, and retention of smoke-free homes increases with increasing SES, but no consistent socioeconomic variation exists in the presence or introduction of total smoking bans in worksites, bars, or restaurants. Opportunities exist to reduce SES disparities in smoke-free homes, while the lack of socioeconomic differences in public workplace, bar, and restaurant smoke-free policies suggest these measures are now equitably distributed in these four countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 321-340; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020321
Received: 30 November 2010 / Revised: 15 January 2011 / Accepted: 20 January 2011 / Published: 26 January 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (135 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion.
[...] Read more.
Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers’ reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Tobacco Use among Emergency Department Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(1), 253-263; doi:10.3390/ijerph8010253
Received: 10 December 2010 / Revised: 14 January 2010 / Accepted: 19 January 2011 / Published: 21 January 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This is the first study to systematically track the tobacco use prevalence in an entire emergency department (ED) population and compare age-stratified rates to the general population using national, provincial, and regional comparisons. A tobacco use question was integrated into the ED electronic
[...] Read more.
This is the first study to systematically track the tobacco use prevalence in an entire emergency department (ED) population and compare age-stratified rates to the general population using national, provincial, and regional comparisons. A tobacco use question was integrated into the ED electronic registration process from 2007 to 2010 in 11 northern hospitals (10 rural, 1 urban). Results showed that tobacco use documentation (85–89%) and tobacco use (26–27%) were consistent across years with the only discrepancy being higher tobacco prevalence in 2007 (32%) due to higher rates at the urban hospital. Age-stratified outcomes showed that tobacco use remained high up to 50 years old (36%); rates began to decrease for patients in their 50’s (26%) and 60’s (16%), and decreased substantially after age 70 (5%). The age-stratified ED tobacco rates were almost double those of the general population nationally and provincially for all but the oldest age groups but were virtually identical to regional rates. The tobacco use tracking and age-stratified general population comparisons in this study improves on previous attempts to document prevalence in the ED population, and at a more local level, provides a “big picture” overview that highlights the magnitude of the tobacco-use problem in these communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Usage Patterns of Stop Smoking Medications in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States: Findings from the 2006–2008 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(1), 222-233; doi:10.3390/ijerph8010222
Received: 11 December 2010 / Revised: 14 January 2011 / Accepted: 15 January 2011 / Published: 20 January 2011
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Varenicline is a new prescription stop smoking medication (SSM) that has been available in the United States since August 1, 2006, in the United Kingdom and other European Union countries since December 5, 2006, in Canada since April 12, 2007, and in Australia
[...] Read more.
Varenicline is a new prescription stop smoking medication (SSM) that has been available in the United States since August 1, 2006, in the United Kingdom and other European Union countries since December 5, 2006, in Canada since April 12, 2007, and in Australia since January 1, 2008. There are few population-based studies that have examined use rates of varenicline and other stop smoking medications. We report data from the ITC Four Country survey conducted with smokers in the US, UK, Canada, and Australia who reported an attempt to quit smoking in past year in the 2006 survey (n = 4,022 participants), 2007 (n = 3,790 participants), and 2008 surveys (n = 2,735 participants) Respondents reported use of various stop smoking medications to quit smoking at each survey wave, along with demographic and smoker characteristics. The self-reported use of any stop smoking medication has increased significantly over the 3 year period in all 4 countries, with the sharpest increase occurring in the United States. Varenicline has become the second most used stop smoking medication, behind NRT, in all 4 countries since being introduced. Between 2006 and 2008, varenicline use rates increased from 0.4% to 21.7% in the US, 0.0% to 14.8% in Canada, 0.0% to 14.5% in Australia, and 0.0% to 4.4% in the UK. In contrast, use of NRT and bupropion remained constant in each country. Males and non-whites were significantly less likely to report using any SSM, while more educated smokers were significantly more likely to use any SSM, including varenicline. Our findings suggest that the introduction of varenicline led to an increase in the number of smokers who used evidence-based treatment during their quit attempts, rather than simply gaining market share at the expense of other medications. From a public health perspective, messages regarding increased success rates among medication users and the relative safety of stop smoking medications should be disseminated widely so as to reach all smokers of all socioeconomic classifications equally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Socio-Economic Variation in Price Minimizing Behaviors: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(1), 234-252; doi:10.3390/ijerph8010234
Received: 1 December 2010 / Revised: 14 January 2011 / Accepted: 15 January 2011 / Published: 20 January 2011
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES) modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of
[...] Read more.
