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Materials, Volume 7, Issue 8 (August 2014), Pages 5427-6104

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Open AccessArticle Influence of Zeolite Coating on the Corrosion Resistance of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy
Materials 2014, 7(8), 6092-6104; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7086092
Received: 27 June 2014 / Revised: 30 July 2014 / Accepted: 13 August 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1126 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The protective performance of zeolite coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution (NaCl). Electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) was developed based upon hypothetical corrosion mechanisms and simulated to correspond to
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The protective performance of zeolite coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution (NaCl). Electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) was developed based upon hypothetical corrosion mechanisms and simulated to correspond to the experimental data. The morphology and the chemical nature of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Post corrosion morphologies of the zeolite coated and the uncoated AZ91D alloy were investigated using SEM. The corrosion resistance of the zeolite coated specimen was at least one order of magnitude higher than the uncoated specimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Epoxy Resin Composite Based on Functional Hybrid Fillers
Materials 2014, 7(8), 6064-6091; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7086064
Received: 23 May 2014 / Revised: 29 July 2014 / Accepted: 13 August 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1635 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A study was carried out involving the filling of epoxy resin (EP) with bentonites and silica modified with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). The method of homogenization and the type of filler affect the functional and canceling properties of the composites was determined. The
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A study was carried out involving the filling of epoxy resin (EP) with bentonites and silica modified with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). The method of homogenization and the type of filler affect the functional and canceling properties of the composites was determined. The filler content ranged from 1.5% to 4.5% by mass. The basic mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were found to improve, and, in particular, there was an increase in tensile strength by 44%, and in Charpy impact strength by 93%. The developed hybrid composites had characteristics typical of polymer nanocomposites modified by clays, with a fine plate morphology of brittle fractures observed by SEM, absence of a plate separation peak in Wide Angles X-ray Scattering (WAXS) curves, and an exfoliated structure observed by TEM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Modified Powder-in-Tube Technique Based on the Consolidation Processing of Powder Materials for Fabricating Specialty Optical Fibers
Materials 2014, 7(8), 6045-6063; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7086045
Received: 1 July 2014 / Revised: 22 July 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the interest of a consolidation process associated with the powder-in-tube technique in order to fabricate a long length of specialty optical fibers. This so-called Modified Powder-in-Tube (MPIT) process is very flexible and paves the way
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The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the interest of a consolidation process associated with the powder-in-tube technique in order to fabricate a long length of specialty optical fibers. This so-called Modified Powder-in-Tube (MPIT) process is very flexible and paves the way to multimaterial optical fiber fabrications with different core and cladding glassy materials. Another feature of this technique lies in the sintering of the preform under reducing or oxidizing atmosphere. The fabrication of such optical fibers implies different constraints that we have to deal with, namely chemical species diffusion or mechanical stress due to the mismatches between thermal expansion coefficients and working temperatures of the fiber materials. This paper focuses on preliminary results obtained with a lanthano-aluminosilicate glass used as the core material for the fabrication of all-glass fibers or specialty Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs). To complete the panel of original microstructures now available by the MPIT technique, we also present several optical fibers in which metallic particles or microwires are included into a silica-based matrix. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Magnetic Graphene Oxide Composite Absorbent for Removing Trace Residues of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Water
Materials 2014, 7(8), 6028-6044; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7086028
Received: 8 May 2014 / Revised: 29 May 2014 / Accepted: 8 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1088 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to develop a facile method for the fabrication of a stable and reusable magnetic graphene composite absorbent to remove trace levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water treatment. The poly cationic Fe3O4@PDDA (poly(diallyldimethyl
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The purpose of the study was to develop a facile method for the fabrication of a stable and reusable magnetic graphene composite absorbent to remove trace levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water treatment. The poly cationic Fe3O4@PDDA (poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA)) core-shell structured nanoparticles were first synthesized, and then, DNA was laid on the surface of graphene oxide (GOx) to prepare the polyanionic GOx@DNA composite. The above materials were then mixed together and adhered together through sol-gel technology. Thus, the Fe3O4@PDDA/GOx@DNA composite absorbent was prepared. Its performance was tested by disperse solid phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) for removing six kinds of indicative polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) in water samples. The removal percentages of several real samples for six kinds of BDEs (BDE17, BDE28, BDE 71, BDE 47, BDE 66, BDE 100) at the ng/mL order of magnitude were in the range of 88.2%–99.1%. The removal percentage still reached 80.0% when the adsorbent was reused at least 20 times. The results suggested that the magnetic absorbent can obviously remove trace levels of BDEs from large volumes of aqueous solutions in environmental pollution cleanup with high removal efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Life Cycle Assessment of Completely Recyclable Concrete
