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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2012), Pages 2562-3013

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Open AccessArticle Occurrence and Spatial and Temporal Variations of Disinfection By-Products in the Water and Air of Two Indoor Swimming Pools
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2562-2586; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082562
Received: 17 May 2012 / Revised: 29 June 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to improve disinfection by-product (DBP) exposure assessment, this study was designed to document both water and air levels of these chemical contaminants in two indoor swimming pools and to analyze their within-day and day-to-day variations in both of them. Intensive [...] Read more.
In order to improve disinfection by-product (DBP) exposure assessment, this study was designed to document both water and air levels of these chemical contaminants in two indoor swimming pools and to analyze their within-day and day-to-day variations in both of them. Intensive sampling was carried out during two one-week campaigns to measure trihalomethanes (THMs) and chloramines (CAMs) in water and air, and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in water several times daily. Water samples were systematically collected at three locations in each pool and air samples were collected at various heights around the pool and in other rooms (e.g., changing room) in the buildings. In addition, the ability of various models to predict air concentrations from water was tested using this database. No clear trends, but actual variations of contamination levels, appeared for both water and air according to the sampling locations and times. Likewise, the available models resulted in realistic but imprecise estimates of air contamination levels from water. This study supports the recommendation that suitable minimal air and water sampling should be carried out in swimming pools to assess exposure to DBPs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Toothaches in the Daily Lives of Brazilian Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2587-2600; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082587
Received: 23 May 2012 / Revised: 5 July 2012 / Accepted: 12 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (307 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of toothaches and to evaluate its effects on the daily lives of adults living in an industrialised region of southeastern Brazil. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 744 individuals. [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of toothaches and to evaluate its effects on the daily lives of adults living in an industrialised region of southeastern Brazil. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 744 individuals. The variables related to toothache were grouped into three components: access to dental service, pain severity, and social/functional impacts. The present study found that 68.0% of the subjects had limited access to oral health care, 39.7% presented high toothache severity, and 47.3% reported that toothache greatly affected their daily lives. Nervousness (87.2%) and chewing difficulty (72.6%) were the most commonly reported toothache-related effects. Through correspondence analysis, four groups with separate profiles for toothache and associated factors were identified. Two groups reported greater effects of toothaches in their daily lives. One group consisted of individuals who had less access to dental services (women and individuals who were multiracial, married, had a middle school education, or a low family income). The other group consisted of individuals who reported a high toothache severity and high degree of social/functional impacts (individuals who were 40 to 44 years old, married or widowed, black or multiracial, and had a middle school education). The other two groups were those whose daily lives were less affected by toothaches. One group consisted of individuals who had greater access to dental services (men and individuals who were divorced, had a college degree, or had incomes greater than R$ 300.01). The final group consisted of individuals who had low toothache severity and a low degree of associated social/functional impacts (individuals who were 35 to 39 years old, white, single, or had a high school education). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Environmental Determinants of Oral Health)
Open AccessArticle Field Validation of Food Service Listings: A Comparison of Commercial and Online Geographic Information System Databases
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2601-2607; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082601
Received: 16 May 2012 / Revised: 28 June 2012 / Accepted: 12 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (56 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many studies examining the food retail environment rely on geographic information system (GIS) databases for location information. The purpose of this study was to validate information provided by two GIS databases, comparing the positional accuracy of food service places within a 1 [...] Read more.
Many studies examining the food retail environment rely on geographic information system (GIS) databases for location information. The purpose of this study was to validate information provided by two GIS databases, comparing the positional accuracy of food service places within a 1 km circular buffer surrounding 34 schools in Ontario, Canada. A commercial database (InfoCanada) and an online database (Yellow Pages) provided the addresses of food service places. Actual locations were measured using a global positioning system (GPS) device. The InfoCanada and Yellow Pages GIS databases provided the locations for 973 and 675 food service places, respectively. Overall, 749 (77.1%) and 595 (88.2%) of these were located in the field. The online database had a higher proportion of food service places found in the field. The GIS locations of 25% of the food service places were located within approximately 15 m of their actual location, 50% were within 25 m, and 75% were within 50 m. This validation study provided a detailed assessment of errors in the measurement of the location of food service places in the two databases. The location information was more accurate for the online database, however, when matching criteria were more conservative, there were no observed differences in error between the databases. Full article
Open AccessArticle Foodborne Pathogens Recovered from Ready-to-Eat Foods from Roadside Cafeterias and Retail Outlets in Alice, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: Public Health Implications
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2608-2619; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082608
Received: 24 April 2012 / Revised: 21 May 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study assessed the microbiological quality of various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Microbiological analysis was conducted on 252 samples which included vegetables, potatoes, rice, pies, beef and chicken stew. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and the API 20E, API 20NE and API Listeria kits; results were analyzed using the one-way-ANOVA test. Bacterial growth was present in all the food types tested; high levels of total aerobic count were observed in vegetables, 6.8 ± 0.07 followed by rice, 6.7 ± 1.7 while pies had the lowest count (2.58 ± 0.24). Organisms isolated included: Listeria spp. (22%), Enterobacter spp. (18%), Aeromonas hydrophila (12%), Klebsiella oxytoca (8%), Proteus mirabilis (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.2%) and Pseudomonas luteola (2.4%). Interestingly, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were not isolated in any of the samples. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the prevalence of foodborne pathogens from hygienic and unhygienic cafeterias. The results indicated that most of the ready-to-eat food samples examined in this study did not meet bacteriological quality standards, therefore posing potential risks to consumers. This should draw the attention of the relevant authorities to ensure that hygienic standards are improved to curtain foodborne infections. Full article
Open AccessArticle Association Study of Genes Associated to Asthma in a Specific Environment, in an Asthma Familial Collection Located in a Rural Area Influenced by Different Industries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2620-2635; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082620
Received: 30 April 2012 / Revised: 22 June 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (143 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Eight candidate genes selected in this study were previously associated with gene-environment interactions in asthma in an urban area. These genes were analyzed in a familial collection from a founder and remote population (Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean; SLSJ) located in an area with low air [...] Read more.
