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Special Issue "Light Alloys and Their Applications"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Peter J. Uggowitzer

ETH Zurich Metal Physics and Technology Department of Materials HCI J490, Wolfgang-Pauli Str. 10 CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +41 44 6322554
Interests: light metals, biodegradable metals, metallic glasses, corrosion-resistant alloys, phase transformations. Contribution: Special issue: “Light Alloys and Their Applications”

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last few decades, we have witnessed very successful developments in light metals design and processing. In particular, there has been a significant increase in the use of light alloys for various applications. Due to societal and economic pressures, the light-alloys community is called upon to provide novel high-performance materials with improved properties, as well as advanced processing technologies, which take sustainability and recycling aspects into particular consideration. The main focus of the forthcoming ‘Light Alloys and Applications’ issue is to present a comprehensive overview of the new developments. Recent advances in the science and technology of aluminum, magnesium, and titanium alloys will be addressed in various topics, which include alloy design, simulation and modeling, processing innovations, novel forming and joining technologies, corrosion and surface modifications, as well as sophisticated examples of successful applications in light-weight constructions, energy technologies, and medicine.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this special issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Peter J. Uggowitzer
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • alloy design
  • simulation and modeling
  • casting and forming technologies
  • joining processes
  • corrosion and surface modification
  • mechanical and electrochemical properties
  • applications in light-weight
  • transport, and energy systems
  • bio-medical applications
  • recycling and sustainability

Published Papers (23 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Copper Electrodeposition on a Magnesium Alloy (AZ80) with a U-Shaped Surface
Materials 2014, 7(11), 7366-7378; doi:10.3390/ma7117366
Received: 14 May 2014 / Revised: 9 October 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (581 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cu electrodeposition was performed on a cylindrical AZ80 substrate with a U-shaped surface. A uniform deposition of Cu was achieved on an AZ80 electrode via galvanostatic etching, followed by Cu electrodeposition in an eco-friendly alkaline Cu plating bath. Improper wetting and lower rotational
[...] Read more.
Cu electrodeposition was performed on a cylindrical AZ80 substrate with a U-shaped surface. A uniform deposition of Cu was achieved on an AZ80 electrode via galvanostatic etching, followed by Cu electrodeposition in an eco-friendly alkaline Cu plating bath. Improper wetting and lower rotational speeds of the AZ80 electrode resulted in an uneven Cu deposition at the inner upper site of the U-shaped surface during the Cu electroplating process. This wetting effect could be deduced from the variation in the anodic potential during the galvanostatic etching. The corrosion resistance of the Cu-deposited AZ80 electrode can be considerably improved after Ni electroplating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessArticle High Pressure Pneumatic Forming of Ti-3Al-2.5V Titanium Tubes in a Square Cross-Sectional Die
Materials 2014, 7(8), 5992-6009; doi:10.3390/ma7085992
Received: 16 May 2014 / Revised: 31 July 2014 / Accepted: 31 July 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2112 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new high strain rate forming process for titanium alloys is presented and named High Pressure Pneumatic Forming (HPPF), which might be applicable to form certain tubular components with irregular cross sections with high efficiency, both with respect to energy cost and time
[...] Read more.
A new high strain rate forming process for titanium alloys is presented and named High Pressure Pneumatic Forming (HPPF), which might be applicable to form certain tubular components with irregular cross sections with high efficiency, both with respect to energy cost and time consumption. HPPF experiments were performed on Ti-3Al-2.5V titanium alloy tubes using a square cross-sectional die with a small corner radius. The effects of forming of pressure and temperature on the corner filling were investigated and the thickness distributions after the HPPF processes at various pressure levels are discussed. At the same time, the stress state, strain and strain rate distribution during the HPPF process were numerically analyzed by the finite element method. Microstructure evolution of the formed tubes was also analyzed by using electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD). Because of different stress states, the strain and strain rate are very different at different areas of the tube during the corner filling process, and consequently the microstructure of the formed component is affected to some degree. The results verified that HPPF is a potential technology to form titanium tubular components with complicated geometrical features with high efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Mucin and Bicarbonate Ion on Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy for Airway Stents
Materials 2014, 7(8), 5866-5882; doi:10.3390/ma7085866
Received: 14 June 2014 / Revised: 17 July 2014 / Accepted: 7 August 2014 / Published: 15 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The biodegradable ability of magnesium alloys is an attractive feature for tracheal stents since they can be absorbed by the body through gradual degradation after healing of the airway structure, which can reduce the risk of inflammation caused by long-term implantation and prevent
[...] Read more.
