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Nutrients, Volume 3, Issue 10 (October 2011), Pages 839-909

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Hydroxytyrosol Protects against Oxidative DNA Damage in Human Breast Cells
Nutrients 2011, 3(10), 839-857; doi:10.3390/nu3100839
Received: 27 July 2011 / Revised: 8 September 2011 / Accepted: 14 September 2011 / Published: 13 October 2011
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (1172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over recent years, several studies have related olive oil ingestion to a low incidence of several diseases, including breast cancer. Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol are two of the major phenols present in virgin olive oils. Despite the fact that they have been linked to
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Over recent years, several studies have related olive oil ingestion to a low incidence of several diseases, including breast cancer. Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol are two of the major phenols present in virgin olive oils. Despite the fact that they have been linked to cancer prevention, there is no evidence that clarifies their effect in human breast tumor and non-tumor cells. In the present work, we present hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol’s effects in human breast cell lines. Our results show that hydroxytyrosol acts as a more efficient free radical scavenger than tyrosol, but both fail to affect cell proliferation rates, cell cycle profile or cell apoptosis in human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) or breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7). We found that hydroxytyrosol decreases the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in MCF10A cells but not in MCF7 or MDA-MB-231 cells while very high amounts of tyrosol is needed to decrease the ROS level in MCF10A cells. Interestingly, hydroxytyrosol prevents oxidative DNA damage in the three breast cell lines. Therefore, our data suggest that simple phenol hydroxytyrosol could contribute to a lower incidence of breast cancer in populations that consume virgin olive oil due to its antioxidant activity and its protection against oxidative DNA damage in mammary cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Cancer Prevention)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Micronutrient and Probiotic Fortified Yogurt on Immune-Function of Anti-Retroviral Therapy Naive HIV Patients  
Nutrients 2011, 3(10), 897-909; doi:10.3390/nu3100897
Received: 18 August 2011 / Revised: 23 September 2011 / Accepted: 12 October 2011 / Published: 21 October 2011
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Micronutrient supplementation has been shown to reduce the progression of HIV but does not have an effect on the intestinal barrier or the intestinal microbiota of HIV patients. Studies have suggested that probiotics could potentially complement micronutrients in preserving the immune-function of
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Background: Micronutrient supplementation has been shown to reduce the progression of HIV but does not have an effect on the intestinal barrier or the intestinal microbiota of HIV patients. Studies have suggested that probiotics could potentially complement micronutrients in preserving the immune-function of HIV patients. Objective: Assess the impact of micronutrient supplemented probiotic yogurt on the immune function of HIV patients. Design: We performed a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with CD4 count as primary outcome among HIV patients naïve to anti-retroviral treatment. Secondary outcomes included hematological parameters, incidence of diarrhea and clinical symptoms. A total of 112 HIV patients were randomized to receive a micronutrient fortified yogurt with (n = 55) or without additional probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (n = 57) for four weeks. Results: An average decline in CD4 count of −70 cells/μL (95% CI: −154 to −15) was observed in the micronutrient, probiotic group versus a decrease of −63 cells/μL (95% CI: −157 to −30) in the micronutrient control group (p = 0.9). Additional probiotic supplementation was well tolerated and not associated with adverse events. No difference between groups was detected in incidence of diarrhea or clinical symptoms. An improvement of hemoglobin levels was observed for all subjects, based upon a mean difference from baseline of 1.4 g/L (SD = 6) (p = 0.02). Conclusion: The addition of probiotics to a micronutrient fortified yogurt was well tolerated by HIV patients but was not associated with a further increase in CD4 count after one month. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Regulation of Inflammation by Short Chain Fatty Acids
Nutrients 2011, 3(10), 858-876; doi:10.3390/nu3100858
Received: 18 July 2011 / Revised: 21 September 2011 / Accepted: 8 October 2011 / Published: 14 October 2011
Cited by 173 | PDF Full-text (536 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate (C2), propionate (C3) and butyrate (C4) are the main metabolic products of anaerobic bacteria fermentation in the intestine. In addition to their important role as fuel for intestinal epithelial cells,
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The short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate (C2), propionate (C3) and butyrate (C4) are the main metabolic products of anaerobic bacteria fermentation in the intestine. In addition to their important role as fuel for intestinal epithelial cells, SCFAs modulate different processes in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract such as electrolyte and water absorption. These fatty acids have been recognized as potential mediators involved in the effects of gut microbiota on intestinal immune function. SCFAs act on leukocytes and endothelial cells through at least two mechanisms: activation of GPCRs (GPR41 and GPR43) and inhibiton of histone deacetylase (HDAC). SCFAs regulate several leukocyte functions including production of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10), eicosanoids and chemokines (e.g., MCP-1 and CINC-2). The ability of leukocytes to migrate to the foci of inflammation and to destroy microbial pathogens also seems to be affected by the SCFAs. In this review, the latest research that describes how SCFAs regulate the inflammatory process is presented. The effects of these fatty acids on isolated cells (leukocytes, endothelial and intestinal epithelial cells) and, particularly, on the recruitment and activation of leukocytes are discussed. Therapeutic application of these fatty acids for the treatment of inflammatory pathologies is also highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Immunology)
Open AccessReview Induction of Cancer Cell Death by Isoflavone: The Role of Multiple Signaling Pathways
Nutrients 2011, 3(10), 877-896; doi:10.3390/nu3100877
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 29 September 2011 / Accepted: 9 October 2011 / Published: 17 October 2011
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (1166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soy isoflavones have been documented as dietary nutrients broadly classified as “natural agents” which plays important roles in reducing the incidence of hormone-related cancers in Asian countries, and have shown inhibitory effects on cancer development and progression in vitro and in vivo,
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Soy isoflavones have been documented as dietary nutrients broadly classified as “natural agents” which plays important roles in reducing the incidence of hormone-related cancers in Asian countries, and have shown inhibitory effects on cancer development and progression in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the cancer preventive or therapeutic activity of soy isoflavones against cancers. Emerging experimental evidence shows that isoflavones could induce cancer cell death by regulating multiple cellular signaling pathways including Akt, NF-κB, MAPK, Wnt, androgen receptor (AR), p53 and Notch signaling, all of which have been found to be deregulated in cancer cells. Therefore, homeostatic regulation of these important cellular signaling pathways by isoflavones could be useful for the activation of cell death signaling, which could result in the induction of apoptosis of both pre-cancerous and/or cancerous cells without affecting normal cells. In this article, we have attempted to summarize the current state-of-our-knowledge regarding the induction of cancer cell death pathways by isoflavones, which is believed to be mediated through the regulation of multiple cellular signaling pathways. The knowledge gained from this article will provide a comprehensive view on the molecular mechanism(s) by which soy isoflavones may exert their effects on the prevention of tumor progression and/or treatment of human malignancies, which would also aid in stimulating further in-depth mechanistic research and foster the initiation of novel clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Cancer Prevention)
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