Eight candidate genes selected in this study were previously associated with gene-environment interactions in asthma in an urban area. These genes were analyzed in a familial collection from a founder and remote population (Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean; SLSJ) located in an area with low air levels of ozone but with localized areas of relatively high air pollutant levels, such as sulphur dioxide, when compared to many urban areas. Polymorphisms (SNPs) were extracted from the genome-wide association study (GWAS) performed on the SLSJ familial collection. A transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was performed using the entire family sample (1,428 individuals in 254 nuclear families). Stratification according to the proximity of aluminium, pulp and paper industries was also analyzed. Two genes were associated with asthma in the entire sample before correction (CAT and NQO1) and one was associated after correction for multiple analyses (CAT). Two genes were associated when subjects were stratified according to the proximity of aluminium industries (CAT and NQO1) and one according to the proximity of pulp and paper industries (GSTP1). However, none of them resisted correction for multiple analyses. Given that the spatial pattern of environmental exposures can be complex and inadequately represented by a few stationary monitors and that exposures can also come from sources other than the standard outdoor air pollution (e.g., indoor air, occupation, residential wood smoke), a new approach and new tools are required to measure specific and individual pollutant exposures in order to estimate the real impact of gene-environment interactions on respiratory health. Full article
Open AccessArticle Content of Heavy Metals in Animal Feeds and Manures from Farms of Different Scales in Northeast China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2658-2668; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082658
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 12 July 2012 / Accepted: 19 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (117 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To determine the contents of heavy metal (Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Cd and Pb) in animal feeds and manures, 104 livestock feeds and 118 animal manure samples from farms of different herd size and located in northeast China were collected and their [...] Read more.
To determine the contents of heavy metal (Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Cd and Pb) in animal feeds and manures, 104 livestock feeds and 118 animal manure samples from farms of different herd size and located in northeast China were collected and their heavy metal concentrations were determined. The content of Cu, As and Cd ranged from 2.3–1,137.1 mg/kg dm, 0.02–13.03 mg/kg dm and non-detectable (nd)−31.65 mg/kg dm in pig feeds, 2.88–98.08 mg Cu/kg dm, 0.02–6.42 mg As/kg dm and non-detectable (nd)–8.00 mg Cd/kg dm in poultry feeds, and their content in cattle feeds was similar to that in poultry feeds. The typical content in pig manures was 642.1 mg Cu/kg dm, 8.6 mg As/kg dm, and 15.1 mg Cd/kg dm, which reflected the metal contents in feeds. The typical contents in poultry manures were 65.6 mg Cu/kg dm, 3.3 mg As/kg dm and 1.6 mg Cd/kg dm while the contents in cattle manures were 31.1 mg Cu/kg dm, 2.5 mg As/kg dm and 0.5 mg Cd/kg dm. Animal manure is an important source of heavy metals to the environment in Northeast China. Full article
Open AccessArticle Identification of the Appropriate Boundary Size to Use When Measuring the Food Retail Environment Surrounding Schools
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2715-2727; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082715
Received: 17 May 2012 / Revised: 12 June 2012 / Accepted: 24 July 2012 / Published: 31 July 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study included 6,971 students in grades 9 and 10 (ages 13 to 16 years) from 158 schools who participated in the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study. Students provided information on where they typically ate lunch. The number of food [...] Read more.
