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Toxins 2017, 9(10), 313; doi:10.3390/toxins9100313

Variation and Distribution of L-A Helper Totiviruses in Saccharomyces sensu stricto Yeasts Producing Different Killer Toxins

1
Instituto de Biología Funcional y Genómica, IBFG-CSIC, Universidad de Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
2
Escuela Politécnica Superior de Zamora, Universidad de Salamanca, 49029 Zamora, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manfred J. Schmitt
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast Killer Toxins)
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Abstract

Yeasts within the Saccharomyces sensu stricto cluster can produce different killer toxins. Each toxin is encoded by a medium size (1.5–2.4 Kb) M dsRNA virus, maintained by a larger helper virus generally called L-A (4.6 Kb). Different types of L-A are found associated to specific Ms: L-A in K1 strains and L-A-2 in K2 strains. Here, we extend the analysis of L-A helper viruses to yeasts other than S. cerevisiae, namely S. paradoxus, S. uvarum and S. kudriavzevii. Our sequencing data from nine new L-A variants confirm the specific association of each toxin-producing M and its helper virus, suggesting co-evolution. Their nucleotide sequences vary from 10% to 30% and the variation seems to depend on the geographical location of the hosts, suggesting cross-species transmission between species in the same habitat. Finally, we transferred by genetic methods different killer viruses from S. paradoxus into S. cerevisiae or viruses from S. cerevisiae into S. uvarum or S. kudriavzevii. In the foster hosts, we observed no impairment for their stable transmission and maintenance, indicating that the requirements for virus amplification in these species are essentially the same. We also characterized new killer toxins from S. paradoxus and constructed “superkiller” strains expressing them. View Full-Text
Keywords: yeast killer toxins; L-A totivirus; double-stranded RNA virus; Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeast killer toxins; L-A totivirus; double-stranded RNA virus; Saccharomyces sensu stricto
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Rodríguez-Cousiño, N.; Gómez, P.; Esteban, R. Variation and Distribution of L-A Helper Totiviruses in Saccharomyces sensu stricto Yeasts Producing Different Killer Toxins. Toxins 2017, 9, 313.

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