Next Article in Journal
Design and Experiment of Nonlinear Observer with Adaptive Gains for Battery State of Charge Estimation
Previous Article in Journal
New Performance Indices for Voltage Stability Analysis in a Power System
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Energies 2017, 10(12), 2044; doi:10.3390/en10122044

Characterisation of Ground Thermal and Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour for Shallow Geothermal Energy Applications

1
Geotechnics Department-National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, 1700-066 Lisbon, Portugal
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg 9000, Denmark
3
Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Cyprus University of Technology, 3036 Limassol, Cyprus
4
Building Services Engineering, Lund University, Lund 22100, Sweden
5
School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
6
Urban and Environmental Engineering, University of Liege, 4000 Liege, Belgium
7
Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 Trento, Italy
8
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Constantin Daicoviciu Street, No.15, Cluj-Napoca 400020, Romania
9
Belgian Building Research Institute, 1342 Limelette, Belgium
10
Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, 2610 Amadora, Portugal
11
University of Perugia, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 06125 Perugia, Italy
12
Department of Mechanics, Technical University of Sofia, Plovdiv Branch, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
13
Université de Lorraine, LEMTA, CNRS, UMR 7563, F-54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France
14
EKIT Department of Plovdiv University “Paisii Hilendarski”, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
15
Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
16
Centre of Applied Research and Development-Building, Energy and Environment, VIA University College, 8700 Horsens, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 3 December 2017

Abstract

Increasing use of the ground as a thermal reservoir is expected in the near future. Shallow geothermal energy (SGE) systems have proved to be sustainable alternative solutions for buildings and infrastructure conditioning in many areas across the globe in the past decades. Recently novel solutions, including energy geostructures, where SGE systems are coupled with foundation heat exchangers, have also been developed. The performance of these systems is dependent on a series of factors, among which the thermal properties of the soil play a major role. The purpose of this paper is to present, in an integrated manner, the main methods and procedures to assess ground thermal properties for SGE systems and to carry out a critical review of the methods. In particular, laboratory testing through either steady-state or transient methods are discussed and a new synthesis comparing results for different techniques is presented. In situ testing including all variations of the thermal response test is presented in detail, including a first comparison between new and traditional approaches. The issue of different scales between laboratory and in situ measurements is then analysed in detail. Finally, the thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of soil is introduced and discussed. These coupled processes are important for confirming the structural integrity of energy geostructures, but routine methods for parameter determination are still lacking. View Full-Text
Keywords: shallow geothermal systems; soil thermal behaviour; laboratory testing; in situ testing; thermo-mechanical behaviour shallow geothermal systems; soil thermal behaviour; laboratory testing; in situ testing; thermo-mechanical behaviour
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Vieira, A.; Maranha, J.; Christodoulides, P.; Alberdi-Pagola, M.; Loveridge, F.; Nguyen, F.; Florides, G.; Radioti, G.; Cecinato, F.; Prodan, I.; Ramalho, E.; Georgiev, A.; Rosin-Paumier, S.; Lenart, S.; Erbs Poulsen, S.; Popov, R.; Lenart, S.; Erbs Poulsen, S.; Radioti, G.; Javed, S.; Van Lysebetten, G.; Salciarini, D. Characterisation of Ground Thermal and Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour for Shallow Geothermal Energy Applications. Energies 2017, 10, 2044.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top