This study included 6,971 students in grades 9 and 10 (ages 13 to 16 years) from 158 schools who participated in the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study. Students provided information on where they typically ate lunch. The number of food retailers was obtained for six road network buffer sizes (500, 750, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, and 5,000 meters) surrounding schools. Associations between the presence of food retailers near schools and students’ lunchtime eating behaviours were examined using multilevel logistic regression. Comparisons of model fit statistics indicated that the 1,000 m buffer provided the best fit. At this distance, students with ≥3 food retailers near their schools had a 3.42 times greater relative odds (95% CI: 2.12–5.52) of eating their lunchtime meal at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. Students who had ≥2 food retailers within 750 m of their schools had a 2.74 times greater relative odds (95% CI: 1.75–4.29), while those who had ≥1 food retailer within 500 m of their schools had 2.27 times greater relative odds of eating at food retailer (95% CI: 1.46–3.52) compared to those with no nearby food retailers. For distances greater than 1,000 m, no consistent relationships were found. Full article
Open AccessArticle Lifestyle and Health among Spanish University Students: Differences by Gender and Academic Discipline
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2728-2741; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082728
Received: 15 June 2012 / Revised: 3 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Today the need to analyze health behaviour from a gender perspective is as imminent as ever, particularly at university, where the number of women who register is on the rise and has exceeded the number of male students worldwide. We carried out a prevalence study aimed at analyzing Spanish university students’ lifestyles and identify differences according to gender and academic discipline. Of 3,646 eligible subjects doing university courses related to health (Group A), education (Group B) and other professions (Group C), 985 (27.0%) participated in the study. Information was elicited about their physical activity level, disturbed eating attitudes, consumption of alcohol, tobacco and illegal substances. Prevalence and Odds Ratios (OR) were calculated according to sex and kind of academic discipline. The obtained data confirmed that only 27.4% of the students were considered as sufficiently active, while 14.9% of them suffered from disturbed eating attitudes (DEA). Women were particularly less active (OR 0.46 (0.32–0.66); p < 0.0001), and more sedentary than men (OR 1.40 (1.00–1.97); p = 0.03). Binge drinking was more frequent in female than in male students (OR 1.79 (1.29–2.47); p = 0.0004). A third of the analyzed sample admitted that they had used illegal substances, while a lower consumption prevalence was found in women (OR 0.53 (0.40–0.71); p < 0.0001). The studied population was not very active (27.4%), especially women (OR = 0.45). Therefore, it seems that Spanish university students lead an unhealthy lifestyle, a situation which seems more conspicuous amongst females. Full article
Open AccessArticle Relationships among Trust in Messages, Risk Perception, and Risk Reduction Preferences Based upon Avian Influenza in Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2742-2757; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082742
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 16 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Improvements in communications technology enable consumers to receive information through diverse channels. In the case of avian influenza, information repeated by the mass media socially amplifies the consumer awareness of risks. Facing indeterminate risks, consumers may feel anxious and increase their risk [...] Read more.
Improvements in communications technology enable consumers to receive information through diverse channels. In the case of avian influenza, information repeated by the mass media socially amplifies the consumer awareness of risks. Facing indeterminate risks, consumers may feel anxious and increase their risk perception. When consumers trust the information published by the media, their uncertainty toward avian influenza may decrease. Consumers might take some actions to reduce risk. Therefore, this study focuses on relationships among trust in messages, risk perception and risk reduction preferences. This study administered 525 random samples and consumer survey questionnaires in different city of Taiwan in 2007. Through statistical analysis, the results demonstrate: (1) the higher the trust consumers have in messages about avian influenza, the lower their risk perceptions are; (2) the higher the consumers’ risk perceptions are and, therefore, the higher their desired level of risk reductive, the more likely they are to accept risk reduction strategies; (3) consumer attributes such as age, education level, and marital status correlate with significant differences in risk perception and risk reduction preferences acceptance. Gender has significant differences only in risk reduction preferences and not in risk perception. Full article
Open AccessArticle Microbiological Surveillance and State of the Art Technological Strategies for the Prevention of Dialysis Water Pollution
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2758-2771; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082758
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 4 July 2012 / Accepted: 16 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (69 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Methods: The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. [...] Read more.
Methods: The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Results: Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Conclusions: Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water and Health)
Open AccessArticle Over-Expression of CYP2E1 mRNA and Protein: Implications of Xenobiotic Induced Damage in Patients with De Novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia with inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFβ-MYH11
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2788-2800; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082788
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 25 July 2012 / Accepted: 31 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Environmental exposure to benzene occurs through cigarette smoke, unleaded gasoline and certain types of plastic. Benzene is converted to hematotoxic metabolites by the hepatic phase-I enzyme CYP2E1, and these metabolites are detoxified by the phase-II enzyme NQO1. The genes encoding these enzymes are highly polymorphic and studies of these polymorphisms have shown different pathogenic and prognostic features in various hematological malignancies. The potential role of different cytochrome p450 metabolizing enzymes in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in an area of active interest. In this study, we demonstrate aberrant CYP2E1 mRNA over-expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 11 cases of de novo AML with inv(16); CBFβ-MYH11. CYP2E1 mRNA levels correlated with CBFβ-MYH11 transcript levels and with bone marrow blast counts in all cases. CYP2E1 over-expression correlated positively with NQO1 mRNA levels (R2 = 0.934, n = 7). By immunohistochemistry, CYP2E1 protein was more frequently expressed in AML with inv(16) compared with other types of AML (p < 0.001). We obtained serial bone marrow samples from two patients with AML with inv(16) before and after treatment. CYP2E1 mRNA expression levels decreased in parallel with CBFβ-MYH11 transcript levels and blast counts following chemotherapy. In contrast, CYP1A2 transcript levels did not change in either patient. This is the first study to demonstrate concurrent over-expression of CYP2E1 and NQO1 mRNA in AML with inv(16). These findings also suggest that a balance between CYP2E1 and NQO1 may be important in the pathogenesis of AML with inv(16). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leukemia Arising from Chemical Exposures and Chemotherapeutic Drugs)
Open AccessArticle Land Use Zoning at the County Level Based on a Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm: A Case Study from Yicheng, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2801-2826; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082801
Received: 25 June 2012 / Revised: 21 July 2012 / Accepted: 25 July 2012 / Published: 6 August 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Comprehensive land-use planning (CLUP) at the county level in China must include land-use zoning. This is specifically stipulated by the China Land Management Law and aims to achieve strict control on the usages of land. The land-use zoning problem is treated as [...] Read more.