The biodegradable ability of magnesium alloys is an attractive feature for tracheal stents since they can be absorbed by the body through gradual degradation after healing of the airway structure, which can reduce the risk of inflammation caused by long-term implantation and prevent the repetitive surgery for removal of existing stent. In this study, the effects of bicarbonate ion (HCO3) and mucin in Gamble’s solution on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated, using immersion and electrochemical tests to systematically identify the biodegradation kinetics of magnesium alloy under in vitro environment, mimicking the epithelial mucus surfaces in a trachea for development of biodegradable airway stents. Analysis of corrosion products after immersion test was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to identify the effects of bicarbonate ions and mucin on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloys with the temporal change of corrosion resistance. The results show that the increase of the bicarbonate ions in Gamble’s solution accelerates the dissolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy, while the addition of mucin retards the corrosion. The experimental data in this work is intended to be used as foundational knowledge to predict the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy in the airway environment while providing degradation information for future in vivo studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessArticle Property Criteria for Automotive Al-Mg-Si Sheet Alloys
Materials 2014, 7(7), 5047-5068; doi:10.3390/ma7075047
Received: 28 April 2014 / Revised: 13 June 2014 / Accepted: 24 June 2014 / Published: 4 July 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, property criteria for automotive Al-Mg-Si sheet alloys are outlined and investigated in the context of commercial alloys AA6016, AA6005A, AA6063 and AA6013. The parameters crucial to predicting forming behavior were determined by tensile tests, bending tests, cross-die tests, hole-expansion tests
[...] Read more.
In this study, property criteria for automotive Al-Mg-Si sheet alloys are outlined and investigated in the context of commercial alloys AA6016, AA6005A, AA6063 and AA6013. The parameters crucial to predicting forming behavior were determined by tensile tests, bending tests, cross-die tests, hole-expansion tests and forming limit curve analysis in the pre-aged temper after various storage periods following sheet production. Roping tests were performed to evaluate surface quality, for the deployment of these alloys as an outer panel material. Strength in service was also tested after a simulated paint bake cycle of 20 min at 185 °C, and the corrosion behavior was analyzed. The study showed that forming behavior is strongly dependent on the type of alloy and that it is influenced by the storage period after sheet production. Alloy AA6016 achieves the highest surface quality, and pre-ageing of alloy AA6013 facilitates superior strength in service. Corrosion behavior is good in AA6005A, AA6063 and AA6016, and only AA6013 shows a strong susceptibility to intergranular corrosion. The results are discussed below with respect to the chemical composition, microstructure and texture of the Al-Mg-Si alloys studied, and decision-making criteria for appropriate automotive sheet alloys for specific applications are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessArticle Manufacturing and Characterization of Ti6Al4V Lattice Components Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4803-4822; doi:10.3390/ma7064803
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 16 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1847 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper investigates the fabrication of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) titanium alloy Ti6Al4V micro-lattice structures for the production of lightweight components. Specifically, the pillar textile unit cell is used as base lattice structure and alternative lattice topologies including reinforcing vertical bars are also
[...] Read more.
The paper investigates the fabrication of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) titanium alloy Ti6Al4V micro-lattice structures for the production of lightweight components. Specifically, the pillar textile unit cell is used as base lattice structure and alternative lattice topologies including reinforcing vertical bars are also considered. Detailed characterizations of dimensional accuracy, surface roughness, and micro-hardness are performed. In addition, compression tests are carried out in order to evaluate the mechanical strength and the energy absorbed per unit mass of the lattice truss specimens made by SLM. The built structures have a relative density ranging between 0.2234 and 0.5822. An optimization procedure is implemented via the method of Taguchi to identify the optimal geometric configuration which maximizes peak strength and energy absorbed per unit mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Processing Steps on the Mechanical Properties and Surface Appearance of 6063 Aluminium Extruded Products
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4224-4242; doi:10.3390/ma7064224
Received: 28 March 2014 / Revised: 18 May 2014 / Accepted: 19 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1062 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
6063 aluminum anodized extrusions may exhibit a common surface defect known as streaking, characterized by the formation of narrow bands with a surface gloss different from the surrounding material. The origin of this banding lies in the differential surface topography produced after etching
[...] Read more.
