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Special Issue "Algal Toxins"

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A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine and Freshwater Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. John P. Berry (Website)

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University (FIU), 354/332 Marine Science, Biscayne Bay Campus, 3000 NE 151st St., North Miami, FL 33181, USA
Phone: 3059194569
Fax: +1 305 919 4030
Interests: cyanobacteria; toxins; bioactive compounds; zebrafish embryo model; natural products

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Marine and freshwater algae are recognized to produce a diverse array of toxic or otherwise bioactive metabolites. These toxic metabolites are globally widespread, and humans and other animals can be exposed to them through both direct routes, including contamination of drinking water and recreational exposure, and indirect routes, including accumulation of these toxins by (and consequent contamination of) various species of fish, shellfish and other animals used as food. Exposure to these toxins has been linked to both acute health effects, including numerous cases of severe illness and mortality, as well as possible long-term health effects, ranging from higher incidence of certain cancers and neurodegenerative disease to prenatal developmental dysfunction. As such algal toxins are emerging as a potentially important human and environmental health concern. Accordingly, a growing number of studies have likewise emerged to address this issue. Areas of investigation particularly include (1) identification and characterization of new toxins; (2) genes and pathways for biosynthesis; (3) bioaccumulation in aquatic food-webs; (4) environmental and ecological factors that contribute to toxin production; (5) methods and technologies for effective detection and monitoring of toxins; (6) epidemiological studies to evaluate the human health impacts of toxins; and (7) strategies and technologies for mitigation of these threats to human health. In addition to their roles as toxins, a number of these bioactive metabolites have also been investigated with respect to possible development as drugs, or otherwise biomedically useful agents, addressing a range of pharmacological targets, as well as other applications with potential commercial importance, including herbicides and pesticides. This special issue will present a relevant sample of current studies investigating these various aspects of algal toxins.

Prof. Dr. John P. Berry
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • cyanobacteria
  • dinoflagellates
  • diatoms
  • harmful algal blooms
  • polyketides
  • non-ribsomal peptides
  • chemical ecology
  • ecotoxicology

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Effects of Cyanobacterial Lipopolysaccharides from Microcystis on Glutathione-Based Detoxification Pathways in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo
Toxins 2012, 4(6), 390-404; doi:10.3390/toxins4060390
Received: 2 February 2012 / Revised: 14 May 2012 / Accepted: 14 May 2012 / Published: 25 May 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (676 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyanobacteria (“blue-green algae”) are recognized producers of a diverse array of toxic secondary metabolites. Of these, the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), produced by all cyanobacteria, remain to be well investigated. In the current study, we specifically employed the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo [...] Read more.
Cyanobacteria (“blue-green algae”) are recognized producers of a diverse array of toxic secondary metabolites. Of these, the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), produced by all cyanobacteria, remain to be well investigated. In the current study, we specifically employed the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo to investigate the effects of LPS from geographically diverse strains of the widespread cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis, on several detoxifying enzymes/pathways, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)/glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), and compared observed effects to those of heterotrophic bacterial (i.e., E. coli) LPS. In agreement with previous studies, cyanobacterial LPS significantly reduced GST in embryos exposed to LPS in all treatments. In contrast, GPx moderately increased in embryos exposed to LPS, with no effect on reciprocal GR activity. Interestingly, total glutathione levels were elevated in embryos exposed to Microcystis LPS, but the relative levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione (i.e., GSH/GSSG) were, likewise, elevated suggesting that oxidative stress is not involved in the observed effects as typical of heterotrophic bacterial LPS in mammalian systems. In further support of this, no effect was observed with respect to CAT or SOD activity. These findings demonstrate that Microcystis LPS affects glutathione-based detoxification pathways in the zebrafish embryo, and more generally, that this model is well suited for investigating the apparent toxicophore of cyanobacterial LPS, including possible differences in structure-activity relationships between heterotrophic and cyanobacterial LPS, and teleost fish versus mammalian systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Toxins)

Review

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Open AccessReview A Review on Toxic and Harmful Algae in Greek Coastal Waters (E. Mediterranean Sea)
Toxins 2010, 2(5), 1019-1037; doi:10.3390/toxins2051019
Received: 22 March 2010 / Revised: 23 April 2010 / Accepted: 5 May 2010 / Published: 11 May 2010
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (531 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Greek coastal waters are subjected to harmful algal bloom (HAB) phenomena due to the occurrence of species characterized as toxic (TX), potentially toxic (PT), and non-toxic, high biomass (HB) producers causing harm at multiple levels. The total number of (TX), (PT) [...] Read more.
The Greek coastal waters are subjected to harmful algal bloom (HAB) phenomena due to the occurrence of species characterized as toxic (TX), potentially toxic (PT), and non-toxic, high biomass (HB) producers causing harm at multiple levels. The total number of (TX), (PT) and (HB) algae reported in this work are 61, but only 16 species have been associated with the occurrence of important HABs causing damage in the marine biota and the water quality. These phenomena are sporadic in time, space and recurrence of the causative species, and are related to the anthropogenically-induced eutrophication conditions prevailing in the investigated areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Toxins)

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