Comprehensive land-use planning (CLUP) at the county level in China must include land-use zoning. This is specifically stipulated by the China Land Management Law and aims to achieve strict control on the usages of land. The land-use zoning problem is treated as a multi-objective optimization problem (MOOP) in this article, which is different from the traditional treatment. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) based model is applied to the problem and is developed to maximize the attribute differences between land-use zones, the spatial compactness, the degree of spatial harmony and the ecological benefits of the land-use zones. This is subject to some constraints such as: the quantity limitations for varying land-use zones, regulations assigning land units to a certain land-use zone, and the stipulation of a minimum parcel area in a land-use zoning map. In addition, a crossover and mutation operator from a genetic algorithm is adopted to avoid the prematurity of PSO. The results obtained for Yicheng, a county in central China, using different objective weighting schemes, are compared and suggest that: (1) the fundamental demand for attribute difference between land-use zones leads to a mass of fragmentary land-use zones; (2) the spatial pattern of land-use zones is remarkably optimized when a weight is given to the sub-objectives of spatial compactness and the degree of spatial harmony, simultaneously, with a reduction of attribute difference between land-use zones; (3) when a weight is given to the sub-objective of ecological benefits of the land-use zones, the ecological benefits get a slight increase also at the expense of a reduction in attribute difference between land-use zones; (4) the pursuit of spatial harmony or spatial compactness may have a negative effect on each other; (5) an increase in the ecological benefits may improve the spatial compactness and spatial harmony of the land-use zones; (6) adjusting the weights assigned to each sub-objective can generate a corresponding optimal solution, with a different quantity structure and spatial pattern to satisfy the preference of the different decision makers; (7) the model proposed in this paper is capable of handling the land-use zoning problem, and the crossover and mutation operator can improve the performance of the model, but, nevertheless, leads to increased time consumption. Full article
Open AccessArticle Oxidative Response and Antioxidative Mechanism in Germinating Soybean Seeds Exposed to Cadmium
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2827-2838; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082827
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 4 July 2012 / Accepted: 31 July 2012 / Published: 8 August 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (153 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Seeds of soybean (Glycine max L.) exposed to 50 mg/L (Cd50), 100 mg/L (Cd100) and 200 mg/L (Cd200) cadmium solution for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were examined with reference to Cd accumulation, oxidative stress and antioxidative responses. Soybean seeds [...] Read more.
Seeds of soybean (Glycine max L.) exposed to 50 mg/L (Cd50), 100 mg/L (Cd100) and 200 mg/L (Cd200) cadmium solution for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were examined with reference to Cd accumulation, oxidative stress and antioxidative responses. Soybean seeds accumulated Cd in an exposure time-and dosage-dependent manner. FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) concentration, GSH/hGSH content, and GST activity showed a pronounced exposure time-dependent response. Cd100 enhanced FRAP concentration in germinating soybean seeds as compared to Cd50 treatment after 24 h exposure. Cd200 however increased statistically GST activities after 72 and 96 h exposure. Under all Cd dosages, GSH/hGSH concentrations were depressed with increasing exposure time. Reduction of GSH/hGSH content and concomitant increase of GST activity suggested a possible participation of GSH into GSH-Cd conjugates synthesis. MDA content is a potential biomarker for monitoring Cd phytotoxicity because it responds significantly to treatment dosage, exposure time and dosage ´ exposure time interaction. Increase of proline content may be a response to acute heavy metal toxicity in soybean seeds. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Smoking and Genotype on the PSR Index of Periodontal Disease in Adults Aged 18–49
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2839-2850; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082839
Received: 3 July 2012 / Revised: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (125 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studies have found both genetic and environmental influences on chronic periodontitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among previously identified genetic variants, smoking status, and two periodontal disease-related phenotypes (PSR1 and PSR2) in 625 Caucasian adults (aged 18–49 [...] Read more.
Studies have found both genetic and environmental influences on chronic periodontitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among previously identified genetic variants, smoking status, and two periodontal disease-related phenotypes (PSR1 and PSR2) in 625 Caucasian adults (aged 18–49 years). The PSR Index was used to classify participants as affected or unaffected under the PSR1 and PSR2 phenotype definitions. Using logistic regression, we found that the form of the relationship varied by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP): For rs10457525 and rs12630931, the effects of smoking and genotype on risk were additive; whereas for rs10457526 and rs733048, smoking was not independently associated with affected status once genotype was taken into consideration. In contrast, smoking moderated the relationships of rs3870371 and rs733048 with affected status such that former and never smokers with select genotypes were at increased genetic risk. Thus, for several groups, knowledge of genotype may refine the risk prediction over that which can be determined by knowledge of smoking status alone. Future studies should replicate these findings. These findings provide the foundation for the exploration of novel pathways by which periodontitis may occur. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Environmental Determinants of Oral Health)
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Open AccessArticle Injury and Social Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2851-2862; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082851
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 2 August 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (62 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine estimates of the prevalence and social correlates of injury among adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Cross-sectional national data from the Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) included 9,333 students at the ages from 13 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine estimates of the prevalence and social correlates of injury among adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Cross-sectional national data from the Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) included 9,333 students at the ages from 13 to 15 years inclusive from Indonesia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand is chosen by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all students in grades 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 in each country. The percentage of adolescents reporting one or more serious injuries within the past 12 months was 42.2% for all countries, ranging from 27.0% in Myanmar to 46.8% in Thailand. By major activity, “fall” (14.6%) was the leading external cause of injury, followed by playing or training for a sport (9.9%) and vehicle accident (6.1%). In multivariate regression analysis Thailand and Indonesia, being male, substance use (smoking and drinking alcohol) and psychological distress were associated with annual injury prevalence. Risk factors of substance use and psychological distress should be considered in an integrated approach to injury etiology in planning injury prevention and safety promotion activities among school children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Injury Prevention) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Effects of Natural Disaster Trends: A Case Study for Expanding the Pre-Positioning Network of CARE International
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2863-2874; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082863
Received: 4 June 2012 / Revised: 16 July 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increasing number of natural disasters in the last decade necessitates the increase in capacity and agility while delivering humanitarian relief. A common logistics strategy used by humanitarian organizations to respond this need is the establishment of pre-positioning warehouse networks. In the [...] Read more.