6063 aluminum anodized extrusions may exhibit a common surface defect known as streaking, characterized by the formation of narrow bands with a surface gloss different from the surrounding material. The origin of this banding lies in the differential surface topography produced after etching during the anodizing stage, shown to be connected to certain microstructural characteristics. The present study has attempted to determine the origin of these defects and measure the mechanical properties in these zones, properties which were either barely acceptable or did not meet the specification’s requirements. Quantitative metallography and mechanical testing, both tensile and microhardness, were used for materials assessment at the different steps of the process of manufacturing 6063 anodized extrusions. The results of this research show that nonequilibrium solidification rates during billet casting could lead to the formation of coarse eutectic Mg2Si particles which have a deleterious effect on both mechanical properties and surface appearance in the anodized condition. However, differences in the size and density of the coarse Mg2Si particles have been found to exist in the streak profile compared to the surrounding zones. The study revealed the importance of these particles in explaining the origin of the marginal or sub-marginal properties and anodizing surface defects found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Research on the Micro Sheet Stamping Process Using Plasticine as Soft Punch
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4118-4131; doi:10.3390/ma7064118
Received: 17 December 2013 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 21 May 2014 / Published: 27 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (8728 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plasticine is widely used in the analysis of metal forming processes, due to its excellent material flow ability. In this study, plasticine is used as the soft punch to fabricate array micro-channels on metal sheet in the micro sheet stamping process. This is
[...] Read more.
Plasticine is widely used in the analysis of metal forming processes, due to its excellent material flow ability. In this study, plasticine is used as the soft punch to fabricate array micro-channels on metal sheet in the micro sheet stamping process. This is because plasticine can produce a large material flow after being subjected to force and through the material flow, the plasticine can cause the sheet to fill into the micro-channels of the rigid die, leading to the generation of micro-channels in the sheet. The distribution of array micro-channels was investigated as well as the influence of load forces on the sheet deformations. It was found that the depth of micro-channels increases as the load force increases. When the load force reaches a certain level, a crack can be observed. The micro sheet stamping process was also investigated by the method of numerical simulation. The obtained experimental and numerical results for the stamping process showed that they were in good agreement. Additionally, from the simulation results, it can be seen that the corner region of the micro-channel-shape work piece has a risk to crack due to the existence of maximum von Mises stress and significant thinning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessArticle R-HPDC Process with Forced Convection Mixing Device for Automotive Part of A380 Aluminum Alloy
Materials 2014, 7(4), 3084-3105; doi:10.3390/ma7043084
Received: 24 March 2014 / Revised: 4 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 April 2014 / Published: 15 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1891 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The continuing quest for cost-effective and complex shaped aluminum castings with fewer defects for applications in the automotive industries has aroused the interest in rheological high pressure die casting (R-HPDC). A new machine, forced convection mixing (FCM) device, based on the mechanical stirring
[...] Read more.