Materials 2014, 7(8), 6010-6027; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7086010
Received: 15 June 2014 / Revised: 13 August 2014 / Accepted: 15 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (2203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the construction sector uses 50% of the Earth’s raw materials and produces 50% of its waste, the development of more durable and sustainable building materials is crucial. Today, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) is mainly used in low level applications, namely as
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Since the construction sector uses 50% of the Earth’s raw materials and produces 50% of its waste, the development of more durable and sustainable building materials is crucial. Today, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) is mainly used in low level applications, namely as unbound material for foundations, e.g., in road construction. Mineral demolition waste can be recycled as crushed aggregates for concrete, but these reduce the compressive strength and affect the workability due to higher values of water absorption. To advance the use of concrete rubble, Completely Recyclable Concrete (CRC) is designed for reincarnation within the cement production, following the Cradle-to-Cradle (C2C) principle. By the design, CRC becomes a resource for cement production because the chemical composition of CRC will be similar to that of cement raw materials. If CRC is used on a regular basis, a closed concrete-cement-concrete material cycle will arise, which is completely different from the current life cycle of traditional concrete. Within the research towards this CRC it is important to quantify the benefit for the environment and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) needs to be performed, of which the results are presented in a this paper. It was observed that CRC could significantly reduce the global warming potential of concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials)
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Open AccessArticle High Pressure Pneumatic Forming of Ti-3Al-2.5V Titanium Tubes in a Square Cross-Sectional Die
Materials 2014, 7(8), 5992-6009; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7085992
Received: 16 May 2014 / Revised: 31 July 2014 / Accepted: 31 July 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2112 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new high strain rate forming process for titanium alloys is presented and named High Pressure Pneumatic Forming (HPPF), which might be applicable to form certain tubular components with irregular cross sections with high efficiency, both with respect to energy cost and time
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A new high strain rate forming process for titanium alloys is presented and named High Pressure Pneumatic Forming (HPPF), which might be applicable to form certain tubular components with irregular cross sections with high efficiency, both with respect to energy cost and time consumption. HPPF experiments were performed on Ti-3Al-2.5V titanium alloy tubes using a square cross-sectional die with a small corner radius. The effects of forming of pressure and temperature on the corner filling were investigated and the thickness distributions after the HPPF processes at various pressure levels are discussed. At the same time, the stress state, strain and strain rate distribution during the HPPF process were numerically analyzed by the finite element method. Microstructure evolution of the formed tubes was also analyzed by using electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD). Because of different stress states, the strain and strain rate are very different at different areas of the tube during the corner filling process, and consequently the microstructure of the formed component is affected to some degree. The results verified that HPPF is a potential technology to form titanium tubular components with complicated geometrical features with high efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Recycling of Coal Fly Ash for the Fabrication of Porous Mullite/Alumina Composites
Materials 2014, 7(8), 5982-5991; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7085982
Received: 13 June 2014 / Revised: 11 August 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 19 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coal fly ash with the addition of Al2O3 was recycled to produce mullite/alumina composites and the camphene-based freeze casting technique was processed to develop a controlled porous structure with improved mechanical strength. Many rod-shaped mullite crystals, formed by the mullitization
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Coal fly ash with the addition of Al2O3 was recycled to produce mullite/alumina composites and the camphene-based freeze casting technique was processed to develop a controlled porous structure with improved mechanical strength. Many rod-shaped mullite crystals, formed by the mullitization of coal fly ash in the presence of enough silicate, melt. After sintering at 1300–1500 °C with the initial solid loadings of 30–50 wt.%, interconnected macro-sized pore channels with nearly circular-shaped cross-sections developed along the macroscopic solidification direction of camphene solvent used in freeze casting and a few micron-sized pores formed in the walls of the pore channels. The macro-pore size of the mullite/alumina composites was in the range 20–25 μm, 18–20 μm and 15–17 μm with reverse dependence on the sintering temperature at 30, 40 and 50 wt.% solid loading, respectively. By increasing initial solid loading and the sintering temperature, the sintered porosity was reduced from 79.8% to 31.2%, resulting in an increase in the compressive strength from 8.2 to 80.4 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Material and Structural Performance Evaluations of Hwangtoh Admixtures and Recycled PET Fiber-Added Eco-Friendly Concrete for CO2 Emission Reduction
Materials 2014, 7(8), 5959-5981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7085959
Received: 22 April 2014 / Revised: 13 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 19 August 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and produce an eco-friendly construction material, a type of concrete that uses a minimal amount of cement, yet still retains equivalent properties to ordinary cement concrete, has been developed and studied all over