The increasing number of natural disasters in the last decade necessitates the increase in capacity and agility while delivering humanitarian relief. A common logistics strategy used by humanitarian organizations to respond this need is the establishment of pre-positioning warehouse networks. In the pre-positioning strategy, critical relief inventories are located near the regions at which they will be needed in advance of the onset of the disaster. Therefore, pre-positioning reduces the response time by totally or partially eliminating the procurement phase and increasing the availability of relief items just after the disaster strikes. Once the pre-positioning warehouse locations are decided and warehouses on those locations become operational, they will be in use for a long time. Therefore, the chosen locations should be robust enough to enable extensions, and to cope with changing trends in disaster types, locations and magnitudes. In this study, we analyze the effects of natural disaster trends on the expansion plan of pre-positioning warehouse network implemented by CARE International. We utilize a facility location model to identify the additional warehouse location(s) for relief items to be stored as an extension of the current warehouse network operated by CARE International, considering changing natural disaster trends observed over the past three decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparedness and Emergency Response)
Open AccessArticle Epidemiologic Methods Lessons Learned from Environmental Public Health Disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2894-2909; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082894
Received: 18 June 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 8 August 2012 / Published: 16 August 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants may have devastating effects. While much is known about their immediate devastation, far less is known about long-term impacts of these disasters. Extensive latent and chronic long-term public health effects may occur. Careful [...] Read more.
Background: Environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants may have devastating effects. While much is known about their immediate devastation, far less is known about long-term impacts of these disasters. Extensive latent and chronic long-term public health effects may occur. Careful evaluation of contaminant exposures and long-term health outcomes within the constraints imposed by limited financial resources is essential. Methods: Here, we review epidemiologic methods lessons learned from conducting long-term evaluations of four environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants at Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville (South Carolina, USA). Findings: We found several lessons learned which have direct implications for the on-going disaster recovery work following the Fukushima radiation disaster or for future disasters. Interpretation: These lessons should prove useful in understanding and mitigating latent health effects that may result from the nuclear reactor accident in Japan or future environmental public health disasters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparedness and Emergency Response)
Open AccessArticle Intestinal Helminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Children Attending Primary Schools in Wakiso District, Central Uganda
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2910-2921; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082910
Received: 29 June 2012 / Revised: 21 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 16 August 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of primary school children was conducted in the Wakiso district in Central Uganda. A total of 432 primary school children aged 6–14 years were randomly selected from 23 [...] Read more.
A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of primary school children was conducted in the Wakiso district in Central Uganda. A total of 432 primary school children aged 6–14 years were randomly selected from 23 schools. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height, MUAC were undertaken and analyzed using AnthroPlus software. Stool samples were examined using a Kato-Katz method. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was 22.5%, 5.3% and 18.5% respectively. Males had a threefold risk of being underweight (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.17–9.4, p = 0.011) and 2 fold risk of suffering from MAM (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.21–3.48, p = 0.004). Children aged 10–14 years had a 2.9 fold risk of stunting (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.37–6.16, p = 0.002) and 1.9 risk of MAM (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.07–3.44, p = 0.019). Attending urban slum schools had 1.7 fold risk of stunting (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.03–2.75, p = 0.027). Rural schools presented a twofold risk of helminth infection (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.12–3.32, p = 0.012). The prevalence of helminth infections was (10.9%), (3.1%), (1.9%), (0.2%) for hookworm, Trichuria trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni and Ascaris lumbricoides, respectively. The study revealed that 26.6%, 46% and 10.3% of incidences of stunting, underweight and MAM respectively were attributable to helminth infections. Full article
Open AccessArticle Measuring the Pattern of High Temperature Areas in Urban Greenery of Nanjing City, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2922-2935; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082922
Received: 19 July 2012 / Revised: 6 August 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 16 August 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (977 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most studies are concerned with the cooling effect of urban greenery, but some have also revealed that some patches changed from normal temperature areas (NTAs) into high temperature areas (HTAs). Landsat TM images and ArcGIS software are used to analyze the HTA [...] Read more.