The continuing quest for cost-effective and complex shaped aluminum castings with fewer defects for applications in the automotive industries has aroused the interest in rheological high pressure die casting (R-HPDC). A new machine, forced convection mixing (FCM) device, based on the mechanical stirring and convection mixing theory for the preparation of semisolid slurry in convenience and functionality was proposed to produce the automotive shock absorber part by R-HPDC process. The effect of barrel temperature and rotational speed of the device on the grain size and morphology of semi-solid slurry were extensively studied. In addition, flow behavior and temperature field of the melt in the FCM process was investigated combining computational fluid dynamics simulation. The results indicate that the microstructure and pore defects at different locations of R-HPDC casting have been greatly improved. The vigorous fluid convection in FCM process has changed the temperature field and composition distribution of conventional solidification. Appropriately increasing the rotational speed can lead to a uniform temperature filed sooner. The lower barrel temperature leads to a larger uniform degree of supercooling of the melt that benefits the promotion of nucleation rate. Both of them contribute to the decrease of the grain size and the roundness of grain morphology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Isothermal Time-Temperature-Precipitation Diagram for an Aluminum Alloy 6005A by In Situ DSC Experiments
Materials 2014, 7(4), 2631-2649; doi:10.3390/ma7042631
Received: 13 December 2013 / Revised: 27 January 2014 / Accepted: 24 March 2014 / Published: 28 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Time-temperature-precipitation (TTP) diagrams deliver important material data, such as temperature and time ranges critical for precipitation during the quenching step of the age hardening procedure. Although the quenching step is continuous, isothermal TTP diagrams are often applied. Together with a so-called Quench Factor
[...] Read more.
Time-temperature-precipitation (TTP) diagrams deliver important material data, such as temperature and time ranges critical for precipitation during the quenching step of the age hardening procedure. Although the quenching step is continuous, isothermal TTP diagrams are often applied. Together with a so-called Quench Factor Analysis, they can be used to describe very different cooling paths. Typically, these diagrams are constructed based on mechanical properties or microstructures after an interrupted quenching, i.e., ex situ analyses. In recent years, an in situ calorimetric method to record continuous cooling precipitation diagrams of aluminum alloys has been developed to the application level by our group. This method has now been transferred to isothermal experiments, in which the whole heat treatment cycle was performed in a differential scanning calorimeter. The Al-Mg-Si-wrought alloy 6005A was investigated. Solution annealing at 540 °C and overcritical quenching to several temperatures between 450 °C and 250 °C were followed by isothermal soaking. Based on the heat flow curves during isothermal soaking, TTP diagrams were determined. An appropriate evaluation method has been developed. It was found that three different precipitation reactions in characteristic temperature intervals exist. Some of the low temperature reactions are not accessible in continuous cooling experiments and require isothermal studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Native Oxide Film on Commercial Magnesium Alloys Substrates and Carbonate Conversion Coating Growth and Corrosion Resistance
Materials 2014, 7(4), 2534-2560; doi:10.3390/ma7042534
Received: 4 February 2014 / Revised: 19 March 2014 / Accepted: 21 March 2014 / Published: 28 March 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Possible relations between the native oxide film formed spontaneously on the AZ31 and AZ61 magnesium alloy substrates with different surface finish, the chemistry of the outer surface of the conversion coatings that grows after their subsequent immersion on saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution
[...] Read more.
Possible relations between the native oxide film formed spontaneously on the AZ31 and AZ61 magnesium alloy substrates with different surface finish, the chemistry of the outer surface of the conversion coatings that grows after their subsequent immersion on saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution treatment and the enhancement of corrosion resistance have been studied. The significant increase in the amount of aluminum and carbonate compounds on the surface of the conversion coating formed on the AZ61 substrate in polished condition seems to improve the corrosion resistance in low chloride ion concentration solutions. In contrast, the conversion coatings formed on the AZ31 substrates in polished condition has little effect on their protective properties compared to the respective as-received surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Foam Fabricated from Die Castings without Using Blowing Agent by Friction Stir Processing Route
Materials 2014, 7(3), 2382-2394; doi:10.3390/ma7032382
Received: 17 February 2014 / Revised: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 13 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (608 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Al foam has been used in a wide range of applications owing to its light weight, high energy absorption and high sound insulation. One of the promising processes for fabricating Al foam involves the use of a foamable precursor. In this study, ADC12
[...] Read more.
