Next Article in Journal
Interaction between Shiga Toxin and Monoclonal Antibodies: Binding Characteristics and in Vitro Neutralizing Abilities
Next Article in Special Issue
The Biological Control of the Malaria Vector
Previous Article in Journal
Aspergillus Oxylipin Signaling and Quorum Sensing Pathways Depend on G Protein-Coupled Receptors
Previous Article in Special Issue
Macrophage-Targeted Therapy: CD64-Based Immunotoxins for Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessBrief Report
Toxins 2012, 4(9), 718-728; doi:10.3390/toxins4090718

Intranasal Rapamycin Rescues Mice from Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Induced Shock

Integrated Toxicology Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 6 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 18 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Collection Toxicity and Therapeutic Interventions in the Immune System)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [273 KB, uploaded 18 September 2012]   |  


Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and related exotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus are potent activators of the immune system and cause toxic shock in humans. Currently there is no effective treatment except for the use of intravenous immunoglobulins administered shortly after SEB exposure. Intranasal SEB induces long-lasting lung injury which requires prolonged drug treatment. We investigated the effects of rapamycin, an immunosuppressive drug used to prevent graft rejection, by intranasal administration in a lethal mouse model of SEB-induced shock. The results show that intranasal rapamycin alone delivered as late as 17 h after SEB protected 100% of mice from lethal shock. Additionally, rapamycin diminished the weight loss and temperature fluctuations elicited by SEB. Intranasal rapamycin attenuated lung MCP-1, IL-2, IL-6, and IFNγ by 70%, 30%, 64%, and 68% respectively. Furthermore, short courses (three doses) of rapamycin were sufficient to block SEB-induced shock. Intranasal rapamycin represents a novel use of an immunosuppressant targeting directly to site of toxin exposure, reducing dosages needed and allowing a wider therapeutic window.
Keywords: intranasal rapamycin; staphylococcal enterotoxin B; shock intranasal rapamycin; staphylococcal enterotoxin B; shock
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Krakauer, T.; Buckley, M. Intranasal Rapamycin Rescues Mice from Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Induced Shock. Toxins 2012, 4, 718-728.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top