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Materials 2012, 5(5), 937-965; doi:10.3390/ma5050937
Review

In-Line Phase-Contrast X-ray Imaging and Tomography for Materials Science

* ,
 and
CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Private Bag 33, Clayton, VIC 3169, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 April 2012 / Revised: 11 May 2012 / Accepted: 16 May 2012 / Published: 24 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue X-ray Imaging in Materials Science)
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Abstract

X-ray phase-contrast imaging and tomography make use of the refraction of X-rays by the sample in image formation. This provides considerable additional information in the image compared to conventional X-ray imaging methods, which rely solely on X-ray absorption by the sample. Phase-contrast imaging highlights edges and internal boundaries of a sample and is thus complementary to absorption contrast, which is more sensitive to the bulk of the sample. Phase-contrast can also be used to image low-density materials, which do not absorb X-rays sufficiently to form a conventional X-ray image. In the context of materials science, X-ray phase-contrast imaging and tomography have particular value in the 2D and 3D characterization of low-density materials, the detection of cracks and voids and the analysis of composites and multiphase materials where the different components have similar X-ray attenuation coefficients. Here we review the use of phase-contrast imaging and tomography for a wide variety of materials science characterization problems using both synchrotron and laboratory sources and further demonstrate the particular benefits of phase contrast in the laboratory setting with a series of case studies.
Keywords: phase-contrast; micro-tomography; X-ray imaging; radiography; X-ray microscopy phase-contrast; micro-tomography; X-ray imaging; radiography; X-ray microscopy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Mayo, S.C.; Stevenson, A.W.; Wilkins, S.W. In-Line Phase-Contrast X-ray Imaging and Tomography for Materials Science. Materials 2012, 5, 937-965.

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