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Toxins, Volume 4, Issue 6 (June 2012), Pages 390-486

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Effects of Cyanobacterial Lipopolysaccharides from Microcystis on Glutathione-Based Detoxification Pathways in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo
Toxins 2012, 4(6), 390-404; doi:10.3390/toxins4060390
Received: 2 February 2012 / Revised: 14 May 2012 / Accepted: 14 May 2012 / Published: 25 May 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (676 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyanobacteria (“blue-green algae”) are recognized producers of a diverse array of toxic secondary metabolites. Of these, the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), produced by all cyanobacteria, remain to be well investigated. In the current study, we specifically employed the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo [...] Read more.
Cyanobacteria (“blue-green algae”) are recognized producers of a diverse array of toxic secondary metabolites. Of these, the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), produced by all cyanobacteria, remain to be well investigated. In the current study, we specifically employed the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo to investigate the effects of LPS from geographically diverse strains of the widespread cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis, on several detoxifying enzymes/pathways, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)/glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), and compared observed effects to those of heterotrophic bacterial (i.e., E. coli) LPS. In agreement with previous studies, cyanobacterial LPS significantly reduced GST in embryos exposed to LPS in all treatments. In contrast, GPx moderately increased in embryos exposed to LPS, with no effect on reciprocal GR activity. Interestingly, total glutathione levels were elevated in embryos exposed to Microcystis LPS, but the relative levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione (i.e., GSH/GSSG) were, likewise, elevated suggesting that oxidative stress is not involved in the observed effects as typical of heterotrophic bacterial LPS in mammalian systems. In further support of this, no effect was observed with respect to CAT or SOD activity. These findings demonstrate that Microcystis LPS affects glutathione-based detoxification pathways in the zebrafish embryo, and more generally, that this model is well suited for investigating the apparent toxicophore of cyanobacterial LPS, including possible differences in structure-activity relationships between heterotrophic and cyanobacterial LPS, and teleost fish versus mammalian systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Toxins)
Open AccessArticle A Method for Multiple Mycotoxin Analysis in Wines by Solid Phase Extraction and Multifunctional Cartridge Purification, and Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Toxins 2012, 4(6), 476-486; doi:10.3390/toxins4060476
Received: 15 May 2012 / Revised: 11 June 2012 / Accepted: 12 June 2012 / Published: 15 June 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An analytical method using two solid phase extractions and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the identification and quantification of 14 mycotoxins (patulin, deoxynivalenol, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, zearalenone, fumonisins B1, B2, B3, and ochratoxin A) in domestic and imported wines. Mycotoxins were purified with an Oasis HLB cartridge, followed by a MultiSepTM #229 Ochra. As a result, sufficient removal of the pigments and highly polar matrices from the red wines was achieved. UHPLC conditions were optimized, and 14 mycotoxins were separated in a total of 13 min. Determinations performed using this method produced high correlation coefficients for the 14 mycotoxins (R > 0.990) and recovery rates ranging from 76 to 105% with good repeatability (relative standard deviation RSD < 12%). Twenty-seven samples of domestic and imported wines were analyzed using this method. Although ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins (FMs) were detected in several samples, the FM levels were less than limits of quantification (LOQs) (1 μg/L), and even the largest of the OTA levels was below the EU regulatory level (2 μg/L). These results suggest that the health risk posed to consumers from the wines available in Japan is relatively low. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests
Toxins 2012, 4(6), 405-429; doi:10.3390/toxins4060405
Received: 8 April 2012 / Revised: 16 May 2012 / Accepted: 25 May 2012 / Published: 4 June 2012
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (307 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management [...] Read more.
The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticidal Toxins)
Figures

Open AccessReview Monoclonal Antibodies and Toxins—A Perspective on Function and Isotype
Toxins 2012, 4(6), 430-454; doi:10.3390/toxins4060430
Received: 29 April 2012 / Revised: 6 June 2012 / Accepted: 7 June 2012 / Published: 11 June 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (526 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antibody therapy remains the only effective treatment for toxin-mediated diseases. The development of hybridoma technology has allowed the isolation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with high specificity and defined properties, and numerous mAbs have been purified and characterized for their protective efficacy against [...] Read more.
Antibody therapy remains the only effective treatment for toxin-mediated diseases. The development of hybridoma technology has allowed the isolation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with high specificity and defined properties, and numerous mAbs have been purified and characterized for their protective efficacy against different toxins. This review summarizes the mAb studies for 6 toxins—Shiga toxin, pertussis toxin, anthrax toxin, ricin toxin, botulinum toxin, and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)—and analyzes the prevalence of mAb functions and their isotypes. Here we show that most toxin-binding mAbs resulted from immunization are non-protective and that mAbs with potential therapeutic use are preferably characterized. Various common practices and caveats of protection studies are discussed, with the goal of providing insights for the design of future research on antibody-toxin interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxin-Antibody Interactions)
Open AccessReview Multimodal Protein Constructs for Herbivore Insect Control
Toxins 2012, 4(6), 455-475; doi:10.3390/toxins4060455
Received: 8 March 2012 / Revised: 1 June 2012 / Accepted: 5 June 2012 / Published: 12 June 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Transgenic plants expressing combinations of microbial or plant pesticidal proteins represent a promising tool for the efficient, durable control of herbivorous insects. In this review we describe current strategies devised for the heterologous co-expression of pesticidal proteins in planta, some of [...] Read more.
Transgenic plants expressing combinations of microbial or plant pesticidal proteins represent a promising tool for the efficient, durable control of herbivorous insects. In this review we describe current strategies devised for the heterologous co-expression of pesticidal proteins in planta, some of which have already shown usefulness in plant protection. Emphasis is placed on protein engineering strategies involving the insertion of single DNA constructs within the host plant genome. Multimodal fusion proteins integrating complementary pesticidal functions along a unique polypeptide are first considered, taking into account the structural constraints associated with protein or protein domain grafting to biologically active proteins. Strategies that allow for the co- or post-translational release of two or more pesticidal proteins are then considered, including polyprotein precursors releasing free proteins upon proteolytic cleavage, and multicistronic transcripts for the parallel translation of single protein-encoding mRNA sequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticidal Toxins)

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