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In order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and produce an eco-friendly construction material, a type of concrete that uses a minimal amount of cement, yet still retains equivalent properties to ordinary cement concrete, has been developed and studied all over the world. Hwangtoh, a type of red clay broadly deposited around the world, has traditionally been considered an eco-friendly construction material, with bonus advantages of having health and cost benefits. Presently, Hwangtoh is not commonly used as a modern construction material due to properties such as low strength and high rates of shrinkage cracking. Recent studies, however, have shown that Hwangtoh can be used as a mineral admixture to improve the strength of concrete. In addition, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers recycled from PET bottle waste can be used to control shrinkage cracks in Hwangtoh concrete. Therefore, in this study, performance verification is conducted on newly developed Hwangtoh concrete mixed with short recycled PET fibers. The results show that Hwangtoh concrete has compressive strength, elastic modulus, and pH properties that are similar to these features in ordinary cement concrete. The properties of carbonation depth and creep strain of Hwangtoh concrete, however, are larger and smaller, respectively, than in ordinary cement concrete. According to flexural tests, reinforced concrete (RC) specimens cast with Hwangtoh admixtures (with and without PET fibers) possess similar or better capacities than ordinary RC specimens. The addition of PET fibers significantly improves the structural ductility of RC specimens under normal environmental conditions. However, the implementations of the concrete in aggressive environment must be carefully considered, since a previous study result indicates degradation of its durability performance in aggressive environments, such as seawater [1]. The results of this study validate the possibility of using eco-friendly Hwangtoh concrete reinforced with recycled PET fibers as a structural material for modern construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study on the Seismic Performance of Recycled Concrete Brick Walls Embedded with Vertical Reinforcement
Materials 2014, 7(8), 5934-5958; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7085934
Received: 11 June 2014 / Revised: 6 August 2014 / Accepted: 6 August 2014 / Published: 19 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2958 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recycled concrete brick (RCB) is manufactured by recycled aggregate processed from discarded concrete blocks arising from the demolishing of existing buildings. This paper presents research on the seismic performance of RCB masonry walls to assess the applicability of RCB for use in rural
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Recycled concrete brick (RCB) is manufactured by recycled aggregate processed from discarded concrete blocks arising from the demolishing of existing buildings. This paper presents research on the seismic performance of RCB masonry walls to assess the applicability of RCB for use in rural low-rise constructions. The seismic performance of a masonry wall is closely related to the vertical load applied to the wall. Thus, the compressive performance of RCB masonry was investigated firstly by constructing and testing eighteen RCB masonry compressive specimens with different mortar strengths. The load-bearing capacity, deformation and failure characteristic were analyzed, as well. Then, a quasi-static test was carried out to study the seismic behavior of RCB walls by eight RCB masonry walls subjected to an axial compressive load and a reversed cyclic lateral load. Based on the test results, equations for predicting the compressive strength of RCB masonry and the lateral ultimate strength of an RCB masonry wall were proposed. Experimental values were found to be in good agreement with the predicted values. Meanwhile, finite element analysis (FEA) and parametric analysis of the RCB walls were carried out using ABAQUS software. The elastic-plastic deformation characteristics and the lateral load-displacement relations were studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Structural and Mechanical Characterization of Sustainable Composites Based on Recycled and Stabilized Fly Ash
Materials 2014, 7(8), 5920-5933; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7085920
Received: 13 June 2014 / Revised: 3 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 August 2014 / Published: 18 August 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (746 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports the results on the use of an innovative inert, based on stabilized fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration as a filler for polypropylene. The starting material, which contains large quantities of leachable Pb and Zn, was stabilized by means
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This paper reports the results on the use of an innovative inert, based on stabilized fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration as a filler for polypropylene. The starting material, which contains large quantities of leachable Pb and Zn, was stabilized by means of an innovative process using rice husk ash as a waste silica source, together with other fly ashes, such as coal fly ash and flue gas desulfurization residues. The use of all waste materials to obtain a new filler makes the proposed technology extremely sustainable and competitive. The new composites, obtained by using the stabilized material as a filler for polypropylene, were characterized and their mechanical properties were also investigated. A comparison with a traditional polypropylene and calcium carbonate based compound was also done. This research activity was realized in the frame of the COSMOS-RICE project, financed by the EU Commission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Use of Deconstructed Tires as Elastic Elements in Railway Tracks
Materials 2014, 7(8), 5903-5919; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7085903
Received: 13 June 2014 / Revised: 29 July 2014 / Accepted: 31 July 2014 / Published: 18 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Elastic elements such as rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats are railway components that allow for a reduction in track deterioration and vibrations. And they are furthermore commonly used to obtain an optimal vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. However, the
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Elastic elements such as rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats are railway components that allow for a reduction in track deterioration and vibrations. And they are furthermore commonly used to obtain an optimal vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. However, the use of elastomeric materials can increase construction costs and the consumption of raw materials. Thus, the utilization of used tire layers offers an alternative to reuse an abundant waste reducing the cost of elastic elements. In addition, an innovator technique allows deconstructing tire layers without grinding up the material, reducing production costs at the same time that tire properties are remained. This research is focused on the study of the viability of developing elastic components from used tire layers by evaluating the influence of thickness, the resistance capacity of the elements and their behavior in a ballast box. Results indicate the ability of tire pads to manufacture elastic elements (rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats) to be used in railway tracks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials)