Al foam has been used in a wide range of applications owing to its light weight, high energy absorption and high sound insulation. One of the promising processes for fabricating Al foam involves the use of a foamable precursor. In this study, ADC12 Al foams with porosities of 67%–78% were fabricated from Al alloy die castings without using a blowing agent by the friction stir processing route. The pore structure and tensile properties of the ADC12 foams were investigated and compared with those of commercially available ALPORAS. From X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) observations of the pore structure of ADC12 foams, it was found that they have smaller pores with a narrower distribution than those in ALPORAS. Tensile tests on the ADC12 foams indicated that as their porosity increased, the tensile strength and tensile strain decreased, with strong relation between the porosity, tensile strength, and tensile strain. ADC12 foams exhibited brittle fracture, whereas ALPORAS exhibited ductile fracture, which is due to the nature of the Al alloy used as the base material of the foams. By image-based finite element (FE) analysis using X-ray CT images corresponding to the tensile tests on ADC12 foams, it was shown that the fracture path of ADC12 foams observed in tensile tests and the regions of high stress obtained from FE analysis correspond to each other. Therefore, it is considered that the fracture behavior of ADC12 foams in relation to their pore structure distribution can be investigated by image-based FE analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Thermal History on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Prepared by Friction Stir Processing
Materials 2014, 7(3), 1573-1589; doi:10.3390/ma7031573
Received: 13 January 2014 / Revised: 6 February 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 28 February 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hot-rolled AZ31 (Mg-2.57Al-0.84Zn-0.32Mn, in mass percentage) magnesium alloy is subjected to friction stir processing in air (normal friction stir processing, NFSP) and under water (submerged friction stir processing, SFSP). Thermal history of the two FSP procedures is measured, and its effect on microstructures
[...] Read more.
Hot-rolled AZ31 (Mg-2.57Al-0.84Zn-0.32Mn, in mass percentage) magnesium alloy is subjected to friction stir processing in air (normal friction stir processing, NFSP) and under water (submerged friction stir processing, SFSP). Thermal history of the two FSP procedures is measured, and its effect on microstructures and mechanical properties of the experimental materials is investigated. Compared with NFSP, the peak temperature during SFSP is lower and the duration time at a high temperature is shorter due to the enhanced cooling effect of water. Consequently, SFSP results in further grain refinement, and the average grain size of the NFSP and SFSP specimens in the stir zone (SZ) are 2.9 μm and 1.3 μm, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examinations confirm that grain refinement is attributed to continuous dynamic recrystallization both for NFSP and SFSP. The average Vickers hardness in the SZ of the NFSP and SFSP AZ31 magnesium alloy are 76 HV and 87 HV. Furthermore, the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation of the SFSP specimen increase from 191 MPa and 31.3% in the NFSP specimen to 210 MPa and 50.5%, respectively. Both the NFSP and SFSP alloys fail through ductile fracture, but the dimples are much more obvious in the SFSP alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessArticle Microstructure and Tensile Behavior of Laser Arc Hybrid Welded Dissimilar Al and Ti Alloys
Materials 2014, 7(3), 1590-1602; doi:10.3390/ma7031590
Received: 17 December 2013 / Revised: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published: 28 February 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1004 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fiber laser-cold metal transfer arc hybrid welding was developed to welding-braze dissimilar Al and Ti alloys in butt configuration. Microstructure, interface properties, tensile behavior, and their relationships were investigated in detail. The results show the cross-weld tensile strength of the joints is up
[...] Read more.
Fiber laser-cold metal transfer arc hybrid welding was developed to welding-braze dissimilar Al and Ti alloys in butt configuration. Microstructure, interface properties, tensile behavior, and their relationships were investigated in detail. The results show the cross-weld tensile strength of the joints is up to 213 MPa, 95.5% of same Al weld. The optimal range of heat input for accepted joints was obtained as 83–98 J·mm−1. Within this range, the joint is stronger than 200 MPa and fractures in weld metal, or else, it becomes weaker and fractures at the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) layer. The IMCs layer of an accepted joint is usually thin and continuous, which is about 1μm-thick and only consists of TiAl2 due to fast solidification rate. However, the IMCs layer at the top corner of fusion zone/Ti substrate is easily thickened with increasing heat input. This thickened IMCs layer consists of a wide TiAl3 layer close to FZ and a thin TiAl2 layer close to Ti substrate. Furthermore, both bead shape formation and interface growth were discussed by laser-arc interaction and melt flow. Tensile behavior was summarized by interface properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessArticle Surface Finish and Residual Stresses Induced by Orthogonal Dry Machining of AA7075-T651
Materials 2014, 7(3), 1603-1624; doi:10.3390/ma7031603
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 20 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 28 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4559 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The surface finish was extensively studied in usual machining processes (turning, milling, and drilling). For these processes, the surface finish is strongly influenced by the cutting feed and the tool nose radius. However, a basic understanding of tool/surface finish interaction and residual stress
[...] Read more.