This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES) modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of adult smokers and includes respondents from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed among 8,243 respondents (7,038 current smokers) from the survey wave conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. Analyses examined predictors of purchasing from low/untaxed sources, using discount cigarettes or roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, purchasing cigarettes in cartons, and engaging in high levels of price and tax avoidance at last purchase. All analyses tested for interactions with SES and were weighted to account for changing and under-represented demographics. Relatively high levels of price and tax avoidance behaviors were present; 8% reported buying from low or untaxed source; 36% used discount or generic brands, 13.5% used RYO tobacco, 29% reported purchasing cartons, and 63% reported using at least one of these high price avoidance behaviors. Respondents categorized as having low SES were approximately 26% less likely to report using low or untaxed sources and 43% less likely to purchase tobacco by the carton. However, respondents with low SES were 85% more likely to report using discount brands/RYO compared to participants with higher SES. Overall, lower SES smokers were 25% more likely to engage in at least one or more tax avoidance behaviors compared to their higher SES counterparts. Price and tax avoidance behaviors are relatively common among smokers of all SES strata, but strategies differed with higher SES groups more likely to report traveling to a low-tax location to avoid paying higher prices, purchase duty free tobacco, and purchase by cartons instead of packs all of which were less commonly reported by low SES smokers. Because of the strategies lower SES respondents are more likely to use, reducing price differentials between discount and premium brands may have a greater impact on them, potentially increasing the likelihood of quitting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle The Impact of Menthol Cigarettes on Smoking Initiation among Non-Smoking Young Females in Japan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(1), 1-14; doi:10.3390/ijerph8010001
Received: 18 November 2010 / Revised: 17 December 2010 / Accepted: 22 December 2010 / Published: 23 December 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Japan presents an excellent case-study of a nation with low female smoking rates and a negligible menthol market which changed after the cigarette market was opened to foreign competition. Internal tobacco industry documents demonstrate the intent of tobacco manufacturers to increase initiation among
[...] Read more.
Japan presents an excellent case-study of a nation with low female smoking rates and a negligible menthol market which changed after the cigarette market was opened to foreign competition. Internal tobacco industry documents demonstrate the intent of tobacco manufacturers to increase initiation among young females through development and marketing of menthol brands. Japanese menthol market share rose rapidly from less than 1% in 1980 to 20% in 2008. Menthol brand use was dominated by younger and female smokers, in contrast with non-menthol brands which were used primarily by male smokers. Nationally representative surveys confirm industry surveys of brand use and provide further evidence of the end results of the tobacco industry’s actions—increased female smoking in Japan. These findings suggest that female populations may be encouraged to initiate into smoking, particularly in developing nations or where female smoking rates remain low, if the tobacco industry can successfully tailor brands to them. The Japanese experience provides a warning to public health officials who wish to prevent smoking initiation among young females. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Racial/Ethnic Differences in Perceived Smoking Prevalence: Evidence from a National Survey of Teens
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(12), 4152-4168; doi:10.3390/ijerph7124152
Received: 4 November 2010 / Revised: 26 November 2010 / Accepted: 1 December 2010 / Published: 2 December 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prior studies show that perceived smoking prevalence is a significant predictor of smoking initiation. In this study, we examine racial/ethnic differences in perceived smoking prevalence and racial/ethnic differences in exposure to contextual factors associated with perceived smoking prevalence. We used cross-sectional time series
[...] Read more.
