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Materials 2009, 2(3), 1341-1387; doi:10.3390/ma2031341

Increased Biocompatibility and Bioactivity after Energetic PVD Surface Treatments

Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
Received: 29 June 2009 / Revised: 31 August 2009 / Accepted: 18 September 2009 / Published: 21 September 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials)


Ion implantation, a common technology in semiconductor processing, has been applied to biomaterials since the 1960s. Using energetic ion bombardment, a general term which includes conventional ion implantation plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) and ion beam assisted thin film deposition, functionalization of surfaces is possible. By varying and adjusting the process parameters, several surface properties can be attuned simultaneously. Extensive research details improvements in the biocompatibility, mainly by reducing corrosion rates and increasing wear resistance after surface modification. Recently, enhanced bioactivity strongly correlated with the surface topography and less with the surface chemistry has been reported, with an increased roughness on the nanometer scale induced by self-organisation processes during ion bombardment leading to faster cellular adhesion processes.
Keywords: ion implantation; surface topography; biocompatibility; wear; corrosion ion implantation; surface topography; biocompatibility; wear; corrosion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Mändl, S. Increased Biocompatibility and Bioactivity after Energetic PVD Surface Treatments. Materials 2009, 2, 1341-1387.

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