The surface finish was extensively studied in usual machining processes (turning, milling, and drilling). For these processes, the surface finish is strongly influenced by the cutting feed and the tool nose radius. However, a basic understanding of tool/surface finish interaction and residual stress generation has been lacking. This paper aims to investigate the surface finish and residual stresses under the orthogonal cutting since it can provide this information by avoiding the effect of the tool nose radius. The orthogonal machining of AA7075-T651 alloy through a series of cutting experiments was performed under dry conditions. Surface finish was studied using height and amplitude distribution roughness parameters. SEM and EDS were used to analyze surface damage and built-up edge (BUE) formation. An analysis of the surface topography showed that the surface roughness was sensitive to changes in cutting parameters. It was found that the formation of BUE and the interaction between the tool edge and the iron-rich intermetallic particles play a determinant role in controlling the surface finish during dry orthogonal machining of the AA7075-T651 alloy. Hoop stress was predominantly compressive on the surface and tended to be tensile with increased cutting speed. The reverse occurred for the surface axial stress. The smaller the cutting feed, the greater is the effect of cutting speed on both axial and hoop stresses. By controlling the cutting speed and feed, it is possible to generate a benchmark residual stress state and good surface finish using dry machining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessArticle Mechanical Behavior of AZ31B Mg Alloy Sheets under Monotonic and Cyclic Loadings at Room and Moderately Elevated Temperatures
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1271-1295; doi:10.3390/ma7021271
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 6 February 2014 / Accepted: 6 February 2014 / Published: 18 February 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Large-strain monotonic and cyclic loading tests of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets were performed with a newly developed testing system, at different temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 250 °C. Behaviors showing significant twinning during initial in-plane compression and untwinning in subsequent tension at
[...] Read more.
Large-strain monotonic and cyclic loading tests of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets were performed with a newly developed testing system, at different temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 250 °C. Behaviors showing significant twinning during initial in-plane compression and untwinning in subsequent tension at and slightly above room temperature were recorded. Strong yielding asymmetry and nonlinear hardening behavior were also revealed. Considerable Bauschinger effects, transient behavior, and variable permanent softening responses were observed near room temperature, but these were reduced and almost disappeared as the temperature increased. Different stress–strain responses were inherent to the activation of twinning at lower temperatures and non-basal slip systems at elevated temperatures. A critical temperature was identified to account for the transition between the twinning-dominant and slip-dominant deformation mechanisms. Accordingly, below the transition point, stress–strain curves of cyclic loading tests exhibited concave-up shapes for compression or compression following tension, and an unusual S-shape for tension following compression. This unusual shape disappeared when the temperature was above the transition point. Shrinkage of the elastic range and variation in Young’s modulus due to plastic strain deformation during stress reversals were also observed. The texture-induced anisotropy of both the elastic and plastic behaviors was characterized experimentally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Al–5Ti–C Master Alloy on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic Al–20%Si Alloy
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1188-1200; doi:10.3390/ma7021188
Received: 11 June 2013 / Revised: 8 February 2014 / Accepted: 10 February 2014 / Published: 14 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3570 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Al–5Ti–C master alloy was prepared and used to modify hypereutectic Al–20%Si alloy. The microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of hypereutectic Al–20%Si alloy with Al–5Ti–C master alloy additions (0, 0.4, 0.6, 1.0, 1.6 and 2.0 wt%) were investigated. The results show that, Al–5Ti–C master
[...] Read more.