Prior studies show that perceived smoking prevalence is a significant predictor of smoking initiation. In this study, we examine racial/ethnic differences in perceived smoking prevalence and racial/ethnic differences in exposure to contextual factors associated with perceived smoking prevalence. We used cross-sectional time series data from the Legacy Media Tracking Surveys (LMTS), a national sample of 35,000 12- to 17-year-olds in the United States. Perceived smoking prevalence was the primary outcome variable, measured using an LMTS question: “Out of every 10 people your age, how many do you think smoke?” Multivariable models were estimated to assess the association between perceived smoking prevalence; race/ethnicity; and exposure to social contextual factors. Findings indicate that African American, Hispanic, and American Indian youth exhibit the highest rates of perceived smoking prevalence, while white and Asian youth exhibit the lowest. Minority youth are also disproportionately exposed to social contextual factors that are correlated with high perceived smoking prevalence. These findings suggest that disproportionate exposure to social contextual factors may partially explain why minority youth exhibit such high levels of perceived smoking prevalence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle The Impact of the 2002 Delaware Smoking Ordinance on Heart Attack and Asthma
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(12), 4169-4178; doi:10.3390/ijerph7124169
Received: 1 November 2010 / Revised: 23 November 2010 / Accepted: 29 November 2010 / Published: 2 December 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (138 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the United States, smoking is the leading cause of death - having a mortality rate of approximately 435,000 people in 2000—accounting for 8.1% of all US deaths recorded that year. Consequently, we analyzed the Delaware Hospital Discharge Database, and identified state and
[...] Read more.
In the United States, smoking is the leading cause of death - having a mortality rate of approximately 435,000 people in 2000—accounting for 8.1% of all US deaths recorded that year. Consequently, we analyzed the Delaware Hospital Discharge Database, and identified state and non-state residents discharged with AMI or asthma for the years 1999 to 2004. Statistical data analysis compared the incidence of AMI or asthma for each group before (1999–2002) and after (2003–2004) the amendment. As a result, we found that pre-ordinance and post-ordinance quarterly rates of AMI for Delaware residents were 451 (se = 21) and 430 (se = 21) respectively, representing a 4.7% reduction. Over the same time period, there was negligible change in the incidence of AMI for non-Delaware residents. After adjusting for population growth, the Risk Ratio (RR) for asthma in Delaware residents post-ordinance was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.999), which represented a significant reduction (P = 0.046). By comparison, non-Delaware residents had an increased RR for asthma post-ordinance of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.86; P < 0.0001).The results suggest that Delaware’s comprehensive non-smoking ordinance effectively was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of AMI and asthma in Delaware residents when compared to non-Delaware residents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Impact of the New Malaysian Cigarette Pack Warnings on Smokers’ Awareness of Health Risks and Interest in Quitting Smoking
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(11), 4089-4099; doi:10.3390/ijerph7114089
Received: 16 October 2010 / Revised: 10 November 2010 / Accepted: 16 November 2010 / Published: 22 November 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view
[...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention) or the old text-only warnings (control). Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, response to the package warnings, and interest in quitting smoking. Exposure to the pictorial warnings resulted in increased awareness of the risks of smoking, stronger behavioral response to the warnings and increased interest in quitting smoking. The new warnings in Malaysia will increase smokers’ knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and have a positive effect on interest in quitting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Municipalities Collaborating in Public Health: The Danish Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(11), 3954-3971; doi:10.3390/ijerph7113954
Received: 8 October 2010 / Revised: 23 October 2010 / Accepted: 3 November 2010 / Published: 9 November 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study explored the Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership (SPCP) which builds upon a collaboration between two Danish municipalities targeted at the prevention of tobacco smoking. The aim of the study was to describe the processes of SPCP, to examine the difficulties this
[...] Read more.
This study explored the Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership (SPCP) which builds upon a collaboration between two Danish municipalities targeted at the prevention of tobacco smoking. The aim of the study was to describe the processes of SPCP, to examine the difficulties this collaboration faced, and to assess how these experiences could be used to improve future partnership collaboration. We employed qualitative methodology comprising 12 semi-structured one-to-one interviews with SPCP’s stakeholders and an analysis of the partnership documents and reports. The findings suggested that the main potentials of the partnership were the personal relations between the members and stakeholders with the possibilities of the creation of new connections with other actors. Barriers to successful partnership building were the implementation of the new Local Government Reform as a competing task, and that the two municipalities were heterogenic in respect to organizational issues and working methods. Other impediments included the lack of continuity in leadership, the lack of clarity regarding the form of collaboration and roles, as well as different expectations of the stakeholders. We conclude that four factors remain critical for partnerships. The first is the clarity of the collaborative effort. Second, partnerships need to take into account the structural circumstances and culture/value systems of all stakeholders. Third is the impact of contextual factors on the development of the partnership; and the fourth factor is the bearing of personal/individual factors on the partnership e.g., personal engagement in the project. Early attention to these four factors could contribute to more effective partnership working. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Tobacco Use and Cardiovascular Disease among American Indians: The Strong Heart Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(10), 3816-3830; doi:10.3390/ijerph7103816
Received: 8 September 2010 / Revised: 12 October 2010 / Accepted: 18 October 2010 / Published: 25 October 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tobacco use among American Indians has a long and complicated history ranging from its utilization in spiritual ceremonies to its importance as an economic factor for survival. Despite this cultural tradition and long history, there are few studies of the health effects of
[...] Read more.