Most studies are concerned with the cooling effect of urban greenery, but some have also revealed that some patches changed from normal temperature areas (NTAs) into high temperature areas (HTAs). Landsat TM images and ArcGIS software are used to analyze the HTA patterns in Nanjing, China. The HTAs’ lower limit temperature was defined as the 30.26 °C and the percentage of the HTAs in all greenery was 24.87%. The disturbance on the cooling effect existed but not evidently. The average impervious ratio (IR) and surface temperature (ST) of HTAs, respectively, were 3.76 times and higher 2.86 °C than those of NTAs. The structure of NTAs’ IR levels was extremely uneven but the HTAs’ were relatively even. However, the co-coefficient between the IR and ST in the whole greenery was small. Sampling analysis with the same ST and IR revealed that the complex environment in green buffer affected temperature differences; The adjacent HTAs, with its 89.78% in the study area, largely along the green patch, were far more than independent HTAs and presented a ring shape. Thus, the significantly heterogeneous urban environment inevitably resulted in diverse factors forming HTAs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Radioactive Iodide (131I) Excretion Profiles in Response to Potassium Iodide (KI) and Ammonium Perchlorate (NH4ClO4) Prophylaxis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2936-2948; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082936
Received: 21 June 2012 / Revised: 12 July 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 16 August 2012
PDF Full-text (244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Radioactive iodide (131I) protection studies have focused primarily on the thyroid gland and disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. The objective of the current study was to establish 131I urinary excretion profiles for saline, and the thyroid [...] Read more.
Radioactive iodide (131I) protection studies have focused primarily on the thyroid gland and disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. The objective of the current study was to establish 131I urinary excretion profiles for saline, and the thyroid protectants, potassium iodide (KI) and ammonium perchlorate over a 75 hour time-course. Rats were administered 131I and 3 hours later dosed with either saline, 30 mg/kg of NH4ClO4 or 30 mg/kg of KI. Urinalysis of the first 36 hours of the time-course revealed that NH4ClO4 treated animals excreted significantly more 131I compared with KI and saline treatments. A second study followed the same protocol, but thyroxine (T4) was administered daily over a 3 day period. During the first 6–12 hour after 131I dosing, rats administered NH4ClO4 excreted significantly more 131I than the other treatment groups. T4 treatment resulted in increased retention of radioiodide in the thyroid gland 75 hour after 131I administration. We speculate that the T4 treatment related reduction in serum TSH caused a decrease synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in greater residual radioiodide in the thyroid gland. Our findings suggest that ammonium perchlorate treatment accelerates the elimination rate of radioiodide within the first 24 to 36 hours and thus may be more effective at reducing harmful exposure to 131I compared to KI treatment for repeated dosing situations. Repeated dosing studies are needed to compare the effectiveness of these treatments to reduce the radioactive iodide burden of the thyroid gland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation and Cancer Risk)
Open AccessArticle Use of After Action Reports (AARs) to Promote Organizational and Systems Learning in Emergency Preparedness
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2949-2963; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082949
Received: 18 May 2012 / Revised: 3 July 2012 / Accepted: 8 August 2012 / Published: 16 August 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (98 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many public health and healthcare organizations use formal knowledge management practices to identify and disseminate the experiences gained over time. The “lessons-learned” approach is one such example of knowledge management practice applied to the wider concept of organizational learning. In the field [...] Read more.
Many public health and healthcare organizations use formal knowledge management practices to identify and disseminate the experiences gained over time. The “lessons-learned” approach is one such example of knowledge management practice applied to the wider concept of organizational learning. In the field of emergency preparedness, the lessons-learned approach stands on the assumption that learning from experience improves practice and minimizes avoidable deaths and negative economic and social consequences of disasters. In this project, we performed a structured review of AARs to analyze how lessons learned from the response to real-incidents may be used to maximize knowledge management and quality improvement practices such as the design of public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) exercises. We chose as a source of data the “Lessons Learned Information Sharing (LLIS.gov)” system, a joined program of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security DHS and FEMA that serves as the national, online repository of lessons learned, best practices, and innovative ideas. We identified recurring challenges reported by various states and local public health agencies in the response to different types of incidents. We also strived to identify the limitations of systematic learning that can be achieved due to existing weaknesses in the way AARs are developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparedness and Emergency Response)
Open AccessArticle Children’s Exposures to Pyrethroid Insecticides at Home: A Review of Data Collected in Published Exposure Measurement Studies Conducted in the United States
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2964-2985; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082964
Received: 15 June 2012 / Revised: 21 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pyrethroid insecticides are frequently used to control insects in residential and agriculture settings in the United States and worldwide. As a result, children can be potentially exposed to pyrethroid residues in food and at home. This review summarizes data reported in 15 [...] Read more.