Al–5Ti–C master alloy was prepared and used to modify hypereutectic Al–20%Si alloy. The microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of hypereutectic Al–20%Si alloy with Al–5Ti–C master alloy additions (0, 0.4, 0.6, 1.0, 1.6 and 2.0 wt%) were investigated. The results show that, Al–5Ti–C master alloy (0.6 wt%, 10 min) can significantly refine both eutectic and primary Si of hypereutectic Al–20%Si alloy. The morphology of the primary Si crystals was significantly refined from a coarse polygonal and star-like shape to a fine polyhedral shape and the grain size of the primary Si was refined from roughly 90–120 μm to 20–50 μm. The eutectic Si phases were modified from a coarse platelet-like/needle-like structure to a fine fibrous structure with discrete particles. The Al–5Ti–C master alloy (0.6 wt%, 30 min) still has a good refinement effect. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS), elongation (El) and Brinell hardness (HB) of Al–20%Si alloy modified by the Al–5Ti–C master alloy (0.6 wt%, 10 min) increased by roughly 65%, 70% and 51%, respectively, due to decreasing the size and changing the morphology on the primary and eutectic Si crystals. The change in mechanical properties corresponds to evolution of the microstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessArticle Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1173-1187; doi:10.3390/ma7021173
Received: 26 December 2013 / Revised: 29 January 2014 / Accepted: 6 February 2014 / Published: 13 February 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1078 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the
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Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by α-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 μm-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessArticle In situ Neutron Diffraction during Casting: Determination of Rigidity Point in Grain Refined Al-Cu Alloys
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1165-1172; doi:10.3390/ma7021165
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 29 January 2014 / Accepted: 6 February 2014 / Published: 12 February 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rigidity temperature of a solidifying alloy is the temperature at which the solid plus liquid phases are sufficiently coalesced to transmit long range tensile strains and stresses. It determines the point at which thermally induced deformations start to generate internal stresses in
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The rigidity temperature of a solidifying alloy is the temperature at which the solid plus liquid phases are sufficiently coalesced to transmit long range tensile strains and stresses. It determines the point at which thermally induced deformations start to generate internal stresses in a casting. As such, it is a key parameter in numerical modelling of solidification processes and in studying casting defects such as solidification cracking. This temperature has been determined in Al-Cu alloys using in situ neutron diffraction during casting in a dog bone shaped mould. In such a setup, the thermal contraction of the solidifying material is constrained and stresses develop at a hot spot that is irradiated by neutrons. Diffraction peaks are recorded every 11 s using a large detector, and their evolution allows for the determination of the rigidity temperatures. We measured rigidity temperatures equal to 557 °C and 548 °C, depending on cooling rate, for a grain refined Al-13 wt% Cu alloy. At high cooling rate, rigidity is reached during the formation of the eutectic phase and the solid phase is not sufficiently coalesced, i.e., strong enough, to avoid hot tear formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessArticle Microstructural Evolution and Dynamic Softening Mechanisms of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy during Hot Compressive Deformation
Materials 2014, 7(1), 244-264; doi:10.3390/ma7010244
Received: 7 November 2013 / Revised: 20 December 2013 / Accepted: 2 January 2014 / Published: 8 January 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1957 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The hot deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (7150) alloy was studied during hot compression at various temperatures (300 to 450 °C) and strain rates (0.001 to 10 s−1). A decline ratio map of flow stresses was proposed and
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The hot deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (7150) alloy was studied during hot compression at various temperatures (300 to 450 °C) and strain rates (0.001 to 10 s−1). A decline ratio map of flow stresses was proposed and divided into five deformation domains, in which the flow stress behavior was correlated with different microstructures and dynamic softening mechanisms. The results reveal that the dynamic recovery is the sole softening mechanism at temperatures of 300 to 400 °C with various strain rates and at temperatures of 400 to 450 °C with strain rates between 1 and 10 s−1. The level of dynamic recovery increases with increasing temperature and with decreasing strain rate. At the high deformation temperature of 450 °C with strain rates of 0.001 to 0.1 s−1, a partially recrystallized microstructure was observed, and the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) provided an alternative softening mechanism. Two kinds of DRX might operate at the high temperature, in which discontinuous dynamic recrystallization was involved at higher strain rates and continuous dynamic recrystallization was implied at lower strain rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessArticle Design of Friction Stir Welding Tool for Avoiding Root Flaws