Tobacco use among American Indians has a long and complicated history ranging from its utilization in spiritual ceremonies to its importance as an economic factor for survival. Despite this cultural tradition and long history, there are few studies of the health effects of tobacco in this population. The Strong Heart Study is a prospective observational study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 13 American Indian tribes in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota with 4,549 participants. Baseline examinations were followed by two examinations at regular intervals and 16 years of morbidity and mortality follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) for non-fatal CVD for current smokers vs. non-smokers after adjusting for other risk factors were significant in women (HR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.45) and men (HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.18). Hazard ratios for fatal CVD for current smokers vs. non-smokers after adjusting for other risk factors were significant in women (HR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.58), but not in men. Individuals who smoked and who were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension or renal insufficiency were more likely to quit smoking than those without these conditions. On average, American Indians smoke fewer cigarettes per day than other racial/ethnic groups; nevertheless, the ill effects of habitual tobacco use are evident in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Aging Images as a Motivational Trigger for Smoking Cessation in Young Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3499-3512; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093499
Received: 26 July 2010 / Revised: 13 September 2010 / Accepted: 15 September 2010 / Published: 27 September 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recruiting adolescents into smoking cessation programs has been challenging, and there is a lack of effective smoking cessation interventions for this age group. We aimed to assess whether the approach of using aging images can be used to recruit young, female smokers for
[...] Read more.
Recruiting adolescents into smoking cessation programs has been challenging, and there is a lack of effective smoking cessation interventions for this age group. We aimed to assess whether the approach of using aging images can be used to recruit young, female smokers for a smoking cessation course. In this study, 853 14- to 18-year-old subjects were photographed (2006–2007). After software-aided aging, the images evoked strong emotions, especially in subjects with an advanced motivational stage to quit. Twenty-four percent of current smokers reported that the aging images increased their motivation to quit smoking (pre-contemplation: 8%; contemplation: 32%; and preparation: 71%). In multivariate analyses, the aged images had a high motivational impact to quit smoking that was associated with an increased readiness to stop smoking and the individual’s assessment of the aging images as shocking, but not with the number of previous attempts to quit and the assessment of the pictures as realistic. However, it was not possible to recruit the study population for a smoking cessation course. We concluded that aging images are a promising intervention for reaching young women and increasing their motivation to stop smoking. However, smoking cessation courses may not be appropriate for this age group: none of the recruits agreed to take a cessation course. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3406-3421; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093406
Received: 20 July 2010 / Revised: 20 August 2010 / Accepted: 31 August 2010 / Published: 1 September 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (249 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and
[...] Read more.
The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compartments for cotinine. Evaluation of a rat model was performed by making comparisons with predicted concentrations in blood and in vivo experimental pharmacokinetic values obtained from rats after oral treatment with nicotine (1.0 mg/kg, a no-observed-adverse-effect level) for 14 days. Elimination rates of nicotine in vitro were established from data from rat liver microsomes and from human pooled liver microsomes. Human biomonitoring data (17 ng nicotine and 150 ng cotinine per mL plasma 1 h after smoking) from pooled five male Japanese smokers (daily intake of 43 mg nicotine by smoking) revealed that these blood concentrations could be calculated using a human PBPK model. These results indicate that a simplified PBPK model for nicotine/cotinine is useful for a forward dosimetry approach in humans and for estimating blood concentrations of other related compounds resulting from exposure to low chemical doses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Biomonitoring of Urinary Cotinine Concentrations Associated with Plasma Levels of Nicotine Metabolites after Daily Cigarette Smoking in a Male Japanese Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(7), 2953-2964; doi:10.3390/ijerph7072953
Received: 1 June 2010 / Revised: 17 June 2010 / Accepted: 16 July 2010 / Published: 20 July 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3′-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day
[...] Read more.
Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3′-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day for 16 years. Members of the population were genotyped for the nicotine-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). The mean levels of nicotine, the levels of its metabolites cotinine and 3′-hydroxycotinine, and the sum of these three levels in subjects one hour after smoking the first cigarette on the sampling day were 20.1, 158, 27.7, and 198 ng/mL in plasma and 846, 1,020, 1,010, and 2,870 ng/mL in urine under daily smoking conditions. Plasma levels of 3'-hydroxycotinine and urinary levels of nicotine and 3′-hydroxycotinine were dependent on the CYP2A6 phenotype group, which was estimated from the CYP2A6 genotypes of the subjects, including those with whole gene deletion. Plasma cotinine levels were significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked on the day before sampling (r = 0.71), the average number of cigarettes smoked daily (r = 0.58), and the Brinkman index (daily cigarettes × years, r = 0.48) under the present conditions. The sum of nicotine, cotinine, and 3′-hydroxycotinine concentrations in plasma showed a similar relationship to that of the plasma cotinine levels. Urinary concentrations of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolite concentrations also showed significant correlations with the plasma levels and the previous day’s and average cigarette consumption. The numbers of cigarettes smoked per day by two subjects with self-reported light smoking habits were predicted by measuring the urinary cotinine concentrations and using linear regression equations derived from above-mentioned data. These results indicate that biomonitoring of the urinary cotinine concentration is a good, easy-to-use marker for plasma levels of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolites in smokers independent of genetic polymorphism of CYP2A6. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Future Intentions Regarding Quitting and Reducing Cigarette Use in a Representative Sample of Canadian Daily Smokers: Implications for Public Health Initiatives
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(7), 2896-2902; doi:10.3390/ijerph7072896
Received: 20 June 2010 / Revised: 7 July 2010 / Accepted: 16 July 2010 / Published: 19 July 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (67 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pre-cessation reduction is associated with quitting smoking. However, many smokers reduce the amount consumed but may not quit altogether. Using a representative sample of adult current daily smokers, this project explored future intentions of smokers regarding cigarette consumption. This information is important because
[...] Read more.
Pre-cessation reduction is associated with quitting smoking. However, many smokers reduce the amount consumed but may not quit altogether. Using a representative sample of adult current daily smokers, this project explored future intentions of smokers regarding cigarette consumption. This information is important because it can provide a framework within which to plan tobacco cessation initiatives. A random digit dialing telephone survey was conducted of 889 Canadian current daily smokers, 18 years and older. The response rate was 65% (of households with a smoker in residence, 65% agreed to participate). Analyses focused on the 825 respondents who smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day at some point in their lives. As part of this survey, respondents were asked their future plans about their smoking (maintain, increase, reduce, quit). Of these 825 respondents, the majority of respondents had plans to change their cigarette use, with 55% planning to quit, 18.8% to reduce and 22.5% to maintain the amount they smoked (3.4% did not know and 2 respondents planned to increase). Most smokers who planned to reduce their smoking saw it as a step towards quitting smoking completely. These results present a picture of smokers, the majority of whom appear to be in some form of transition. Many smokers planned to reduce, of which the overwhelming majority saw their reduction as a step towards quitting. Opportunities exist to capitalize on these intentions to change in efforts to promote tobacco cessation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Does Secondhand Smoke Affect the Development of Dental Caries in Children? A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(5), 1503-1519; doi:10.3390/ijerph8051503
Received: 18 April 2011 / Revised: 24 April 2011 / Accepted: 5 May 2011 / Published: 12 May 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review evaluated evidence of the relationship between secondhand smoke (SHS) and dental caries in children in epidemiological studies. Relevant literature was searched and screened, and the methodological quality was assessed. The search yielded 42 citations. High-quality studies including one cohort format and
[...] Read more.