Pyrethroid insecticides are frequently used to control insects in residential and agriculture settings in the United States and worldwide. As a result, children can be potentially exposed to pyrethroid residues in food and at home. This review summarizes data reported in 15 published articles from observational exposure measurement studies conducted from 1999 to present that examined children’s (5 months to 17 years of age) exposures to pyrethroids in media including floor wipes, floor dust, food, air, and/or urine collected at homes in the United States. At least seven different pyrethroids were detected in wipe, dust, solid food, and indoor air samples. Permethrin was the most frequently detected (>50%) pyrethroid in these media, followed by cypermethrin (wipes, dust, and food). 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a urinary metabolite of several pyrethroids, was the most frequently (≥67%) detected pyrethroid biomarker. Results across studies indicate that these children were likely exposed to several pyrethroids, but primarily to permethrin and cypermethrin, from several sources including food, dust, and/or on surfaces at residences. Dietary ingestion followed by nondietary ingestion were the dominate exposure routes for these children, except in homes with frequent pesticide applications (dermal followed by dietary ingestion). Urinary 3-PBA concentration data confirm that the majority of the children sampled were exposed to one or more pyrethroids. Full article
Open AccessArticle Simulation of Regionally Ecological Land Based on a Cellular Automation Model: A Case Study of Beijing, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2986-3001; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082986
Received: 12 July 2012 / Revised: 21 July 2012 / Accepted: 8 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (506 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ecological land is like the “liver” of a city and is very useful to public health. Ecological land change is a spatially dynamic non-linear process under the interaction between natural and anthropogenic factors at different scales. In this study, by setting up [...] Read more.
Ecological land is like the “liver” of a city and is very useful to public health. Ecological land change is a spatially dynamic non-linear process under the interaction between natural and anthropogenic factors at different scales. In this study, by setting up natural development scenario, object orientation scenario and ecosystem priority scenario, a Cellular Automation (CA) model has been established to simulate the evolution pattern of ecological land in Beijing in the year 2020. Under the natural development scenario, most of ecological land will be replaced by construction land and crop land. But under the scenarios of object orientation and ecosystem priority, the ecological land area will increase, especially under the scenario of ecosystem priority. When considering the factors such as total area of ecological land, loss of key ecological land and spatial patterns of land use, the scenarios from priority to inferiority are ecosystem priority, object orientation and natural development, so future land management policies in Beijing should be focused on conversion of cropland to forest, wetland protection and prohibition of exploitation of natural protection zones, water source areas and forest parks to maintain the safety of the regional ecosystem. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dog Bite Risk: An Assessment of Child Temperament and Child-Dog Interactions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 3002-3013; doi:10.3390/ijerph9083002
Received: 18 June 2012 / Revised: 16 July 2012 / Accepted: 15 August 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Annually approximately 400,000 American children receive treatment for dog bites. Young children are at greatest risk and are frequently bitten following behavior that provokes familiar dogs. This study investigated the effects of child temperament on children’s interaction with dogs. Eighty-eight children aged [...] Read more.
Annually approximately 400,000 American children receive treatment for dog bites. Young children are at greatest risk and are frequently bitten following behavior that provokes familiar dogs. This study investigated the effects of child temperament on children’s interaction with dogs. Eighty-eight children aged 3.5–6 years interacted with a live dog. Dog and child behaviors were assessed through observational coding. Four child temperament constructs—impulsivity, inhibitory control, approach and shyness—were assessed via the parent-report Children’s Behavioral Questionnaire. Less shy children took greater risks with the dog, even after controlling for child and dog characteristics. No other temperament traits were associated with risk-taking with the dog. Based on these results, children’s behavior with unfamiliar dogs may parallel behavior with other novel or uncertain situations. Implications for dog bite intervention programs include targeting at-risk children and merging child- and parent-oriented interventions with existing programs geared toward the physical environment and the dog. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Injury Prevention) Print Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview DNA Damage and Repair in Human Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms and Contribution to Therapy-Related Leukemias
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2636-2657; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082636
Received: 23 May 2012 / Revised: 12 June 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most antitumour therapies damage tumour cell DNA either directly or indirectly. Without repair, damage can result in genetic instability and eventually cancer. The strong association between the lack of DNA damage repair, mutations and cancer is dramatically demonstrated by a number of [...] Read more.
Most antitumour therapies damage tumour cell DNA either directly or indirectly. Without repair, damage can result in genetic instability and eventually cancer. The strong association between the lack of DNA damage repair, mutations and cancer is dramatically demonstrated by a number of cancer-prone human syndromes, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia and Fanconi anemia. Notably, DNA damage responses, and particularly DNA repair, influence the outcome of therapy. Because DNA repair normally excises lethal DNA lesions, it is intuitive that efficient repair will contribute to intrinsic drug resistance. Unexpectedly, a paradoxical relationship between DNA mismatch repair and drug sensitivity has been revealed by model studies in cell lines. This suggests that connections between DNA repair mechanism efficiency and tumour therapy might be more complex. Here, we review the evidence for the contribution of carcinogenic properties of several drugs as well as of alterations in specific mechanisms involved in drug-induced DNA damage response and repair in the pathogenesis of therapy-related cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leukemia Arising from Chemical Exposures and Chemotherapeutic Drugs)
Open AccessReview Microbial Monitoring of Surface Water in South Africa: An Overview
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2669-2693; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082669
Received: 20 April 2012 / Revised: 6 July 2012 / Accepted: 12 July 2012 / Published: 30 July 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Infrastructural problems force South African households to supplement their drinking water consumption from water resources of inadequate microbial quality. Microbial water quality monitoring is currently based on the Colilert®18 system which leads to rapidly available results. Using Escherichia coli as [...] Read more.