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5870-5877; doi:10.3390/ma6125870
Received: 5 November 2013 / Revised: 18 November 2013 / Accepted: 6 December 2013 / Published: 12 December 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to improve material flow behavior during friction stir welding and avoid root flaws of weld, a tool with a half-screw pin and a tool with a tapered-flute pin are suggested. The effect of flute geometry in tool pins on material flow
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In order to improve material flow behavior during friction stir welding and avoid root flaws of weld, a tool with a half-screw pin and a tool with a tapered-flute pin are suggested. The effect of flute geometry in tool pins on material flow velocity is investigated by the software ANSYS FLUENT. Numerical simulation results show that high material flow velocity appears near the rotational tool and material flow velocity rapidly decreases with the increase of distance away from the axis of the tool. Maximum material flow velocity by the tool with the tapered-flute pin appears at the beginning position of flute and the velocity decreases with the increase of flow length in flute. From the view of increasing the flow velocity of material near the bottom of the workpiece or in the middle of workpiece, the tool with the half-screw pin and the tool with the tapered-flute pin are both better than the conventional tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)

Review

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Open AccessReview Welding and Joining of Titanium Aluminides
Materials 2014, 7(7), 4930-4962; doi:10.3390/ma7074930
Received: 10 March 2014 / Revised: 19 June 2014 / Accepted: 20 June 2014 / Published: 25 June 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2249 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Welding and joining of titanium aluminides is the key to making them more attractive in industrial fields. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent progress in welding and joining of titanium aluminides, as well as to introduce
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Welding and joining of titanium aluminides is the key to making them more attractive in industrial fields. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent progress in welding and joining of titanium aluminides, as well as to introduce current research and application. The possible methods available for titanium aluminides involve brazing, diffusion bonding, fusion welding, friction welding and reactive joining. Of the numerous methods, solid-state diffusion bonding and vacuum brazing have been most heavily investigated for producing reliable joints. The current state of understanding and development of every welding and joining method for titanium aluminides is addressed respectively. The focus is on the fundamental understanding of microstructure characteristics and processing–microstructure–property relationships in the welding and joining of titanium aluminides to themselves and to other materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessReview A Review of Dissimilar Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys
Materials 2014, 7(5), 3735-3757; doi:10.3390/ma7053735
Received: 24 March 2014 / Revised: 25 April 2014 / Accepted: 25 April 2014 / Published: 8 May 2014
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1981 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from
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Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC) such as Mg17Al12 and Mg2Al3. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessReview Fabrication of Metallic Biomedical Scaffolds with the Space Holder Method: A Review
Materials 2014, 7(5), 3588-3622; doi:10.3390/ma7053588
Received: 14 March 2014 / Revised: 10 April 2014 / Accepted: 18 April 2014 / Published: 6 May 2014
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone tissue engineering has been increasingly studied as an alternative approach to bone defect reconstruction. In this approach, new bone cells are stimulated to grow and heal the defect with the aid of a scaffold that serves as a medium for bone cell
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Bone tissue engineering has been increasingly studied as an alternative approach to bone defect reconstruction. In this approach, new bone cells are stimulated to grow and heal the defect with the aid of a scaffold that serves as a medium for bone cell formation and growth. Scaffolds made of metallic materials have preferably been chosen for bone tissue engineering applications where load-bearing capacities are required, considering the superior mechanical properties possessed by this type of materials to those of polymeric and ceramic materials. The space holder method has been recognized as one of the viable methods for the fabrication of metallic biomedical scaffolds. In this method, temporary powder particles, namely space holder, are devised as a pore former for scaffolds. In general, the whole scaffold fabrication process with the space holder method can be divided into four main steps: (i) mixing of metal matrix powder and space-holding particles; (ii) compaction of granular materials; (iii) removal of space-holding particles; (iv) sintering of porous scaffold preform. In this review, detailed procedures in each of these steps are presented. Technical challenges encountered during scaffold fabrication with this specific method are addressed. In conclusion, strategies are yet to be developed to address problematic issues raised, such as powder segregation, pore inhomogeneity, distortion of pore sizes and shape, uncontrolled shrinkage and contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)

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