This review evaluated evidence of the relationship between secondhand smoke (SHS) and dental caries in children in epidemiological studies. Relevant literature was searched and screened, and the methodological quality was assessed. The search yielded 42 citations. High-quality studies including one cohort format and 14 case-control format studies were selected. Early childhood caries was examined in 11 studies. The independent association of SHS was significant in 10 studies, and the strength was mostly weak to moderate. One study did not select SHS as a significant variable. Three studies reported decreases in the risk of previous exposure, and the association was not significant. Dose-response relationships were evident in five studies. Permanent teeth were examined in seven studies. Five studies reported significant associations, which were mostly weak. The risk of previous exposure remained similar to that of current exposure, and a dose-response relationship was not evident in one study. The overall evidence for the causal association in early childhood caries is possible regarding epidemiological studies, and the evidence of permanent teeth and the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy were insufficient. The results warrant further studies of deciduous teeth using a cohort format and basic studies regarding the underlying mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessReview Recent Contributions of Air- and Biomarkers to the Control of Secondhand Smoke (SHS): A Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(3), 648-682; doi:10.3390/ijerph8030648
Received: 13 December 2010 / Revised: 12 January 2011 / Accepted: 21 January 2011 / Published: 1 March 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the publication of the US Surgeon General Reports in 1996 and 2006 and the report of the California Environmental Protection Agency in 1999, many reports have appeared on the contribution of air and biomarkers to different facets of the secondhand smoke (SHS)
[...] Read more.
Since the publication of the US Surgeon General Reports in 1996 and 2006 and the report of the California Environmental Protection Agency in 1999, many reports have appeared on the contribution of air and biomarkers to different facets of the secondhand smoke (SHS) issue, which are the targets of this review. These recent studies have allowed earlier epidemiological surveys to be biologically validated, and their plausibility demonstrated, quantified the levels of exposure to SHS before the bans in various environments, showed the deficiencies of mechanical control methods and of partial bans and the frequently correct implementation of the efficient total bans. More stringent regulation remains necessary in the public domain (workplaces, hospitality venues, transport sector, etc.) in many countries. Personal voluntary protection efforts against SHS are also needed in the private domain (homes, private cars). The effects of SHS on the cardiovascular, respiratory and neuropsychic systems, on pregnancy and fertility, on cancers and on SHS genotoxicity are confirmed through experimental human studies and through the relationship between markers and prevalence of disease or of markers of disease risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessReview Smoking Cessation in Indigenous Populations of Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States: Elements of Effective Interventions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 388-410; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020388
Received: 30 November 2010 / Revised: 27 January 2011 / Accepted: 28 January 2011 / Published: 31 January 2011
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (406 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Indigenous people throughout the world suffer a higher burden of disease than their non-indigenous counterparts contributing to disproportionate rates of disability. A significant proportion of this disability can be attributed to the adverse effects of smoking. In this paper, we aimed to identify
[...] Read more.
Indigenous people throughout the world suffer a higher burden of disease than their non-indigenous counterparts contributing to disproportionate rates of disability. A significant proportion of this disability can be attributed to the adverse effects of smoking. In this paper, we aimed to identify and discuss the key elements of individual-level smoking cessation interventions in indigenous people worldwide. An integrative review of published peer-reviewed literature was conducted. Literature on smoking cessation interventions in indigenous people was identified via search of electronic databases. Documents were selected for review if they were published in a peer-reviewed journal, written in English, published from 1990–2010, and documented an individual-level intervention to assist indigenous people to quit smoking. Studies that met inclusion criteria were limited to Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the USA, despite seeking representation from other indigenous populations. Few interventions tailored for indigenous populations were identified and the level of detail included in evaluation reports was variable. Features associated with successful interventions were integrated, flexible, community-based approaches that addressed known barriers and facilitators to quitting smoking. More tailored and targeted approaches to smoking cessation interventions for indigenous populations are required. The complexity of achieving smoking cessation is underscored as is the need to collaboratively develop interventions that are acceptable and appropriate to local populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessReview Lysyl Oxidase, A Critical Intra- and Extra-Cellular Target in the Lung for Cigarette Smoke Pathogenesis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(1), 161-184; doi:10.3390/ijerph8010161
Received: 23 November 2010 / Revised: 22 December 2010 / Accepted: 12 January 2011 / Published: 19 January 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (813 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cigarette smoke (CS), a complex chemical mixture, contains more than 4,800 different compounds, including oxidants, heavy metals, and carcinogens, that individually or in combination initiate or promote pathogenesis in the lung accounting for 82% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) deaths and 87%
[...] Read more.