Infrastructural problems force South African households to supplement their drinking water consumption from water resources of inadequate microbial quality. Microbial water quality monitoring is currently based on the Colilert®18 system which leads to rapidly available results. Using Escherichia coli as the indicator microorganism limits the influence of environmental sources on the reported results. The current system allows for understanding of long-term trends of microbial surface water quality and the related public health risks. However, rates of false positive for the Colilert®18-derived concentrations have been reported to range from 7.4% to 36.4%. At the same time, rates of false negative results vary from 3.5% to 12.5%; and the Colilert medium has been reported to provide for cultivation of only 56.8% of relevant strains. Identification of unknown sources of faecal contamination is not currently feasible. Based on literature review, calibration of the antibiotic-resistance spectra of Escherichia coli or the bifidobacterial tracking ratio should be investigated locally for potential implementation into the existing monitoring system. The current system could be too costly to implement in certain areas of South Africa where the modified H2S strip test might be used as a surrogate for the Colilert®18. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water and Health)
Open AccessReview Non-Genomic Effects of Xenoestrogen Mixtures
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2694-2714; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082694
Received: 6 June 2012 / Revised: 9 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 31 July 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Xenoestrogens (XEs) are chemicals derived from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources that can interfere with endogenous estrogens by either mimicking or blocking their responses via non-genomic and/or genomic signaling mechanisms. Disruption of estrogens’ actions through the less-studied non-genomic pathway can [...] Read more.
Xenoestrogens (XEs) are chemicals derived from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources that can interfere with endogenous estrogens by either mimicking or blocking their responses via non-genomic and/or genomic signaling mechanisms. Disruption of estrogens’ actions through the less-studied non-genomic pathway can alter such functional end points as cell proliferation, peptide hormone release, catecholamine transport, and apoptosis, among others. Studies of potentially adverse effects due to mixtures and to low doses of endocrine-disrupting chemicals have recently become more feasible, though few so far have included actions via the non-genomic pathway. Physiologic estrogens and XEs evoke non-monotonic dose responses, with different compounds having different patterns of actions dependent on concentration and time, making mixture assessments all the more challenging. In order to understand the spectrum of toxicities and their mechanisms, future work should focus on carefully studying individual and mixture components across a range of concentrations and cellular pathways in a variety of tissue types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Water and Sanitation in Schools: A Systematic Review of the Health and Educational Outcomes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2772-2787; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082772
Received: 4 May 2012 / Revised: 14 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (143 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A systematic review of the literature on the effects of water and sanitation in schools was performed. The goal was to characterize the impacts of water and sanitation inadequacies in the academic environment. Published peer reviewed literature was screened and articles that [...] Read more.
A systematic review of the literature on the effects of water and sanitation in schools was performed. The goal was to characterize the impacts of water and sanitation inadequacies in the academic environment. Published peer reviewed literature was screened and articles that documented the provision of water and sanitation at schools were considered. Forty-one peer-reviewed papers met the criteria of exploring the effects of the availability of water and/or sanitation facilities in educational establishments. Chosen studies were divided into six fields based on their specific foci: water for drinking, water for handwashing, water for drinking and handwashing, water for sanitation, sanitation for menstruation and combined water and sanitation. The studies provide evidence for an increase in water intake with increased provision of water and increased access to water facilities. Articles also report an increase in absenteeism from schools in developing countries during menses due to inadequate sanitation facilities. Lastly, there is a reported decrease in diarrheal and gastrointestinal diseases with increased access to adequate sanitation facilities in schools. Ensuring ready access to safe drinking water, and hygienic toilets that offer privacy to users has great potential to beneficially impact children’s health. Additional studies that examine the relationship between sanitation provisions in schools are needed to more adequately characterize the impact of water and sanitation on educational achievements. Full article
Open AccessReview Leukemia and Benzene
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2875-2893; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082875
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 5 July 2012 / Accepted: 7 August 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Excessive exposure to benzene has been known for more than a century to damage the bone marrow resulting in decreases in the numbers of circulating blood cells, and ultimately, aplastic anemia. Of more recent vintage has been the appreciation that an alternative [...] Read more.
Excessive exposure to benzene has been known for more than a century to damage the bone marrow resulting in decreases in the numbers of circulating blood cells, and ultimately, aplastic anemia. Of more recent vintage has been the appreciation that an alternative outcome of benzene exposure has been the development of one or more types of leukemia. While many investigators agree that the array of toxic metabolites, generated in the liver or in the bone marrow, can lead to traumatic bone marrow injury, the more subtle mechanisms leading to leukemia have yet to be critically dissected. This problem appears to have more general interest because of the recognition that so-called “second cancer” that results from prior treatment with alkylating agents to yield tumor remissions, often results in a type of leukemia reminiscent of benzene-induced leukemia. Furthermore, there is a growing literature attempting to characterize the fine structure of the marrow and the identification of so called “niches” that house a variety of stem cells and other types of cells. Some of these “niches” may harbor cells capable of initiating leukemias. The control of stem cell differentiation and proliferation via both inter- and intra-cellular signaling will ultimately determine the fate of these transformed stem cells. The ability of these cells to avoid checkpoints that would prevent them from contributing to the leukemogenic response is an additional area for study. Much of the study of benzene-induced bone marrow damage has concentrated on determining which of the benzene metabolites lead to leukemogenesis. The emphasis now should be directed to understanding how benzene metabolites alter bone marrow cell biology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leukemia Arising from Chemical Exposures and Chemotherapeutic Drugs)

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