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Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 395; doi:10.3390/nu9040395

Fructose Intake, Serum Uric Acid, and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Critical Review

1
Department of Chemistry “Giacomo Ciamician”, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
2
Istituto Nazionale Biostrutture e Biosistemi (INBB), 00136 Rome, Italy
3
Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca Industriale Energia e Ambiente (CIRI EA), Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, 47900 Rimini, Italy
4
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 February 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
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Abstract

There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA), which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. It is probably also an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, and cognitive decline. These relationships have been observed for high serum UA levels (>5.5 mg/dL in women and >6 mg/dL in men), but also for normal to high serum UA levels (5–6 mg/dL). In this regard, blood UA levels are much higher in industrialized countries than in the rest of the world. Xanthine-oxidase inhibitors can reduce UA and seem to minimize its negative effects on vascular health. Other dietary and pathophysiological factors are also related to UA production. However, the role of fructose-derived UA in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders has not yet been fully clarified. Here, we critically review recent research on the biochemistry of UA production, the relationship between fructose intake and UA production, and how this relationship is linked to cardiometabolic disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: fructose; uric acid; cardiometabolic disorders; xanthine oxidase; pathophysiology; epidemiology fructose; uric acid; cardiometabolic disorders; xanthine oxidase; pathophysiology; epidemiology
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Caliceti, C.; Calabria, D.; Roda, A.; Cicero, A.F.G. Fructose Intake, Serum Uric Acid, and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Critical Review. Nutrients 2017, 9, 395.

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