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Open AccessReview Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector
Materials 2014, 7(8), 5883-5902; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7085883
Received: 13 June 2014 / Revised: 5 August 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 15 August 2014
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is
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Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Mucin and Bicarbonate Ion on Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy for Airway Stents
Materials 2014, 7(8), 5866-5882; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7085866
Received: 14 June 2014 / Revised: 17 July 2014 / Accepted: 7 August 2014 / Published: 15 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The biodegradable ability of magnesium alloys is an attractive feature for tracheal stents since they can be absorbed by the body through gradual degradation after healing of the airway structure, which can reduce the risk of inflammation caused by long-term implantation and prevent
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The biodegradable ability of magnesium alloys is an attractive feature for tracheal stents since they can be absorbed by the body through gradual degradation after healing of the airway structure, which can reduce the risk of inflammation caused by long-term implantation and prevent the repetitive surgery for removal of existing stent. In this study, the effects of bicarbonate ion (HCO3) and mucin in Gamble’s solution on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated, using immersion and electrochemical tests to systematically identify the biodegradation kinetics of magnesium alloy under in vitro environment, mimicking the epithelial mucus surfaces in a trachea for development of biodegradable airway stents. Analysis of corrosion products after immersion test was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to identify the effects of bicarbonate ions and mucin on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloys with the temporal change of corrosion resistance. The results show that the increase of the bicarbonate ions in Gamble’s solution accelerates the dissolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy, while the addition of mucin retards the corrosion. The experimental data in this work is intended to be used as foundational knowledge to predict the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy in the airway environment while providing degradation information for future in vivo studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
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Open AccessCommunication One-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Synthesized with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Templates
Materials 2014, 7(8), 5858-5865; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7085858
Received: 25 May 2014 / Revised: 30 June 2014 / Accepted: 8 August 2014 / Published: 13 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1092 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study reports on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) as templates for the preparation of 1D porous organic-inorganic hybrid composites. The in situ deposited SWCNT were sputter coated with Sn metal and thermally oxidized in air to form a SnO2/SWCNT nanowire framework
[...] Read more.
This study reports on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) as templates for the preparation of 1D porous organic-inorganic hybrid composites. The in situ deposited SWCNT were sputter coated with Sn metal and thermally oxidized in air to form a SnO2/SWCNT nanowire framework on SiO2/Si substrate. Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was coated onto this scaffold through UV light-induced radical polymerization, which resulted in the final formation of hybrid composites. The structures of hybrid composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that PAA was successfully coated and the structural advantage of nanowire was fairly maintained, which indicates that this framework is very stable for organic functionalization in solution. The simplicity of this method for the formation of porous organic-inorganic hybrid composites provides a potential application for nanoelectronic devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Quality Assessment of Mixed and Ceramic Recycled Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Wastes in the Concrete Manufacture According to the Spanish Standard
Materials 2014, 7(8), 5843-5857; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7085843
Received: 18 June 2014 / Revised: 19 July 2014 / Accepted: 7 August 2014 / Published: 13 August 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (786 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Construction and demolition waste (CDW) constitutes an increasingly significant problem in society due to the volume generated, rendering sustainable management and disposal problematic. The aim of this study is to identify a possible reuse option in the concrete manufacturing for recycled aggregates with
[...] Read more.
Construction and demolition waste (CDW) constitutes an increasingly significant problem in society due to the volume generated, rendering sustainable management and disposal problematic. The aim of this study is to identify a possible reuse option in the concrete manufacturing for recycled aggregates with a significant ceramic content: mixed recycled aggregates (MixRA) and ceramic recycled aggregates (CerRA). In order to do so, several tests are conducted in accordance with the Spanish Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08) to determine the composition in weight and physic-mechanical characteristics (particle size distributions, fine content, sand equivalent, density, water absorption, flakiness index, and resistance to fragmentation) of the samples for the partial inclusion of the recycled aggregates in concrete mixes. The results of these tests clearly support the hypothesis that this type of material may be suitable for such partial replacements if simple pretreatment is carried out. Furthermore, this measure of reuse is in line with European, national, and regional policies on sustainable development, and presents a solution to the environmental problem caused by the generation of CDW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials)
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