Cigarette smoke (CS), a complex chemical mixture, contains more than 4,800 different compounds, including oxidants, heavy metals, and carcinogens, that individually or in combination initiate or promote pathogenesis in the lung accounting for 82% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) deaths and 87% of lung cancer deaths. Lysyl oxidase (LO), a Cu-dependent enzyme, oxidizes peptidyl lysine residues in collagen, elastin and histone H1, essential for stabilization of the extracellular matrix and cell nucleus. Considerable evidences have shown that LO is a tumor suppressor as exemplified by inhibiting transforming activity of ras, a proto oncogene. CS condensate (CSC), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and cadmium (Cd), major components of CS, down-regulate LO expression at such multiple levels as mRNA, protein and catalytic activity in lung cells in vitro and in vivo indicating LO as a critical intra- and extracellular target for CS pathogenesis in the lung. In view of multiple biological functions and regulation characteristics of the LO gene, molecular mechanisms for CS damage to lung LO and its role in emphysema and cancer pathogenesis are discussed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Figures

Open AccessReview Smoking Related Diseases: The Central Role of Monoamine Oxidase
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(1), 136-147; doi:10.3390/ijerph8010136
Received: 3 December 2010 / Revised: 24 December 2010 / Accepted: 6 January 2011 / Published: 14 January 2011
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (606 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Smoking is a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality. It is well established that monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity is decreased in smokers. Serotonin (5-HT), a major substrate for MAO that circulates as a reserve pool stored in platelets, is a marker of
[...] Read more.
Smoking is a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality. It is well established that monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity is decreased in smokers. Serotonin (5-HT), a major substrate for MAO that circulates as a reserve pool stored in platelets, is a marker of platelet activation. We recently reported that smoking durably modifies the platelet 5-HT/MAO system by inducing a demethylation of the MAO gene promoter resulting in high MAO protein concentration persisting more than ten years after quitting smoking. The present data enlarges the results to another MAO substrate, norepinephrine (NE), further confirming the central role of MAO in tobacco use-induced diseases. Thus, MAO could be a readily accessible and helpful marker in the risk evaluation of smoking-related diseases, from cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases to depression, anxiety and cancer. The present review implements the new finding of epigenetic regulation of MAO and suggests that smoking-induced MAO demethylation can be considered as a hallmark of smoking-related cancers similarly to other aberrant DNA methylations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Figures

Open AccessReview Pathophysiological Impact of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on the Cerebrovascular System with a Focus on the Blood-brain Barrier: Expanding the Awareness of Smoking Toxicity in an Underappreciated Area
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(12), 4111-4126; doi:10.3390/ijerph7124111
Received: 2 November 2010 / Revised: 18 November 2010 / Accepted: 19 November 2010 / Published: 26 November 2010
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (586 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent evidence has indicated that active and passive cigarette smoking are associated, in a dose-dependent manner, with dysfunction of normal endothelial physiology. Tobacco smoke (TS) may predispose individuals to atherogenic and thrombotic problems, significantly increasing the risk for ischemic manifestations such as acute
[...] Read more.
Recent evidence has indicated that active and passive cigarette smoking are associated, in a dose-dependent manner, with dysfunction of normal endothelial physiology. Tobacco smoke (TS) may predispose individuals to atherogenic and thrombotic problems, significantly increasing the risk for ischemic manifestations such as acute coronary syndrome and stroke. Despite the strong evidence for an association between smoking and vascular impairment, the impact of TS exposure on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has only been marginally addressed. This is a major problem given that the BBB is crucial in the maintenance of brain homeostasis. Recent data have also shown that chronic smokers have a higher incidence of small vessel ischemic disease (SVID), a pathological condition characterized by leaky brain microvessels and loss of BBB integrity. In the brain TS increases the risk of silent cerebral infarction (SCI) and stroke owing to the pro-coagulant and atherogenic effects of smoking. In this article we provide a detailed review and analysis of current knowledge of the pathophysiology of tobacco smoke toxicity at the cerebrovascular levels. We also discuss the potential toxicity of recently marketed “potential-reduced exposure products”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
IJERPH Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
ijerph@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to IJERPH
Back to Top