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Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1066; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081066

Association of Breakfast Quality and Energy Density with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight/Obese Children: Role of Physical Activity

1
Institute for Innovation & Sustainable Development in Food Chain (IS-FOOD), Public University of Navarra, 31006 Pamplona, Spain
2
PROmoting FITness and Health through physical activity research group (PROFITH), Department of Physical and Sports Education, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
3
Department of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of the Basque Country of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Balancing Physical Activity and Nutrition for Human Health)
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Abstract

There is a general belief that having breakfast is an important healthy lifestyle factor; however, there is scarce evidence on the influence of breakfast quality and energy density on cardiometabolic risk in children, as well as on the role of physical activity in this association. The aims of this paper were (i) to examine the associations of breakfast quality and energy density from both solids and beverages with cardiometabolic risk factors, and (ii) to explore whether physical activity levels may attenuate these relationships in children with overweight/obesity from two projects carried out in the north and south of Spain. Breakfast consumption, breakfast quality index (BQI) score, BEDs/BEDb (24 h-recalls and the KIDMED questionnaire), and physical activity (PA; accelerometry) were assessed, in 203 children aged 8–12 years who were overweight or obese. We measured body composition (Dual X-ray Absorptiometry), uric acid, blood pressure, lipid profile, gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT), glucose, and insulin, and calculated the HOMA and metabolic syndrome z-score. The BQI score was inversely associated with serum uric acid independently of a set of relevant confounders (β = −0.172, p = 0.028), but the relationship was attenuated after further controlling for total PA (p < 0.07). BEDs was positively associated with total and HDL cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure regardless of confounders (all p < 0.05), while BEDb was positively associated with HOMA in either active/inactive children (all p < 0.03). In conclusion, higher breakfast quality and lower breakfast energy density should be promoted in overweight/obesity children to improve their cardiometabolic health. View Full-Text
Keywords: breakfast quality; breakfast energy density; skipping breakfast; cardiometabolic health; childhood obesity; uric acid; HOMA; cholesterol; blood pressure; physical activity breakfast quality; breakfast energy density; skipping breakfast; cardiometabolic health; childhood obesity; uric acid; HOMA; cholesterol; blood pressure; physical activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Arenaza, L.; Muñoz-Hernández, V.; Medrano, M.; Oses, M.; Amasene, M.; Merchán-Ramírez, E.; Cadenas-Sanchez, C.; Ortega, F.B.; Ruiz, J.R.; Labayen, I. Association of Breakfast Quality and Energy Density with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight/Obese Children: Role of Physical Activity. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1066.

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